Today,service organizations are shifting their focus from “transactional exchange” to “relational exchange” for developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers. Extended relationships are reported to have a significant impact on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime value. Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as the customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all organizational activities. The hotel industry, especially the luxury segment hotels needs to be purely customer-centric and focus on the customer needs and duly fulfill them.
Customers will not blindly accept poor service quality from a luxury hotel. They expect high quality of service in return for the money, they spend in luxury hotels. This paper is an attempt to explain the dark side of CRM in the luxury segment of the hotel industry with the help of the ‘Gap Model’ referred to in literature which suggests that gaps in service occur at various instances. The author explains that the gap CRM is a useful tool to explain the dark side partly. There is more to the dark side like privacy issues, unwillingness of customers to build a relationship with the service provider, changing tastes and preferences of the customer. Hotel Company has been chosen as a single case study and the research questions have been devised, addresses the industry at large, using a classic example of superior service quality to the customers. Some simple measures to reduce the dark side have been mentioned, which addresses the third and last research question.
The project would contribute as a useful guide for luxury hotels, provide them some valuable information on what the customer expectations are and if they are duly met then service gaps shall not occur. This research shall provide scope for luxury hotels to improve their overall service quality and strengthen their position in the industry. The relevant existing theory has been reviewed and the subject has been explored, using the ‘Gap CRM’ (Parasuraman et al 1998) mainly. Based on the research findings and analysis, recommendation has been given to reduce the dark side at this hotel and luxury hotels in general.
Customer relationship management is responsible to design and implement effective business strategies in a business to create and maintain profitable and long term relationships with its clients by retaining and capturing some new clients from the target market to offer them better quality of services (Sugandhi, 2002). With the passage of time there is a change in technology and due to change in technology there is significant change in the client’s needs and wants. There is a significant competition in the market now days. In the market many service providers and products manufacturers are providing same products and services to the clients. With latest technology and education now clients have awareness about the features, advantages and benefits. Clients need high quality at reasonable price with more advantages.
According to Gronroos, (2001) customer relationship management must consider all those factors that can create effective CRM strategies to achieve organizational objective. Those factors may include employee’s communicational skills, honour the promises made with customer at the time of offering, employee’s attitude, and better quality of services to the customers and trusty environment.
According to Sugandhi, (2002) stated that better quality of services are always appreciated by the clients and better quality of services has main importance with the client’s point of view. There is a deep link between the customer’s retention and services provided to the clients.
According to Chen and Popovich, (2003) has been stated that every client has different problems and need satisfaction according to their problem solution, service providers do not trying to understand the situation and importance of client’s expectations. They can bring satisfaction through service quality. Services providers must give priority to recognize the client’s expectations then it will easy for them to offer best and excellent services at cheap prices. The service relationship management department can create the loyalty among the clients through effective business strategies. Clients are very important for all the businesses because when there are no clients then there is no business. Wilson, (1991) stated that clients become angry when the customers can not offered best quality of services, and when the clients are not happy with the offered services then there is no loyalty and satisfaction among the clients. But the companies have the way and an option to bring happiness among its clients by handling their complaints properly with proper solution through skilled employees.
Buttle, (2005) suggested that lack of communication skills among employees is a major cause of clients loosing whereas the strong communicational expertise can hold the clients with the organization and can increase the percentage of market share. Looy et al. (2003) stated that customer relationship management can recognize the peer quality of services through some measures and can improve the quality of services through effective measures and procedures.
There is a significant difference between the client’s expectations and the perceived features of the products and services and there is more than one difference and these differences can be reduced significantly by having effective business policies designed by the CRM department and implemented effectively (Parasuraman et al. 1985).
The researcher has found out all those drawbacks of CRM and those factors that can reduce those factors to offer best quality of services to the clients for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the clients. According to Chen and Popovich, (2003) business organizations are trying to maintain the long term relationship with their client through offering them better quality of services. The researcher came to know that CRM can design and implement those effective strategies that can bring loyalty through satisfaction among the clients so that a profitable and long term relationship established between the clients and organization to earn more revenue for the growth of organization. The researcher has selected Marriot Hotel as case study that is already offering better quality of services to its clients and have proper CRM department in operation. The researcher knows that there is a link between the customer loyalty and the satisfaction and this becomes the cause of organizational growth. The customer relationship management can create the loyalty and satisfaction among the clients to achieve organizational objectives efficiently and effectively.
The researcher has following objectives of this research conducting. Actually the researcher has many objectives to conduct this research to find out the influence of effective CRM strategies in hotel industry. Customer relationship management is actually responsible in every organization to integrate all the business operational activities and all other departments like marketing department, research and development department, manufacturing and services departments. The main focus of CRM is to identify the actual needs of clients ‘Expectations’ through proper way and then delivering the services in such a way to satisfy them as per their expectations in order to achieve organizational objectives. In this research the researcher is interested to know the influence/ role of CRM and its effective strategies in achieving organizational objectives efficiently.
Is there any difference between the expectations and offered quality of services to the clients?
The researcher had this objective to know about the factors that creates the differences between the client expectation about the quality and the quality the offered by the employees when they offered these services. The researcher was also interested in this objective to know that how the employees can identify the expectations of clients. And the employees must have some kind of skills to handle the complaints of clients. Here the researcher is interested to know all those factors that can minimize the differences that are main hindrance in the way of client’s satisfaction. The researcher wants to know the skills and necessary trainings that are helpful for an employee in recognising their needs and wants and after identifying these expectations they must provide the quality of services as per their needs and requirements in order to create loyalty to achieve organizational objectives.
What are the main causes of these differences?
The researcher was interested in this objective because the researcher wants to find out the main factors that play their role in creating these differences, and how the CRM department can minimize these causes by considering them in designing new policies to minimize these differences. The researcher is interested in identifying those factors that can be helpful in identifying the expectations because the differences creates due to improper knowledge in identifying the actual needs and wants and improper identifying the actual nature of client’s problem.
Is there any disadvantage of CRM in hotel industry?
Here the researcher want to know the disadvantages of CRM department and the researcher want to know the main causes of these disadvantages and their affects on the organization. The researcher was interested that if there are some disadvantages then how to remove because the main advantages of CRM are to maintain the relationship between the clients and the organization to maximize the profit to expand the business. The researcher want to know how these disadvantages will be removed by improving the policies and taking remedial measures in recent strategies. These disadvantages may be due to input data of other departments like research and development reports either lack of proper marketing strategies.
How these differences and disadvantages can be removed?
The researcher was interested to reduce the disadvantages and differences to create the loyalty and satisfaction level among the clients. The researcher will make necessary and positive suggestions and necessary recommendations for the effectively implementation of improved policies to create long term relationship among clients for earning profit. The research is also interested in reducing those gaps that are the main hindrance in the way of identifying the expectations of the clients and gap created due to improper communication channels from one department to other department. All other departments are interconnected with each other in delivering excellent services to the clients from recognizing to delivering.
How the effective strategies can be implemented by CRM in hotel Industry?
The researcher was interested in this objective to implement the improved business policies by the CRM in hotel industry. The researcher was interested to know about the improvements in the current policies to obtain organizational objectives.
1.3 Introduction of the Organization
Marriott hotel is the subsidiary of world renounced company ‘Marriot International’ that has been started its first hotel business in USA in 1926, this company has about 3500 properties in round about 80 countries of the world (http://www.marriott.co.uk/Channels/globalSites/aboutMarriott.mi?country=UK). There are different brand names of this company and all these brands are world famous like ‘The Ritz Carlton’ the company is providing world best quality of privacy and services to its clients and more than 80 hotels are in operation successfully, the staff is well educated and well equipped to handle clients and offering them dinning, and room services at their best efforts to create loyalty to satisfying them according to their needs and wants (http://www.marriott.co.uk/hotel-brands.mi). Same Services Company is providing at ‘JW Marriott’ hotel but more luxury facilities by considering client’s privacy as their first priorities. Similarly ‘Autograph collections’ ‘AC Hotels’ ‘Country Yard Marriot’ ‘Spring Hill Marriot’ ‘Marriot Vacation Club’ and ‘Grand Residences Marriot’ these are kind of businesses are owned by the ‘Marriot International’ (http://www.marriott.co.uk/hotel-brands.mi). The company has owned the responsibility to provide high level of services to its valuable clients. The company has equipped itself with latest technological facilities like electronic bookings and payment option from all over the world. The company has been using prompt and latest technologies to deliver latest information regarding booking, discounts, pricing, features, values, benefits and advantages to its potential clients in the market. The company has already CRM department in operation in order to retain its old clients by offering then excellent and value added services and in order to capture new clients from target market (http://www.marriott.co.uk/marriott/privacy-uk.mi). The company is social responsible for the welfare of citizens by providing equitable services to protect the surroundings and its stake holders. The company believes in providing the appropriate services to its clients as per their priorities and expectations to bring happiness among the clients. Customer relationship management department at Marriot Hotel is responsible to design and implement effective business strategies to build long term relationship with its clients to generate more revenue by creating loyalty among the clients. The Marriot hotel is well famous hotel in United Kingdom which is situated in the London city near Park Lane London. The hotel is offering its best services to the clients. There are many branches of this hotel are working in the United Kingdom. All the rooms are decorated very well with bedrooms, lighting, side table, curtains, chairs, Television, telephone and all other facilities are also available. At Marriot hotel the staff is well trained and skilled having good manners and well attitude and behaviour to serve the travellers. The staff is offering best quality of services to the customers to create loyalty among clients. This hotel is providing excellent services in the market to capture new and retaining old clients as well. The staff always welcomed warmly to the clients in the friendly and neat and clean environment. This branch of hotel is situated near the tube station and bus station and free car parking is also available to the clients where they can park their cars, jeeps free of cost. As the researcher has already mentioned that the hotel has equipped itself with new and latest technologies to facilitate its clients with electronic booking system and telephonic booking without the advance charges. The hotel has offered different discount packages to the tourists, students and family packages are also the part of marketing strategies. The hotel staff always tried at its best level to honour all the promises made at the time of advertisement. Official meetings, weeding ceremonies and other family functions and friends parties are also managed by the hotel management at different charges. Many national and local festivals and events are also celebrated at Marriot hotel and different discount packages are also offered to clients. There are shopping markets available for the clients like booking airline tickets alcohols and a variety of delicious dishes are also available inside the hotel. The employees at Marriot hotel are trained on regular intervals to equip them with interpersonal skills to handle and serve the clients.
2. Literature Review
According to Body and Limayem, (2004) the customer relationship management is responsible for creating profitable and long term relationship among the clients of an organization, the customer relationship management is the only responsible for making such policies that must be helpful in holding customers through proper solution of their problems and making new clients through effective techniques specially through better qualities of products new advance features and benefits over the competitors in the market for earning profits and growth.
2.1 Quality of Services
Gronroos, (2001) has been stated that organizational business growth depends on the quality of services this means that if the qualities of services are high then the growth will be smooth and organizational objectives will be achieved easily and vice versa. Organizations can measure the quality of services easily. First of all the organizations must have kills to identify the expectations of customers than as per their demand the organizations must design their products and services and through effectives policies the companies can recognize the problem of customers in the market. The quality of services have directly an effect on the level of customer’s satisfaction and customers are the best source of recognizing the level of satisfaction and improvements in the quality of services (Caruana et al. (2000). Repurchasing of services or products depends on the level of satisfaction of client and loyalty always comes through effective and quality of services (Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000). Poor quality of product and services always loose the clients and due to poor quality of services, client become discourage and will never come back again to hire services or purchasing services.
Choi and Chu, (2001) both have been described the importance of technology and procedures in creating the quality in products and services to bring loyalty among the clients by creating best image of company. There is a significant impact of modern technology and latest procedures on the product’s design, features of products, brand image, distribution and promotional activities can be affected and all these factors can improve the brand image in the mind of clients Gronroos, (2000). Quality of products and services are related with the commitments and promises made by the companies at the time of advertisement and delivery of services (Sheth and Parvatiyar, 2001). In the hotel industry privacy, room decoration, quality of services, prompt reply, quick response and respect are the factors that bring happiness among the clients (Choi and Chu, 2001). Loyalty is always comes through satisfaction level of clients and revenue generation is directly related with quality of services provided to the customers to overcome their needs and wants well in time, profit depends on revenue generation and this depends on frequency of sales and it depends on satisfaction and satisfaction depends on the services (Yeung et al. 2002).
2.2 Customer’s Complaints Handling
Buttle, (2008) suggested that it is necessary for the services providers to consider the complaints registered by angry clients against poor quality of services or low quality of services, because the poor quality of services always create bad image of company in the mind of clients.
Complaints always provide a chance to the organizations to review their processes and ways to offer the services, and organizations can improve their services and products by recognizing their weak areas and their strengths and can successfully find out the opportunities (Wilson, 2001). About eighty percent of the clients avoid making complaints against bad services and only remaining twenty percent people make complaints about low quality of services (Barsky, 2002).
There are many methods to check or measure the loyalty of clients, the companies can check the loyalty of clients through many methods and on the basis of results these companies can improve their services quality (Oliver, 2007). While designing the marketing strategies and activities from product designing to pricing, distribution and promotion all those factors that can create the loyalty are also considered and unnecessary information is never conveyed to the potential customers (Barsky, 2002).
When the customers register the complaints against wrong services and poor quality of services than the business organizations may have a chance to find out those root causes of low level services and hence in this way they can be able to retain those angry clients by providing those better services and solution to their problems (Buttle, 2005). All the business companies have their first and last objectives to earn good profit and on the behalf of profit margins the companies can grow and can expand their businesses. The companies can earn profit only in one way, when the service provider companies will become successful in delivering best quality of services and there is no gap or difference in the customer’s expectations and delivered services qualities then there will be a chance to earn more revenue. Similarly when organizations are striving for earning more revenue through different services and products and every client has its own expectations according to their needs and wants, but the actual needs and wants are same, clients needs same solution but they choose the products to overcome their needs and difference may occur due to their own wrong selection so they must also make it sure about the services or products that it will fulfill their need or not. So the clients need exact information about product or services features, benefits and advantages over the competitors. In this way the company can reduce the chance of bad image creating in the mind of customers (McAlexander et al. 2004). The CRM can recognize and can train the employees in equipping them with necessary skills and competencies to handle clients in well manner (Looy et al. 2003). But the Wilson, (2001) has described that the customers do not know exactly the procedure of complaints registration even then they do not know the right person to whom they should contact in any problem. These people believes that it is only wasting of time to make complaints because they do not sure that the administration will take care of them and will provide them suitable solution.
Purchasing and frequency of purchasing is directly related with the loyalty (Cronin and Taylor, 1994).
The researcher came to know that the loyalty is related with the satisfaction level and satisfaction is related with the best quality of services and the services can be effectively delivered by the skilled employees if the CRM equipped with suitable trainings to its employees at right time and administration delegate the necessary authorities to its employees. The CRM can identify the expected quality of services through implementing policies and strategies into operations effectively. And this way the organization can achieve its goals and objectives.
2.3 Role of CRM
Customer relationship management is responsible for creating effective policies for the business organizations to operate successfully in achieving organizational objectives. The customer relationship management can play its vital role in creating satisfaction among its clients. The CRM is the only one department that integrates that all those other departments to achieve organizational objectives (Body and Limayem, 2004). CRM can use the latest technology to recognize the client’s needs and wants. Latest technology, procedures and methods are helpful in the way of success, all other departmental outputs and decision making processes can be revolutionized and wise decisions can be made with the help of latest technology (Gronroos, 2001). By getting feedback from the customers regarding the services and products, employee’s attitude, behaviour, decorations, taste, privacy, and luxury facilities CRM can improve all these services according to the needs and wants of clients because with the change in atmosphere, international competitions and change in technology can change the needs and wants, and these customers with such changing needs and wants create a gap in the market and CRM bridges this gap by identifying these changing needs by providing suitable solution (Sugandhi, 2002). Whereas Gefen, (2002) stated that the organizations can bring happiness and trust among the customers by providing services according to their expectations and CRM can create the trustworthy environment for the customers in order to achieve organizational goals for the growth and expansion of business.
Schneider and Bowen, (1999) stated that organizations through CRM can hold the old clients and can generate maximum profit by having good relationship on long term basis and can make new clients through effective marketing strategies. According to the Bennett, (2006) the benefits of CRM are well designing of such policies that can create trust among customers and organizations must taking into their considerations all those factors that can positively affect the satisfaction level of customers to earn revenue. If there is a trust worthy relationship between the customer and organization and the customer believes that the organization will offer them services as per their expectations, then they will remain with the organization and they will tell other people to buy product or hire services from that organization, this all will be due to high quality of services, and in generating trusty, reliable and long term profit based relationship with clients the CRM is responsible to equip its employees with interpersonal skills, and honour the promises and commitment made with the customers, employee’s attitude and their behaviour and better services (Gronroos, 2001).
The researcher came to know that revenue generation depends on the sales volume and the sales volume depends on the number of clients old and new and organizations can retain the old customers and can make new customers from target market if the organization have CRM that has been designed effective strategies in the business operationally. It is the only CRM department that can understand the importance of customer rather than other departments and this is only department that can bridges all the gaps that can become the loose in customers.
2.4 Client’s Attitude, Price, Design and promotion
Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) stated that client’s attitude is no more difficult to measure and identify but it needs some special skills to identify what they want, and what is their actual problem.
The employees can identify the needs and expectations of the clients when the attitude and behaviour of customers is so good and he or she is agree to respond in good manners. The client’s response also helps the employees in recognizing their needs and wants and according to this information the management can serve them in a better way to build ling term relationship (Gilbert and Horsnell, 2008). Whereas Bhote, (2006) has been stated that client’s attitude is the measure that shows that how much the client is loyal with the organization, if the client is happy and loyal he or she will behave politely and if he or she is angry he or she will never speak politely. Thus the employee’s can ask the client as per their attitude about the services and can make necessary solution to their problems and have a chance to improve their services and skills and can create loyalty among them and can build ling term relationship with them (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2000).
Getty and Thompson, (2004) stated that design of product, its price, values, offerings, competitive advantages and benefits are the factors that can create the level of satisfaction improve and thus the loyalty can be increased. Reicheld and Sasser, (2000) stated that organizations have a chance to build trusty relationship with clients by offering them good quality of services at cheap prices and in this way the organizations can generate more revenue by offering other competitive advantages of products and services and cheap price and discounts offers.
The trust and well image of organization can be built among the clients by satisfying clients as per their requirements, and client’s feedback can play its important role in improving services in hotel industry, the taking feedback from customers is very reasonable way to find out the priorities of client (privacy and luxury) for more satisfaction through skilled employees.
According to Bowen and Shoemaker, (2008) CRM can play its role in building relationship with its clients through creating trust among the customers this trust triggers them to buy again and again from the same services providers that enhance the revenue generation. The attitude of customers represents the frequency of services purchasing in a specific time limits after consuming it and becoming satisfied, there is no such a term that can define the client’s attitude but buying behaviour represents their attitude, and there are many factors that can change their attitude like low price, competitive features, competitive advantage and benefits that other competitors are providing in the market (Richins, 2003).
If the employees have such excellent skills then they can easily create strong relationship with customers at long term basis (Zeithaml, et al. 2000).
These skills are related with better communicational skills to deal the clients and how to help out them in critical situations and in bad situations. Employees sometimes do not know exactly that how to serve the customers in critical situations because they do not know that how to behave in such situations when the clients are rude and out of way they are talking. But the companies can improve the employee’s skills and attitude through properly courses and trainings on regular basis when it is required in order to reduce the gaps between the actual needs and wants and the best offered quality of services to them to bring happiness and loyalty in order to earn more money for the organization. So it is need of the time to recognize the basic requirements of each clients by having some special skills and format, the employee can ask some questions from the client before booking room manually or on the internet before booking the room there must be some questions that can help the management to understand about the expectations of clients so that the management can deliver services up to the mark as per client’s requirements (Zeithaml et al. 2000). The client’s level of satisfaction can be measured after consuming those services or products and in this way the companies can improve their services and standards (Gundersen et al. 2006). The clients can be deal in good manners if the employees have suitable communication skills and trainings, if employee’s efforts and hardworking is being properly recognized and they are awarded with prizes and recognitions then they will carry out their task very happy and this motivational attitude will effect on client’s dealing (Zeithaml et al. 2000). There is a direct relationship between the employee’s loyalty and the customer’s loyalty, when the employees are loyal with the organization then they will try their best to bring happiness among the customers and loyalty of employee’s is related with organizational leadership style, pay rates, over time, paid holidays and work place safety (Reichheld and Kenny, 2000). If there is more gap between the offered quality of services and needs of clients then the satisfaction level will be low otherwise vise versa (Kim, 2005).
2.5 Role of Customer’s Loyalty
Profit is directly related with the customer’s loyalty and satisfaction because the loyalty comes due to satisfaction level, means that when after using the products or services if the client is satisfied by the results either the client will satisfied or dissatisfied. And if the client is happy after consuming the products then the client will be happy and remain loyal with the company and will repurchase more and more products (Mittal, 2000). According to the Anderson, (2004) repurchasing of a product is only possible due to the happy client if the client is happy then he or she will come again to re buy the product or services from the organization and thus the sales volume will be increased. There are some ways to increase the level of client’s satisfaction the organization can increase the level of satisfaction by providing them the better quality of services and in this way the company can create a good relationship with all its potential customers (Buttle, 2005). As the researcher came to know previously through review literature that business are exist due to customers and when there are no customers it means there is no business. Customers always exist due to satisfaction, and organizations are trying to create the satisfaction among the clients. CRM department is trying at its best level to recognize the priorities of the clients and trying to create trust among the client by fulfilling all the commitments made by the organizations to provide them. And if the companies make and launch their policies and offer their services and do not successes then it is impossible for them to earn more money (Looy et al. 2003). Instead of this if the company has offered very good quality of services then the client will become happier and the client will become loyal with that organization and resultantly the organization will earn more revenue after repurchasing of services by satisfied clients. Trust creates always loyalty and displeasure will creates frustration among the clients so the organizations tried their best to create trust rather than dissatisfaction (Buttle, 2004).
The researcher came to know that the trust/ satisfaction is directly related with the quality of services and this trust and loyalty triggers the clients to repurchase the services that become cause of generation more and more revenue to make profit.
|Customers intensity of happiness||Customers devotion creating||Earnings and expansion|
|Needs, wants, requirement, and quality of services they want, they are looking, actual nature of problem, and after getting appropriate services and solutions of their problem customer’s become happy.||After consuming the services and as per results become happier and this happiness will create loyalty and trust and faithfulness among customers.||More sale that will generate more revenue|
As the above diagram showed that there is a deep link between the customer satisfaction and the organizational growth. The customers can be satisfied if their needs and wants are properly recognized by the appropriate methods and procedures through skilled employees and this can be done only with the help of customer relationship management in the organization that is responsible for the designing and implementing such effective strategies (Parasuraman et al., 2008).
2.6 Client’s expectations and Offered quality of services
As the Parasuraman et al. (2005) stated that there is a big distinction among both things that can play its important role in creating satisfaction or dissatisfaction among the clients and organizational growth and expansion depends on it is the client’s requirements in his or her mind and the services that the organization provide them regarding their problem or need and want.
|As per customer’s requirements manufacturing or designing of services or products|
The diagram shows that there are following differences step wise.
- Difference between the customer’s requirements and offered services. Because this difference is mainly occurred between the quality of services or the quality of the products.
- This difference is due to when the organization measures and gather the needs and wants of the client’s and gathered all this information and CRM could not properly conveyed the information to the manufacture department and the manufacture department design the product or services with low quality.
- This difference is due to the communicational channel, if the employee has no such effective skills to identify the actual requirements and finding the actual nature of problem so due to improper communicational channel the difference can be created among the requirements and offered services (Parasuraman et al., 2008).
There is the solution available for all above problems (differences) that if there is the number one difference then what kind of actions should be taken by the customer relationship management in order to achieve organizational objectives.
|Reasons||Actions to solve the problems|
|If there exist the difference due to miss information regarding the customer’s needs and wants mean requirements then||The management must check all the procedures and methods to solve the problem and the management will improve the procedures for expected (according to the customer’s requirements) requirements to satisfy the clients as per their demand. The management will make all necessary changes permanently and will remove the poor system.|
|If the difference is occurred due to the wrong data that the company recorded during data gathering and analyzing the data in order to know exactly about the core requirements of the customers and the data has been passed to the manufactured department or services provider department accidently then||It will be the critical situation and the organization will have to prepare and record again the priorities of the customers manually and then they will again record the data into a systematic way and will remain careful about data lost again. Here in such situation the organization will allocate a specific number to the specific customer (Unique Code) so that next time it will never happen again.|
|If the difference is due to the poor quality of services that the organization has served or offered to the customers against the customer’s requirements then||First of all the organization must check that where is the actual problem, it means that the organization will check the lack of competencies and lack of knowledge or lack of skills required by the employees to handle the situations and providing suitable services to achieve organizational objectives. Here in such situation the organization will come to know that why this happen and they will look into the matter for proper solution, they will arrange classes, training schedules and courses to improve the capabilities and skills of employees to handle customers.|
The clients have a strange desire that organizations keep them in their good book, even than when they call them they recognize them. And they must offer them the good quality of services as per their requirements and needs. It is very hard to keep all those customers keep in employee’s name but due to latest technology if the clients have their unique code number then the employee can enter the code number in the system and all the data and history can be retrieved and the habits, requirements will be just on single click away from the employee (Looy et al. 2003). The client’s feedbacks and their opinions can be recorded there and in this way it is easy way to remember their priorities to provide them best quality of services and happiness can be created among them as per their requirements (Buttle, 2004).
2.7 Conceptual Framework of Literature Review
The researcher came to know at the end of literature review that there is a significant affect of CRM activities in the sales and growth of the organization in any organization. Every organization has its own goals and objectives to achieve and to expand its operational activities to earn more profit. And this can be only possible when the organization have customers to buy their products or services. These days in the market almost all the competitors are providing same products at competitive prices and quality to retain, and capture new clients from the market to sell out their products or services. Customers can be retained with the organizations if there is no difference among their expectations and the services provided them at high level of quality. Because when there will be no difference then customer will become more happy and will become loyal with the organization. The organizations through customer relationship management can handle clients and come to know exactly about the expectations of the clients through well equipped and trained staff and through having and implementing latest technology to itself. So when the customer will happy then he or she will gain come to hire again the services and their this activity will increase the volume of sales and in this way the organization can earn more money.
3. Research Methodology
3.1 Research Method
Here in this section the researcher has explained the research method that how the researcher has conducted all the researcher that includes the resources, type of research, sample size, data gathering and recording and analysis tools. The research method actually described the ways that how the researcher will conduct the research as per all the objectives and the research method keep the researcher at the right track to carry on the research as per time and resources available. The research method explained the whole population and the way to select the sample size and research method also described that which tools the researcher will use to record and analyze the data (Soderlund, 2008).
Research method is a procedure that is used in research conducting that helps the researcher to conduct the research in a well manner and keep the researcher on the track, in this method the researcher first of all gather data both types primary and secondary, and tin this method the researcher explained the sources of data, time period and the tools used in the research for data recoding and making analysis on data (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003).
In this section the researcher has explained that he has selected the ‘Case Study’ to conduct the research according to specific aims and objectives. The researcher has selected the ‘Marriot’ hotel in United Kingdom.
3.2 Research Objectives
The researcher has following aims and objectives to conduct this research.
- The researcher is interested in find out the link between the quality of services and loyalty and their impact on the sales and profit.
- The researcher is interested in find out the importance of CRM department and its link in creating long term relationship with clients.
- To find out the actual difference between the client requirements regarding quality of services and the features of products and the offered service quality.
- The researcher will find out the factors that can create the difference between the actual requirements and the service quality.
- The researcher wants to find out the advantages and disadvantages of CRM practices in hotel industry.
- The researcher was interested to know about the effective strategies and wants to find out those factors that must be consider by the CRM department while making business strategies for effective and desired outcomes.
- The researcher is interested in find out the challenges and issues in implementing the CRM practices effectively in the selected hotel and will find out those factors that can contribute in making policies effectively for desired outcomes.
- The researcher is interested in find out the factors that can improve the quality of services and help the CRM in recognizing client’s requirements.
The researcher is interested in find out the importance of CRM practices and quality of services that can bring happiness and create loyalty among the clients. As per the literature review the researcher came to know that the services providers can improve their services as per the requirements of their clients in a better way by having and implementing the effective CRM strategies in the organization. The researcher came to know through secondary data that if the difference exist between the customer’s requirements and the service quality then the customer’s satisfaction will be so low and the organization cannot achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively. The CRM department can improve the service quality and can reduce the difference by some techniques and through implementing effective procedures to know exactly the requirements of clients and as per their requirements CRM will design the service structure as per their requirements and needs in order to achieve organizational objectives.
The researcher has explained the research methods that the researcher has followed to conduct the research. The researcher can obtain all those objectives in a well manner if the researcher follows research method (Soderlund, 2008). The researcher can use research method to conduct the research to achieve its specific objectives (Flyvbjerg, 2006). The research method provides a path way to accomplish the research, in this way the researcher have manners and way to conduct the research in an efficient way to achieve the expected results, the research method facilitate the researcher to conduct the research in limited resources that define each single step with expected outcomes, there are many types of research like qualitative and quantitative but the researcher select one of them as per the nature of research and the aims and objectives of the research (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003).
The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct the research. First of all the researcher has explained the issue and scope of research then after explaining the scope of research the researcher has designed the objectives of the research and decided to select the case study tool to conduct the research to achieve is specific objectives. In the qualitative research the researcher design the questionnaires and design the questions closed ended and open ended to take the response from respondents. In this method the researcher will use the interview technique and the researcher will use semi structured interviews to gather primary data from the staff members of the selected organization. Qualitative research method is adopted by the researchers to gather primary data when the researcher selects the case study then the best way is to use qualitative research technique to gather primary data. The researcher will also visit the web site of the organization and the end will read the annual reports and will also check the entire procedures and methods. The researcher has designed the questions in such a way to achieve all the objectives by considering all those factors than can be helpful in the way of designing effective strategies for CRM in order to bring satisfaction among its clients effectively to achieve organizational objectives.
According to the Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) that through web sites, books, electronic books, journals, articles, annual reports the researcher can find out the secondary data regarding their objectives and the researcher can together quality of primary data by using surveys, interviews and through distributing questionnaires among samples they can collect primary data reliable and valid. The researchers must use computerized sheets to record primary data to avoid duplications and errors, and they can use bar charts and pie charts to analyze the data for making recommendations and suggestions. According to the Soderlund, (2008) research method actually provide path way to the researcher that includes tools, methods, techniques and source of primary and secondary data in order to conduct the research and in this way the outcomes are reliable and valid. The researcher can achieve their objectives by collecting primary and secondary data by using proper and effective techniques to record and analyze data effectively if they follow research method (Social research methods, 2006).
3.4 Case study selection
Case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researcher wants to conduct the research about CRM effective strategies in order to achieve its specific objectives and if the researcher has economical and time limits then case study is the best approach to focus to achieve appropriate results (Feagin et al. 2001).
The researcher has selected the case study to conduct the research because the researcher has bear all the cost from the pocket money and due to time constraints, the researcher has decided to select qualitative research in order to save time and stay away from the enormous volume of population and selecting a large number of respondents (samples) in order to save his time and cost. In this way the researcher arranged meetings with the staff members and the customers to collect primary data from respondents to know exactly about the factors and importance of CRM strategies and the role of CRM in the business organizations to achieve organizational objectives effectively and to find out the advantages of CRM and to find out the issues and challenges that CRM is facing at the organization and the researcher tried his best to know those factors that can play their effective role in creating clients loyalty and satisfaction to earn profit.
Case study is the best option to conduct the research to gain the specific objectives (Flyvbjerg, 2006).
In the instrumental case study the researcher conduct the research by conducting interviews and distributing questionnaires among the staff members and collect the primary data as per the objectives, where as in the collective case stud method the researcher conduct the research by only paying attention on the specific people that have knowledge about a specific issue or problem and in the intrinsic case study method the researcher conduct the research on specific case (Stakes, 2005).
The researcher has selected the ‘Marriot Hotel’ due to some reasons.
It has many branches and it has good image in the mind of clients.
This group of hotels ‘Marriot International’ has equipped itself with latest technologies and it is operated in all over the world and have well trained staff and well skilled staff and have customer relationship department for several years.
The customer relationship management and the services management are in operation in the ‘Marriot hotel’.
The ‘Marriot’ hotel is providing highest quality of services to its clients and earning good money and is satisfying its client at high level.
All the rooms are fully equipped with the latest technology like Tele vision, computer, automatic door, auto shower, luxury bed, chair, swimming pools, TV lounge, and common room, meeting room, dining table, laundry system on urgent basis, telephone and fully idealistic environment. Due to all these above mentioned facilities the hotel has good image in the mind of visitors and local clients.
The researcher has choose the case study tool for conducting the research because the researcher want to conduct qualitative research and for this purpose the researcher has conducted some interviews from the clients and conducted interviews from the CRM staff members and gathered primary data and record all the data in a well manner in the excel sheet to avoid data duplication and avoid own opinion to maintain valid and reliable data.
To obtain good and reliable results the researcher must choose qualitative research method by designing appropriate and effective questions and by asking to the respondents, and in this way the researcher can save their time and cost in finding actual nature of primary data and concise information about the problem. The researchers can save expenses and time by choosing qualitative research method and they can easily analyze and interpret the data as per the research objectives.
The researcher has the following questions to conduct that research and the researcher was interested in finding the answers of these questions.
What are the main advantages of CRM department in this hotel?
Are there some differences between the client’s requirements and offered services quality?
Do you believe that CRM strategies are effective for this hotel?
Do you believe that the difference between client’s requirements and offered services have bad impression on the organization?
Which factors can play their role in reducing this difference?
How CRM can make its strategies more effectively?
Do you believe that CRM department can play its role in enhancing the loyalty among the customers?
Mainly the researcher wanted to know about the importance of CRM strategies in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients to achieve organizational objectives by recognizing their needs and wants and through providing them the best one solution to their problem. Quality of services remained the main focus of the researcher throughout this research.
3.5 Primary and Secondary Data sources
The researcher has used different sources to collect secondary and primary data during the research to collect primary data the researcher has designed the questionnaire and distributed that questionnaires among the customers that the researcher selected as sample, the researcher has conducted the interviews of some staff members to collect primary data. The researcher used website of the selected hotel, its annual reports, newspapers, official websites, books, electronic books, journals and electronic journals to collect secondary data about the importance of CRM activities and quality of services. The researcher has seen all those documents that the hotel has in its record regarding client’s priorities and their feed back because hotel administration is using feedback techniques to improve the quality of services and all the data was properly stored in the sequence and well managed form in order to avoid mistakes, the researcher has used bar charts and other diagram to present the data.
3.5.1 Population and Sample size
The researcher has selected the 40 customers as a sample. The researcher has chosen both male and females age range 21 to 50 years old. The researcher has selected the sample by using random method, because in this way the researcher will save his time, and the researcher has asked the question from the manager CRM at Marriot hotel and has asked each question from individual staff member as per manager permission in order to get variety of data but reliable and valid data. The researcher has asked specific questions from the managers and other staff members to know exactly about the importance and about the challenges to the CRM department at hotel and about the importance and effective role of CRM at hotel in creating and building relationship with its customers at priority basis.
The researchers must ask some questions to the key post holders in order to make it sure that they are at the right track and they are on the right track and are achieving their objectives in a well manners (Powell and Single, 2006). The researchers must designed some questions to ask from the middle management regarding CRM importance, quality of services, brand image, clients satisfaction and ask the questions regarding solutions of problems and share their ideas and knowledge and experience because these people daily observed the reality and handle angry clients and these people create loyalty among the clients by providing good services to them as per their requirements (Powell et al., 2006). The researcher was also interested in finding out the factors that can play their effective role in designing some kind of such strategies that can be helpful in the future to identify the client’s requirements. The researcher was also interested in finding out the interpersonal skills of employees and its effects on the quality of services and in handling the clients and providing them better facilities and solutions of their problems. The researcher must distribute questionnaires among minimum fifteen respondents to get better quality of response (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2007).
The researcher has used the interview technique to obtain the primary data from the respondents, for this purpose the researcher has selected manager CRM and some other staff members to ask multiple questions to confirm the importance and role of CRM on the sales and growth of organization. The researcher has chosen this way because interview is effective communicational channel in which the respondents can share his or her knowledge, experience and actual current situation. Interviews are the best method to gather primary data and in this way the researcher can find out the real and actual nature of problem and its better solution as compared to other methods because in an interview the employees know better as compared to clients about the real situation and problem they can define properly and staff members can easily clear the situation and can provide the best solution (Feagin et al. 2001).
The researcher has chosen semi structured category of interview due to advantages and as per the objectives of the research. In this way the researcher has obtained accurate in sequence and there was no favoritism in this method to gather primary data. The researched has selected the respondents by itself as per their duties and skills and experience and knowledge in order to collect correct and reliable and valid data. The researcher know that when there are some advantages of this method so there are also some disadvantages of this method but as the researcher has used special skills in designing specific questions to minimize those disadvantages, the researcher has designed all the questions as per the aims and objectives of this research. The researcher has used this method to conduct and gather the information about the importance and positive role of CRM and its effective strategies in the organization for achieving its main goals and objectives in a better way.
The researcher can obtain information through questionnaires distributing among the respondents (Soderlund, 2008).
The researcher has designed the following questions to ask these questions from the respondents. The researcher has asked these questions to different clients aged in between 21 to 50 both males and females and researcher has selected the sample randomly. The researcher has used all the skills and techniques and by considering all the objectives the researcher has designed these questions. The researcher has used open ended and close ended questions to gather valid and reliable primary data without any prejudice.
The following questioned were asked from the respondents.
Do you believe that CRM is playing its role in creating loyalty and offering you better quality of services?
Do you believe that CRM can help you more in providing you better quality of services by taking more feedback regarding quality and your requirement?
Which factors can enhance the quality of services providing to you?
Do you have any complaints to the CRM staff?
Do you believe that CRM is p-laying its positive role in retaining its old clients?
Do you believe that CRM has sufficient knowledge regarding your expectations?
Did CRM ever asked you about your preferences?
Do you believe that there is a link between the dealing and sales?
Do you believe that there is a link between happiness and sales?
Do you believe that satisfaction can bring customers again and again for repurchasing?
Do you believe that CRM can improve its services for more betterment in the near future?
Which factors the CRM must consider while designing policies and strategies?
Do you believe that hotel staff is cooperative and their attitude with you was appropriate and are you happy with their behaviour?
Do you believe that CRM can recognize your expectations to offer you better quality of services?
- Research Findings and Analysis
The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct that research by using questionnaires and conducting the interviews of staff members. The researcher has found out all the data regarding the importance and the effective role of CRM and factors that can affect the CRM strategies in achieving organizational objectives and affect the sales and services and can create the loyalty through satisfaction by providing quality of services. For this purpose the researcher has designed the following questions.
As a result of the interviews with different level of management ,staff and customers in Marriott hotel ,conducted by the researcher, it was revealed through data analyses that there is a great potential and important factor, waiting for consideration of the Management to increase their sales and attract new customers through effective CRM ,which can be described as under
What are the main advantages of CRM department in this hotel?
The manager responded that the CRM department is responsible for the following activities.
Recognizing customer’s requirements
Measuring employees skills and competencies
Arranging training sessions for employees for improving skills
Making it sure that clients are happy
Designing effective strategies as per the output and recommendations of research and development departments
Are there some differences between the client’s requirements and offered services quality?
The researcher found out that there is difference sometimes between requirements and quality of services due to lack of skills of employees, due to inappropriate system and due to attitude of customers it happens that this kind of difference created among the management and the clients. Sometime this occur due to misunderstanding between the CRM employees and the services management department employees due to improper convey of requirement information, and sometime due to improper research and development employees mistakes and sometimes due to change in technology.
Do you believe that CRM strategies are effective for this hotel?
The researcher has recorder the answer that CRM activities are have importance in the business organizations in this way that CRM is responsible for above explained responsibilities. CRM access the requirements of customers and on the behalf of requirements, the CRM equipped its employees with suitable and as per need provided the skills to them to deliver quality of services and in this way the CRM design set of procedures that can be helpful in creating loyalty for revenue generation.
Do you believe that the difference between client’s requirements and offered services have bad impression on the organization?
Yes off course the CRM can reduce this difference easily and just by implementing effective strategies in the business operations and with providing necessary trainings to the employees and by developing computerized system in such a way and by taking proper feedback and conducting research activities in the market to know properly the actual need and wants of the potential customers. In this way the CRM can only effectively play its role in making profit for the organization. In the hotel industry client need extra and excellent services as per their priority regarding privacy and luxury. Breakfast, car parking, decoration, wall colors, Tele phone facility, electronic doors, online booking, online payments, discounts, offers, pick and drop facility have secondary importance, whereas the fast, quick response and handling complaints and providing them best solution is the priority of clients that they want from the hotel management.
Which factors can play their role in reducing this difference?
Commitments should be honor at well in time
Quality of services
These above factors can play their effective role in reducing the difference. Employee’s loyalty can play its important role in creating the loyalty and reducing the difference.
How CRM can make its strategies more effectively?
CRM can make its strategies more effectively by considering and making media marketing.
They should use search engine optimization technique in internet search engines according to their needs and wants. Because when the CRM will focus on latest technology then they may get more response from the market. Image brand is well known in the world, and just by considering all those factors that can enhance the productivity among the employees and can fulfill their requirements (http://www.crmtrends.com/crm.html). The CRM must use different channels like Google search engine optimization, online booking, newspapers, and magazines and should publish their statistical regarding client’s satisfaction and their statements. The CRM must design their strategies in which the clients should be able to express his or her own desire and expectation. In this way the customers have more option to perceive excellent quality of services as per their priority may be luxury or privacy or anything else they want.
Do you believe that CRM department can play its role in enhancing the loyalty among the customers?
The respondent replied that yes CRM department can enhance the loyalty of customers as per their requirements, there are so many factors that can be considered by the CRM to enhance the loyalty in the employees and alternately in this way the CRM will become successful in bringing happiness among the customers and it will affect the revenue and ultimately it will affect the business growth. There is a deep and sound relationship among the employee’s loyalty and the client’s loyalty. When employees will happy with the policies of organization then the attitude of productivity will become more and they will do work with more heartedly to achieve goals and will devote their selves to offer best services to the customers. The CRM should pay their attentions towards employee’s happiness.
|Age Range (20-50)|
The researcher has designed these questions according to the objectives the main focus of the researcher was to exactly found out the importance and role of the CRM department in hotel industry to achieve organizational objectives by implementing effective strategies in the organization.
Q: Do you believe that quality of service can bring happiness among clients?
Ans: Yes No
The researcher has came to know through the review literature that there is a deep link between the quality of services and the customer’s satisfaction and the main reason of this question that was designed by the researcher to know exactly that either the management is providing the quality of services or not. It is an essential part of the research. There are some factors that can contribute in enhancing the satisfaction and when the satisfaction will be created then the loyalty will be automatically enhanced by providing quality of the services consistently. So after taking response from the respondents the researcher came to know that 100% respondents replied that they believe in that the quality of service can create satisfaction among the customers.
Q: Which factors can bring quality of services as compared to others?
Select one of them
After distributing the questionnaires the researcher came to know majority of the respondents replied that they think that their priority is to have quick service majority 37% believes in that, whereas 30% believes that they believes that quality of service derived by the employees attitude, whereas 25% believes that commitments can increase the quality of services and 5% replied that brand image and 3% replied that offerings can bring quality of services to the clients.
Q: Do you have some priorities in your mind before booking a room?
Ans: Commitments, Quality of service, Feedback, Attitude and behaviour of employee
|Attitude and Behaviour of Employee||25||15||40|
|Quality of Services||40||0||40|
Here in this question the researcher want to know exactly that what is in the mind of customers they are looking for some kind of priorities because here the researcher tried his best to know about the main requirements and preferences of the clients to make suggestions for the hotel to offer those preferences in order to offer them quality of services. So the researcher came to know that 100% of the respondents were agreed that their main priority regarding expectation was quality of services, and 87% believes in commitments that organizations must honour the promises in order to bring happiness among the clients, 75% respondents believe that feedback is important that can bring loyalty among the clients and 63% respondents believes in employees attitude and behaviour. The hotel management by keeping all the requirements along with their preferences so that maximum satisfaction can be created among all of them for making more money and the expansion of the hotel. And the customer relationship management can do it easily as they have all the authorities and necessary human power and resources.
Q: Do you believe that there is a difference between your expectations and offered quality of services?
Ans: Yes No
Here in this question the researcher tried to found out the gap between the two main things number one is the services that the customer relationship management employees provide to the consumers its quality and the second variable is the their requirements. So after gathering response from al the respondents the researcher now came to know that a significant figure 90% shows that there is a difference between the client’s expectations and the offered quality of services. And only 10% believes that their expectations are up to the mark and there is no problem with the quality of services. This may be due to the improper systematic procedures implemented at the hotel and employees do not know exactly that how to treat with the clients in recognizing their expectations and their priorities.
Q: Which factors can minimize the difference and maximize the client’s loyalty?
|Quality of service|
|Maintaining clients data and their priorities|
|Honour Promises and commitments|
|Quality of service||40||0||40|
|Maintaining clients data and their priorities||35||5||40|
|Honour Promises and commitments||35||5||40|
The researcher has designed this question to know about those factors that can reduce this gap at maximum level just by considering all those factors that can play their effective role in reducing this difference. So the researcher found out that majority like 100% believes that quality of service can play its role in reducing the difference and maximize the client’s loyalty, whereas clients data along with their priorities and honour of commitments also can create loyalty and minimize the difference, only 88% believes in that, 95% replied that communicational skills and 93% believes that feedback can also play its role in creating loyalty by improving quality of services.
Q: Do you believe that CRM department is handling your complaints in well manners?
Ans: Yes No
The researcher designed this question to know and to confirm from the clients that they have the knowledge about the importance of customer relationship management or not. And they ever been there at their counter for their problem solving and the workers deal them effectively or not. And the researcher want to know about the real factors that can be helpful in creating the trust among the customers by handling client’s issues effectively on the spot in the hotel by offering them alternative package if they make complaint or they want to change their package. Through literature review the researcher also come to know that through proper handling client’s complaints about 77% – 80% clients can be retrieved and can be hold with the organization to earn more money from them. The main reason behind this question was this, and after gathering responses from the respondents the researcher came to know that about 75% respondents are agreed that CRM department is not properly handling their complaints and only 25% are agreed that their complaints are properly handled by the CRM department. So the researcher came to know that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be achieved through this technique that the client must be handled in such a way that their problem must be solved at the spot to earn more money.
Q: Do you believe that CRM department can handle problem related issues and can handle client’s complaints in well manner and can provide you best solution through effective skills and their knowledge and experienced employees to generate revenue?
Ans: Yes No
Whole the research round this question as the researcher main objective to conduct this research was to found out the role of customer relationship management activities effectively on the sales and the growth so this as the main reason to ask the question from the respondents and the researcher noted that 75% respondents replied that CRM department can provide them best solution against their complaints and 25% believe that already they have no any complaints and they are happy with the services already with the services. Similarly the review literature showed that the customer relationship management can handle all these issues related with the customers in an effective way because it is the mainly duty of the customer relationship management to handle the clients effectively and can play its role effectively in generating more revenue and can make more money for the organization as the customer relationship management has directly influence on the other departments and have the sufficient authorities and they have the privilege to get the favour from the higher authorities and after gradual reviews and measuring performance they can easily judge the skills and abilities and as per latest technology the hotel administration and other departments like customer relationship management can design such activities and arrange training sessions and improving their skills and polishing their abilities clients can be handled in effective ways to achieve goals.
Q: How CRM can handle the client’s complaints?
Ans: Select from following
|Attitude and Behaviour|
The researcher has designed this question regarding employee’s attribute that which skills and attributes are must in their personality to handle client’s complaints successfully and provide them best solution. 95% the significant majority of the respondents responded that interpersonal and prompt reply skills can be used to offer quality of services by handling client’s complaints and only 5% showed their interest that this factor cannot play its role in creating satisfaction through handling clients. Here the researcher want to asked about the factors that can enhance the satisfaction level of the customers effectively in good manners by having some special skills. So the researcher came to know through review literature there some factors can play their role in handling customer’s complaints effectively in good manners their complaints and can create happiness and pleasure among them in order to achieve hotel management main objectives. And customer relationship management can play its role in equipping these skills among the workers through trainings and courses.
Whereas 88% replied that attitude can play its role in understanding and problem solving and 75% believed that efficiency attribute can handle the complaints.
The researcher has found out through interviews and questionnaires that customer relationship management is a responsible department that can play its role in creating customer loyalty and can play its role in achieving organizational objectives. The respondents believe in that CRM can play its role in identifying client’s needs and requirements. It is not easy task to identify their requirements. Now with the rapid change in the technology and by implementing these new methods and procedures the image and quality of brand and services can be improved more easily. Similarly the researcher came to know that some customers do not like to watch films movies or dramas and they just need proper rest after whole day visits of different places and they need privacy and comfort, they do not like to disturb them for tea or breakfast or anything. The researcher came to know that actually main problem with the employees is that they have some skills and capabilities to serve the customers in a good manners but the problem with them is that the identification of the problem is so complex and not an easy task for the customer relationship management the customers looking for the excellent services and expect high quality of response from the employees while they are offering them services or serving them with tea or coffee in the room. Due to improper information about the customer’s requirements it is very hard for the services manager to provide the quality of services to the customers to bring excellent performance. Majority of the customer are agreed that the customer relationship can bring the happiness and pleasure and satisfaction among all of them and they all have responded that there are some factors if the CRM department can just consider all of them priority wise then it is very helpful for them to design such kind of business policies and business strategies and business plans and in such a way the CRM department can combine all other departments and their work in smoothly and well manners that the effectively the objectives of the ‘Marriot’ Hotel can be easily achieved through these business plans, all those factors that the researcher has found out have really so importance and the resource allocation must be according to the each department, trainings and other skills like communicational and interpersonal and attitude and the staff behavior with each other and with the clients have an impact, majority round about 90% were agreed that staff behavior and attitude, their body language and style and response always contribute in quality of services. Majority of the people are in the right of brand image that the organizational name, product offers, room size, and those features that are related with the product advantages, features and benefits over the competitors product contribute in the high quality of services because when the product has its own image in the mind of customers then automatically customers attract towards the organization and brand creation and image creation is not easy work, it is directly related to the customer relationship management department and it is the measure of their performance. Offering has its own contribution and is a major factors that play an important role in customers loyalty and in bringing the trust relation on long term basis majority and significantly majority of the respondents respond that first of all brand name and secondly offers season wise, package wise, group wise, on some special events like charismas, Easter, new year etc play its effective role in creating loyalty, trustworthy environment and faithfulness among all the clients. Then on third point the main factors is honor the commitments and honoring the promises that the company has made at the time of product launching it means that the availability of the rooms, services, free services, breakfast, free accommodation, buy one get one free and maintain the standard and volume and quantity of the items and offers. Then after the promises the main factor that can create the satisfaction is the worker’s behavior and attitude towards the consumers and towards the productivity this may includes their response and understanding their requirements and providing the proper requirements and the last main factor is the fast service, quick service and prompt reply to the clients against their complaints and their needs.
The researcher came to know that there are some factors that can play their role in minimizing the difference between the prospect and the presented services and in such a way the Customer relationship management can bring more good association by designing and implementing these business plans to achieve organizational objectives, these are included quality of the services, old and new data of the private clients and their priorities if the organization has the record maintained and keep in safe. Once again the promises made by the CRM not by the hotel management only and only made by the CRM and all other skills that already the researcher has described above these abilities and skills that can bring loyalty and satisfaction among the consumers and the one new thing and important factor is the feedback that here the consumer has the right and maximum the consumers give the feedback regarding their experience and it is the main check regarding services and their happiness level to check their level of satisfaction and by considering these factors the CRM department can make its role very effectively. The researcher came to know that the “Marriot Hotel’ in the London United Kingdom has good image and brand recognition in the mind of the major clients and it is good sign towards their loyalty and product features but the only main complaints is regarding the CRM services and the way of the treatment of the employees with all the customers regarding asking their priorities and expectations at the time of booking and after their entry they do not ask them about their satisfaction level which is more appropriate, the majority of the consumers are not satisfied with the complaints system that if they want to make a complaint about services and in time services for example breakfast, tea time etc then they must be known the way to make complaints such things for handling their problem by offering them suitable and in time solution. The entire interviewed involved person has told that the CRM must pay their attention towards the recognizing of their requirements and priorities well in time. The staff of the hotel is not so happy with the environment at the hotel they are afraid of their career growth and personal development, they require the system to review and performance measurement and the hotel management must provide them the opportunities to learn more from their subordinators while during the job so that they can make progress in the future and this is the responsibility of the CRM department to design such policies for the betterment of the staff members. And the employees also mentioned that the productivity level of the worker also contribute in the excellence outcomes. About 75% which is the major portion of the population is not happy with the CRM staff that they are failed in handling their problems at the spot. And only remaining minor proportion is willing that it is not a big issue but the research showed that there can be positive effect on the sales and growth of the organization if the CRM department successfully handles the complaints of the customers at the spot. At the end after doing all the analysis the researcher came to know that the main problem is on the end of customer relationship management workforce because they do not know and they do not have such systematic approach to find out the exact requirements of the clients and this is due to insufficient skills and the procedures and the improper authorities otherwise the brand image of Marriot Hotel in London is so high in the client’s mind and clients have complaint about the feedback that the feedback is so poor. And due to this weakness the quality of the services provided to the clients is not up to the mark and in this way the clients are not happy with the management and the improper system of feedback and data record keeping of clients must be considered by the management because the hotel management has no such system to know well in advance at the time of booking about the requirements and the priorities. The hotel management has no such skilled workers that can handle the client’s problems and the administration has no criteria to measure the qualities and skills and abilities of their workers. The hotel management is only focusing on the decoration, food items and taste but they forget that fast reply, feedback, regular checkups and regular asking the clients about service, asking about their priorities are the necessary elements of quality of services.
- Conclusions and suggestions
- Limitations and Conclusion
The researcher is a student and the he has short time and the limited finance budget to conduct this research from the review literature the researcher came to know that if the researcher has short time and limited resources to conduct the research then the researcher should select the case study tool so the researcher has selected the case study tool for conducting the research and all the expected expenditures were made by the personal pocket.
And in this chapter the researcher has fully described all the limitations and the conclusions after gathering primary and secondary data and making analysis on the data and presenting the results in the last chapter. The researcher has conducted the interviews by the management staff as the researcher came to know through the review literature that when the researcher wanted to gather proper and actual nature of data he or she must select entire people from the organization in order to get proper results and the researchers must use semi structured techniques to save time and money so the researcher used this techniques to gather primary data. Through the interviews the researcher came to know and the researcher concluded that the customer relationship management is a department that plays an important role in the growth and the expansion and in increasing sales volume of the hotel industry, the main reason are that the customer relationship management is responsible for providing necessary requirements and needs of the customers and the employees to create loyalty among all, because the employees can also play their effective role in increasing sales by handling the clients in efficient manners. Customer relationship management department review the performance of the workers and provide them necessary trainings and improve their necessary skills required buy the hotel industry to handle consumers efficiently and on the priority basis because there is a relationship among the satisfaction and the workers skills and there is also significant relationship among the satisfaction of the consumers and the sales of the organization. And customer relationship management is also responsible for the designing and implementing all the plans and the strategies effectively in achieving goals by handling and providing quality of services to the consumers. The researcher came to know that it is the responsibility of the customer relationship management in making sure quality of services and handling complaints, designing and implementing effective strategies, review of skills, competencies, strategies and making amendments and then implementing. Employee’s loyalty based on salary, safety, trust worthy environment, friendly environment, career growth, rewards and recognitions. It means that if the hotel management provide quality of services to the customers then the satisfaction can be created among the customers and loyalty will established in the customer and it will create positive effect on the sales and growth of the hotel. The researcher came to know that there are so many factors that can play their role in creating quality of services very significantly in the review of literature and this was the main reason to design this question to found out those factors that the customer believed in those to suggest the administration to consider those factors while designing the policies and equip their workers with suitable skills to create satisfaction level among clients for achieving hotel objectives. from the review of literature the researcher came to know that there are some factors on the basis of them the customers gauge and measure the quality of services for example their opinion feedback, the worker’s style and their behaviour of behaving with customers, company commitments and promises that they have made with the targeted population to offered those elements and offerings to the clients, quick and very fast response regarding any issue. The researcher came to know through review literature that if there the gap exist due to these above mentioned two variables then the level of satisfaction is so low. Satisfaction level is directly proportion to the quality level of the services offered to the clients and satisfaction is directly related with the loyalty and hotel expansion and sales and its growth is directly depends on the loyalty. This was the main reason of this question. But if the hotel administration become able to recognize their needs then it will be possible for them to achieve their targets well in time without wasting time and cost. And for this purpose the administration have to improve the system and skills of the employees to achieve objectives efficiently and in well manners. To enhance the satisfaction and as review literature has proved that quality, satisfaction, handling clients by having appropriate skills and providing solution have an effect on the performance of the customer relationship management and hence a significant effect will be on the volume of sale and its growth. Through proper use of modern technology loyalty can be created among the clients. The organizations must pay their attention in recognizing the better quality services providing to the clients at their best level by identifying their needs because there are many differences that can create this problem between the client and services providers, and these problems can be minimized by skilled workers. Low quality of services major difference in the expectations and offered services are such factors that can create the problems for the companies because the clients never come again to buy the products from the company or come back again to hire the services. The manufacturers and services providers consider all those factors in order to create the satisfactions because the marketing activities are related and have a connection in message delivery that on the basis of them the clients make their expectations and these expectations becomes the standard to measure the level of satisfaction among the clients. And the past experience of the clients allows and provides a chance to the service providers to improve those services level to create loyalty. The complaints can be handled in well manners and two types of benefits can be achieved, number one the by providing suitable solution to the customer the loyalty can be created and secondly the company can come to know that where is the actual problem, but it needs highly skilled employees. The organizations must equip the employees with highly communicational skills to handle clients with suitable authorities that are necessary to provide solution and making amendments in the services for better results. The researcher came to know through secondary data that service quality has an importance in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients to earn more money. The researcher had found out that client’s satisfaction and loyalty cab be created by identifying the actual nature of clients problem and by providing them suitable solutions at right time. The service quality can be increased and can be improved at maximum level with two considering. Client’s satisfaction can be improved by improving the services that offered to those clients. From gathering the primary data the researcher has found out that the employees are in need of training because some respondents responded that they are not happy with the services and the main issue is with the lack of systematically approach of taking feedback from the clients at the time when they want to share their expectations and regularly asking them regarding the quality of services to make it sure that the services are appropriately delivered to them. Similarly the researcher came to know through interview that this is very complex to identify the requirements of clients because every client has different mind and thinking style and different approach, attitude and behavior and priorities as compared to other one, so they need system to identify their needs and wants periodically and regularly, for this purpose they need trainings to the staff members who can only do this job. It will also effect on the quality of services significantly and will help full for both parties like to the staff or management and to the clients. When the researcher has asked question about the room services and came to know that some client’s attitude remain so bad and they insulted the workers on a minor mistake like late in tea, breakfast etc.
The researcher came to know that there are so many issues with the customer relationship management here at the Marriot hotel in London United Kingdom. The researcher has made following recommendations to improve quality of services to the clients in retaining old clients and capturing more new clients from the market and by creating loyalty and satisfaction among all of them to achieve organizational objectives.
First of all the customer relationship management must review the performance of the employees and make necessary arrangements for the improvements as the researcher came to know through review literature and the primary data that through skills and attitude and behaviours the employees can handle critical situations in achieving organizational main purpose by creating satisfaction among them.
The hotel management must authorize the employees to provide better solutions by allocating resources to the management for creating happiness and bringing pleasure by solving their problems and the customer relationship management must design the system to recognize the priorities and requirements of the clients as it is very important and in this way the CRM departments can handle the clients and can retain then happily and loyal with the organization. The CRM department must pay attention towards and for the welfare of its staff members to provide them sufficient facilities and recognitions and rewards on best performances and encourage them for better results because review literature proved that through productive attitude the organizations can handle issues and can achieve its goals efficiently. The hotel management must offer cheap rates and packages to attract new customers and discounts to the old clients. The workers can play important role so by keeping all the factors which have been discussed in primary research and in analysis must be focused by the hotel administrations for the better results in future.
- Further Research
There are so many areas which can be undertaken by the researcher for more effective role of customer relationship management role because many factors still need to be disclosed.
For example the important are the qualification of the employees, consumers psychology, decoration, online marketing, marketing effective strategies, 4 Ps of marketing, location of the hotel, offers and the luxury priority etc.