Today,service organizations are shifting their focus from “transactional exchange” to “relational exchange” for developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers. Extended relationships are reported to have a significant impact on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime value. Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as the customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all organizational activities. The retail sector or supermarkets industry, especially the super markets needs to be purely customer-centric and focus on the customer needs and duly fulfill them.

Customers will not blindly accept poor service quality from a Supermarket. They expect high quality of service in return for the money, they spend in Supermarkets. This paper is an attempt to explain the dark side of CRM in the segment of the Supermarket industry with the help of the ‘Gap Model’ referred to in literature which suggests that gaps in service occur at various instances. The author explains that the gap CRM is a useful tool to explain the dark side partly. There is more to the dark side like privacy issues, unwillingness of customers to build a relationship with the service provider, changing tastes and preferences of the customer. Sainsbury Supermarket has been chosen as a single case study and the research questions have been devised, addresses the industry at large, using a classic example of superior service quality to the customers. Some simple measures to reduce the dark side have been mentioned, which addresses the third and last research question.

The project would contribute as a useful guide for Supermarkets, provide them some valuable information on what the customer expectations are and if they are duly met then service gaps shall not occur. This research shall provide scope for Supermarkets to improve their overall service quality and strengthen their position in the industry. The relevant existing theory has been reviewed and the subject has been explored, using the ‘Gap CRM’ (Parasuraman et al 1998) mainly. Based on the research findings and analysis, recommendation has been given to reduce the dark side at this Supermarket and Supermarkets in general.

Chapter 1:         Introduction

1.1    Problem/ Introduction

People want to spend their lives with ease and for this purpose they want to spend the money to buy the products and they pay for the service just for overcome their problems and for the solution of their problems. Sometimes the customer’s problems are complex and sometimes they have the knowledge about the solution and sometimes they do not have knowledge about the solution (Bhote, 2007). Every person has its own psychology and based on the psychology every person has its own perception and needs and wants and to overcome them each person looking for the different solutions and all the business organizations cannot provide them the solutions as per their expectations because it is complex procedure to find out their expectations. To know about the solution of their problems and they ask to the family people, friends, family friends, colleagues and even then they surf the internet to find the proper solution of their problems. In order to gain the major portion of the market share from the targeted markets anywhere in the world that shows the basic advantage to the business organizations and in this way the organizations also can be able to create effective relationship with the clients and client’s majority also is the main indicator of organizational success (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). Some scholars have been stated that the customer relationship management department has so many responsibilities and this is the main reason of this departmental popularity that majority of the organizations have been adopted this department and this department has become the main reason of their sales and profitability due to its functionalities and its functions. When the people have their needs and they search for the product or service to overcome their problem then they buy and they pass through buying decision process (Buttle, 2005). So many factors affect their buying decision process, the customer relationship management with its highly skilled and well proficient workers they help the people in identification of their problems and provide them the solution. But here is a problem that the expectation or actual need or want is necessary to be recognized by the customer relationship management for the successful creation of happiness and positive experience and its positive outcomes. This is not an easy task to identify the actual nature and some time the actual wants and need and requirements of the clients so to solve this problem the customer relationship management can play its role positively and in this way the business organizations can achieve their targets well in time (Caruana et al., 2002). Customer relationship management is the only department that has the competencies to solve the client’s problems efficiently and can provide the organizations benefits in this way, mean in a single time double benefits to the organizations (Chi & Qu, 2009). As quality and price are also matter in the success of the organizations and no organizations can forget these two important factors, the advancement in technological sector and the change in the trends, values and norm especially the cultural change and the other actors like socio cultural factors which includes the income  (Chen & Popovich, 2004), age, fashion these all affect the thinking style and living style and these all factors have an impact on the decision buying behavior and thus the expectations and the needs and wants of the clients always change with the change in the above stated factors so it is very simple that individual’s needs and wants never remain same and this is an opportunity for the business organizations to avail for business profitability. And as the scholar have been stated that customer relationship management have the competencies to identify the individual’s requirements and the business organizations can be more benefited from the role of customer relationship management.

1.2    Title of Research

The role of customer relationship management department in identifying customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives (A Case Study of Sainsbury Superstore in Manchester U.K)

1.3    Research Question

What is the role and importance of customer relationship management department in identification of customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives?

1.4    Aims and Objectives of the research

In order to find out the objectives of this research the researcher has been divide the main aims into different and small goals called as objectives, as from the above title of the research it is very clear that the researcher was interested in find out the role and the importance of the customer relationship management in finding out the client’s expectations and their needs and requirements to find out the organizational objectives. Here in this researcher the researcher has been divided the main aim of this research that is the importance and the customers services department and its role in recognizing the client’s needs, wants and the expectations efficiently to increase the sales volume and to increase the profit margins and to get more and maximum clients from the market.  

There are the following objectives of this researcher

The researchers must have the aims and objectives of the research before selecting the research methods and adopt the research technique (Bennett, 2008).

The researcher will found out the main duties and functions of the customer relationship management in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher will find out the significance and magnitude of the CRM department for the benefits of business organizations.

The researcher will find out the customer relationship management and its other relations with the other departments to fulfill the manufacturing requirements and other technicalities and to remove the complexities in the business operations.

The researcher will find out all those other factors those can have their influence on the success in both ways directly and indirectly.

The researcher will also find out those factors those have positive influence and impact in creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the clients and the organization’s employees.

The researcher will find out the factors and skills which are necessary for the employees to handle clients for organizational success

The researcher will find out the factors those can lead the customer relationship management in identification of client’s needs and requirements and the success of the business organizations especially in the superstores in Manchester.

The researcher will find out the expected problems and issues related with the customer relationship management in the selected organizations in the future and also developed the recommendations and conclusions for the selected organizations for improvements and for the wellbeing of the organization.

The researcher will also find out the further study for the future aspects to conduct the other factors for identification of client’s expectations and needs.

1.5    Questions

The researcher has been designed the following questions to conduct this research to fulfill the above stated objectives by dividing these questions among the respondents in the questionnaires and conducting the interviews from the selected superstore management to found out the above stated objectives as well, the researcher has been stated them one by one in the following

What are the main duties and functions of the customer relationship management in the selected superstore?

What are the main connections of the customer relationship management with other departments of the selected organization to achieve its objectives?

How the customer relationship management is useful for the superstores in the United Kingdom in Manchester?

Do the clients have believed in the customer relationship management departmental strategies beneficial and helpful for them?

What is the customer relationship management role in the identifying and reducing the gap between the client’s expectations and perceived quality and how the customer relationship management can retain the clients by reducing that gap?

Which factors can play their role in identifying the factors to understand the gap existence and which factors can reduce them and help the organization to achieve organizational objectives?

Which skills are necessary to handle angry clients and how those skills and competencies can be improved to create loyalty among the customers?

How much the customer relationship management is useful in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the clients in an organization?

Is there any drawback of the existing difference between the expectations and the perceived quality of the products and services?

Why the customer’s expectation’s identification is so important and what are its benefits in achieving organizational objectives?

1.6    Research Scope

There are so many responsibilities of the business organizations in every sector in which those are operating or running their business operations which includes the salaries, electricity bills, payment for incurring the services of professionals, transportation expenses, managerial expenses and other expenses and to achieve the organizational objectives the organizations need some kind of resources. Human resources, financial resources and other resources, in the retail sectors the business organizations needs to achieve the organizational objectives for their existence and for their business operations and for their survival and growth. These organizations can only meet their expenses and their other expenditures when they are in a position to meet and achieve their financial objectives. These organizations can only achieve their financial objectives if they achieve their sales targets. Sales targets or revenue generation leads the organizations to earn profit and this profit leads the organizations towards their growth like in the form of expansion and in bringing more products in the product range. Sales can be made by the organizations if these organizations have the maximum market share, market share means the number or ratio of the clients from the target market, market share is directly proportion to the sales volume. After that the organizations can increase the market share possible if they have created strong binding with the customers and customers have trust on their products and service’s quality and price. Customers have their own perceptions and they have their own expectations, in the market the customers always bring their demand which become opportunity for the customers and organizations through research and development and through market intelligence came to know about the available opportunities and then they produce the products and services to avail those opportunities. When the organizations bring or introduce their products in the market as per customer’s expectations and if the customers buy them and after consuming they found that the results are as per their expectations and as per their demand and if the product’s results proved its worth then the customer’s will come again and they will the product again, and these happy and trusty and loyal clients will also bring other new or angry customers to buy the products then the market share will automatically increase the sales volume and organizations can earn more money in this way. Now problem is that with the change in environment and change in the thinking and life style their demands and their expectations never remained same and expectations always change. This research will find out the importance and role of customer relationship management in recognizing the customer’s expectations and offering them the expected products with respect to quality and cost to create loyalty and to increase the sales volume by identifying customer’s expectations by reducing the gap existing between their expectations and perceived quality of products and features of products and services. The results will able the organizations to amend their customer relationship management strategies and resources and business policies to minimize that gap between perceived or offered quality of products and services and their expectations (exact needs and wants) so that.  

1.7    Ethical Considerations/ Reliability and Validity

The researcher will adopt and follow the procedures strictly in order to gather and collect primary and secondary data very carefully and the validity and reliability of the primary and secondary data is always linked with the ethics. If the researchers follow the ethical considerations then the results are valid and reliable (Anderson, 2007). The researcher must follow the systematic way and must adopt the research method and avoid the unfair means for collecting data and making analysis on that to make conclusions and recommendations (Anderson, 2008). The researcher will not includes the animals, drunken people, and unconscious people as respondents and do not include the irrelevant people as respondents because these people de track the research work and mislead the researchers (Bennett, 2008). Here in this research the researcher will not disclose the data to anyone and will not steel other’s work and will not allow someone to steel his primary and secondary data, similarly the researcher will not use this work to obtain the other academic benefits.

1.8    Research Limitations

There are so many research limitations associated with a research and the skilled and competent researchers always eliminate them by following the research method in systematic way (Feagin, 2004). Due to research limitations the expected results can be infected (Flyvbjerg, 2007). There are some limitations and the major one is the time shortage as the research is completing its MA in marketing and Innovation and he has the time schedule to finalize and complete the research, so first one is the time and second main limitation is the financial resources and third is the experience. The researcher has no such experience of conducting the research in the past, so in order to bring quality of work and to eliminate these research limitations the researcher will generate the financial resource by himself and the case study will be selected by the researcher to conduct this research for obtaining specific objectives and the researcher will also use the interviews and will distribute the questionnaires among the 90 respondents to save the time and to achieve the expected results. The questionnaires and the interviews (mix of semi structured and structured) are the best way to follow these techniques to achieve organizational objectives in limited time period (Gefen, 2003).

Chapter 2:         Literature Review

2.1    Introduction

The researcher has been fully described in detail all the relevant secondary data, the researcher has been used the books, electronic books, articles and journals, electronic articles and electronic journals to gather secondary data and the researcher did not include the 9 years old data because some scholar Getty & Thompson, (2005) have been stated that with the time passage the demand, technology and way of life have been changed so the researchers should not include the 9 years old scholar’s statements in the secondary data. The fresh researchers and the scholar’s statements always bring reliability and validity in the research work (Gronroos, 2003). After gathering the data the researcher created the linked between the gathered data and the objectives of the research and then go ahead to conduct the research.

2.2    Organizational Objectives

Every business organization has its aims and objectives (Looy et al., 2004). According to the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2009) that aims and objectives of an organization are the basically set of statements that describes the purpose of the organization and the main purpose of the organizations are include the survival of the organization, enhancement in the profit and increment in the profit margins, the expansion of the organizational operations and enhancing the market share. The business organizations can achieve their objectives if they have been designed the organizational structures, functions, ethical codes, procedures and other resources and alignment of these resources (Oliver, 2002). Similarly the Parasuraman, (2001) has been stated that the customer relationship management is the department that can achieve the organizational objective efficiently. According to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) that the customer relationship management can achieve the organizational objectives by implementing the organizational strategies and policies and by creating loyalty among the customer’s by creating satisfaction and happiness among them. Similarly the Kandampully and Suhartanto, (2002) have been stated that the customer relationship management can offer the quality of services and products to the customers and the organizational objectives can be achieved by retaining the old customers and by attracting the new customers from the target market and by reducing the difference between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services. This statement has been supported by the Kim, (2006) by saying that the customer relationship management can play its role in increasing the efficiency of the organization by identifying the customer’s needs and wants and by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services.

2.3    Customer Relationship Management Department

According to the Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) that customer relationship management department is consist of the major two kinds of departments first one is the modern technology and second one is the strategies and the mix of strategies and information system those enable the organization to achieve the organizational objectives in well manner by targeting the target market and customers and by paying attention on the customer’s by listening them and by creating loyalty and satisfaction among them.

Source: Author

According to the Reinartz & Kumar, (2004) that the customer relationship management process always revolve around the customer’s staff members, procedures, business operations, marketing strategies and policies and information technology and its application, customer relationship management always evaluates the needs and wants of customers, people, and other staff members and equips them with necessary tools and technologies and skilled them for achieving expected requirements. However according to the Helgesen, (2003) that the customer relationship management always designs the steps and set of steps we call them procedures, strategies and the policies, equipping the staff members with the quality of philosophy and capable them with new techniques and technology and tools and skilled them for achieving organizational objectives. Similarly some scholars have been supported this statement the Gundersen et al., (2003) have been stated that in the retail sector the customer relationship management is the responsible for creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers and this department is responsible for the handling them and providing them the necessary support, this department is responsible for enhancing the sales and frequency of the customers to make shopping that’s why the organizations can earn handsome money. The Schlesinger and Heskett, (2003) have been supported the above statement by saying that customer relationship management is the fully responsible for creating and designing the strategies for the relationship marketing and the information technology and unites them in a systematic way so that the relationship can be created among the customers for making long term relationship with them for earning more profit and more benefits like growth from them by enhancing the sales volume and the earning more profit from the customers by increasing the market share ratio. Some scholars Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been stated that this is the customer relationship management department that provide the key successive opportunities to the organizations to keep and save the customer’s data in a meaningful way and use that data to understand their priorities and their nature and their requirements to offer them those suitable products for making profit and earning more money from market.

Source:            Author

There are so many functions of the customer relationship management department and this department is doing its job well in all organizations if the resources are available to this department. Customer relationship management has the skilled employees and has the sources to design and implement strategies and policies and procedures that can be helpful in identifying customer’s needs and wants and then as per these information the customer relationship management can offer the customer’s the products and services for creating happiness and satisfaction among them (Jones & Sasser, 2006). Some scholars have been stated that the customer relationship management can reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered products and services that enable the customer’s to buy products and services (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). According to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) that the CRM department is only the extra financial burden on the organizations, because before the evolution of the CRM department the organizations were achieving their objectives successfully and the marketing and sales department were playing their effective role for achieving organizational objectives. this statement was also supported by the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2009) by saying that the organizations must pay their attentions and must keep their focus on the factors those can create awareness among the customers to understand the market demand and also keep in mind the employee’s welfare and all other activities must be considered those can lead the workers towards more productive attitude. It is the wastage of time and finance that the business organizations spend lot of money for the development of CRM department and then the whole structure and investment for this department, whereas the organizations can control their department efficiently through human resource department and by offering discounts and offers of value added services the organizations can achieve their objectives (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). But according to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) the customer relationship management department is the responsible for the gathering data to know the customer’s details and their priorities and their expectations and after analyzing their data and their buying behavior this department also making a relationship between the different departments and making a clear link between them just in order to create the customers value and to make the customer’s chain and linking their different activities in achieving organizational objectives. In order to create values among the customers the customer relationship management designs the strategy and policies and plans and then implement them for retaining, and capturing new customers for increasing sales volume (Soderlund, 2010). It is the customer relationship management that can create the happiness and loyalty among the customers through effective policies and procedures implemented them at the business operations by identifying the customer’s needs and requirements (Kim, 2006).

2.4    Gap Model

In the market the customers have their own needs and wants and to overcome these needs and wants they went to the market to overcome their needs and wants (Jones & Sasser, 2006). The client’s expectations and their needs and wants are very important for the organizations (Jones & Sasser, 2006). Customer’s relationship management has the skilled and competent workers; those have the ability to understand the customer’s requirements and their priorities, the skilled workers have the abilities to analyze the customer’s data and after making analysis, and after handling them they come to know about their needs, wants and their priorities and then they can offer them the products and services as per their requirements and as per their expectations so in this way the difference between their expectations and their demands and offering services and products will be reduced and the happiness, satisfaction and loyalty will be created among them and the organizational objectives will be achieved (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). Some scholars have been stated that there are different ways that can be used by the customer relationship management to identify and to recognize the customer’s expectations and then the organizational objectives can be achieved by the customer relationship management for achieving organizational objectives which are started with the identification of customer’s expectations and the gap model can be helpful for them to understand their expectations (Reicheld & Sasser, 2005). The below model was given by the Gronroos in 2001 that have been discussed all the gaps that can be created by the customer relationship management and because of them the customer relationship management could not perform well (Anderson, 2007). This statement was supported by the Anderson, (2008) by saying that because of those gaps the CRM department remains unable to identify the customer’s expectations and their needs and want in real and all other interests of customer which includes the quality and price of product and services. This importance of reducing these gaps have been stated by Bennett, (2008) that if the customer relationship management can identify the customer’s interests and facts and figure then in this way the business organizations can achieve the objectives effectively and the efficiency of the organizations will be maximum. Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been stated that the organizations do not need to understand the needs and wants of the customer in details because it will be the temporary benefits to the organization and in the future the competitors will take advantage of this opportunity, because the customer’s needs and wants always changed with the change in the culture, trends, norm and technology and in their buying behaviours and in their age, so the organizations must pay their attentions on the processes and latest technology to offer the customer’s the best quality of products and services at lowest price. The customers always tends towards lowest price and high quality, the buying power always tend the customer to buy from the suitable supermarkets those offer them the required products and services at cheap prices (Schlesinger and Heskett, 2003).

Bowen & Shoemaker, (2005) have been stated that the CRM department can achieve the organizational objectives by paying its full attention on the given gap model and by considering those key successive factors in the strategies and policies and after implementing those strategies into business operations the organizational objectives can be achieved successfully. Kim, (2006) has been stated that it is not necessary to understand the real facts and figures and the customer’s in depth and in detail because if the organizations will spend their money and other resources in identifying their needs and wants, and process that information and then produce the products for selling or offering, then there will be a big change in the entire procedures and process of industry in producing specific products for adding more quality at cheap price that will be ultimately lose to the organizations and in this way the organization could not achieve its objectives (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005).

 

                              Gap # 1

Difference between Expectations and offered  

                                         

                                 Gap # 2

Offered them the expected products and services as per requirement  

                

 

                                   Gap # 3          

Gathering customer’s data and their expectation data  

 

                                       Gap # 4

Passing this data to the designing and production department, so that department can produce the products as per their requirements. To create the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.   

 

        Gap # 5

Source:            Author

Some scholars have been stated that the organizations can achieve their goals and objectives if they come to know the customer’s needs and wants (Bhote, 2007). This statement was supported by the Bowen & Shoemaker, (2005) that the organizations can achieve their goals and objectives if they have customer relationship management department and the strategies and policies have been designed by them and implemented by them successfully, because the main reason of the CRM department is that through this department the customer’s needs and wants can be find out easily and the customer’s requirements identifications successfully can play its role in offering them the best option. Similarly the Buttle, (2005) have been stated that the organizations can achieve their targets effectively if they have CRM policies implemented effectively and efficiently then in this way the organizations can develop and produce the customer’s expected products and services and loyalty can be created among them for achieving organizational goals and objectives. Some scholars have been supported the best solutions of the gap between the customer’s expectations and perceived products and quality and their best solutions that in specific situation they can reduce the difference between the customer’s expectations and perceived products and services values to create loyalty and satisfaction among them (Getty & Thompson, 2005).

EventEvent Handling Solutions
  CRM worker have no skills to understand and collect real information related with customer’s needs and wants  This is the CRM departmental responsibilities to measure the worker’s performance and give them proper feedback and they can also use the surveys to understand their attitude and behavior with the customers and as per necessary requirements the management can arrange for the courses, trainings for the workers to equip them with suitable and required skills to gather data from the customers and make analysis on that data for positive input.
Secondly when the CRM department workers gather the real data and after analysis they pass that information to the relevant department for the manufacturing the products as per customer’s needs and wants then the misperceive occur between the staff members and the manufacturing department.In such situation the CRM department must check the communication effectiveness and must check the altogether system and skills of people sender and receiver and must watch the procedures and process of information sending and receiving, in this way this kind of gap can be reduced and can be removed, and this is very necessary for the CRM department to remove such kind of hindrances.
Due to low quality of product and services the customers make complaints and they do not know how to pass their correct information and that’s why the staff could not interpret the data and due to confusion the gathered information remains wrong and gap exist.  In such kind of situation the CRM department must pay its attention on the product information and on the marketing tools and messages and on the advertisement. If the correct information will be passed through advertisement to the customers then the customers can make complaints if they perceive wrong experience after utilizing that product and they can understand the staff workers about their problem and when the staff worker has the command about product functions then he or she will be in position to handle the complaints and can play its effective role in achieving organizational objectives.

2.5    Customer’s Loyalty and Satisfaction and role of CRM

According to the Anderson, (2007) that the organizations can only achieve their goals and objectives if they can successfully create the satisfaction among the customers and the satisfaction can be only created if the customers are happy with their past experience that they have been perceived after buying and utilizing the products and services, so the organizations must have to pay their attentions to create happiness among the customers. Similarly Anderson, (2008) has been stated that the satisfaction always comes due to the happiness and the satisfaction always leads the customers towards the loyalty and due to loyalty the customers will come again to buy the services and product to overcome their needs. However the Bennett, (2008) has been stated that the customer loyalty can play its role effectively for the organizational achievements. According to the Bhote, (2007) that the organizations can achieve their targets if they have properly implemented CRM department in the business and the CRM has been designed and implement the strategies for creating long and strong relationship with the customers to achieve company goals and objective in minimum time at minimum cost. In the support of this statement Bowen & Shoemaker, (2005) have been stated that the CRM department can play its role in creating the loyalty among the customers because the CRM department has the complete skilled workers, information system, IT support and latest technology, so with the usage of IT and latest technology the CRM department can handle the customers easily and can support them as well in creating loyalty as shown in the following figure.

Manufacturing, delivering products and service, taking customer’s feedback about their experience, review and update the requirements and priorities and record of the customers and then pass this information to the relevant department to review the products and services quality and price and other features.  

Some scholars Zeithaml et al., (2007) are not in the favor of customer relationship management and they said that the organizations are wasting their resources while establishing the customer relationship management department and while allocating other resources to that department for achieving organizational objective through its staff members by creating loyalty among the clients and by recognizing their demands and expectations, similarly Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been supported that the loyalty among the customers can be created through the staff members rather than through the CRM departmental staff members and in this way if the organization pay its full attention on the loyalty of employees and make them happy and create loyalty and productive attitude among them then in this way those workers will also achieve the organizational objectives. similarly the Schlesinger and Heskett, (2003) have been stated that the organizations can offer the customer’s the lowest price products with good quality if they create strong and loyalty among the staff members rather than to pay attention for the customer relationship management and in this way the organizations must achieve their targets, those organizations need to adopt the latest technology and the processes to reduce their cost and to increase the technology. According to the Getty & Thompson, (2005) that the new researchers have been proved that customer relationship management have positive impact on the organizational growth and the customer relationship management can only identify the customer’s needs and wants and can create happiness and loyalty among the customers  and in this way the loyal customer will buy the products again and again and they will call their friends and families to buy from them and the organizations can generate more revenue and they can make growth. Similarly the Caruana et al., (2002) have been stated that the customer relationship management is only the department that can play its role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers by identifying the needs, wants, expectations and features f the expected products and services and by offering them the exactly products and services then ultimately and there is no doubt that the customer will be more happy and will be loyal and will come again to buy the products and services from that organization and will prefer to buy from that organization.

Happiness/ SatisfactionLevel of LoyaltyOrganizational growth
Buying, utilizing, getting experience and making comparison among the price and value (satisfaction or dissatisfaction)  Satisfaction will create loyalty, will create trust, customer will repeat and will call the friends and family and family friends to buy from that organization.Customer step in more, repetition, more sales, more generate more revenue, more profit, Organizational Growth

Looy et al., (2004) has been discussed that there is a link between the customer relationship management and the organizational objectives, and to understand this link first of all it is important to understand the link between the customer expectations and the organizational growth, that have been discussed above in the figure.

2.6    CRM and Quality of Services and Customer’s Complaints handling

According to the Buttle, (2005) that the customer relationship management is the department that have the very good and well equipped skilled and well trained staff members those can deliver the products and services to the customers at highest quality and can also handle the customer’s complaints in efficient manners and the skilled and highly trained staff members are the main core and strengths of the customer relationship management department. Whereas Caruana et al., (2002) have been discussed that to achieve the organizational objectives it is very important for the organizations to understand the demand in the market and then forecast the demand volume and then the core requirements of the customers and then check the availability of those products in the market, the customer relationship management gather these all kind of information and customer’s requirements as well and then offer them the expected quality of services and products to create happiness among them. Chen & Popovich, (2004) have been stated that customer relationship management is the department that has the ability to serve the customers with high quality and quality means the response of their call, quick and fast response, delivery of product or services as per their demand, as per their expectations with smile with better and polite and respective attitude and this department can also handle the customer’s complaints in efficient manners and change the mood of the customers and customer become happy and rather than to be angry they become happy and satisfied with the services offered to them. Chi & Qu, (2009) stated that it is very hard to understand the customer’s psyche because there are so many factors those can have their impact on the mood and on the demand of the customers so this is not been possible for the organizations to understand their demands and expectations. Feagin, (2004) have been stated that there is only way to attract new customers from the market and that is to offer them the products and services at lowest rate then they will come to buy those products, because now a day people first of all make comparisons before they buy the products. So the organizations can retain and can attract new clients from the target market by offering them lowest price products and services (Flyvbjerg, 2007). The customer handling is not an easy task but the customer relationship management can handle their complaints and can create loyalty among them by offering them the best solutions about their problems (Gefen, 2003). When the customer buy the products or services and after using they compare the results with values and their expectations then on the behalf of the result they become happy or angry, and the angry customers always make complaints and the organizations have the opportunities in this way to understand their complaints and review their processes and understand their weaknesses and try to improve them and also compensate the angry clients and to develop happiness and loyalty among them (Getty & Thompson, 2005). According to the Gronroos, (2003) that 98% angry clients make or register the complaints if they know the procedures and if the procedures are easy to understand, it means that organizations have another opportunities for creating and building strong and trusty relationship with customers by handling their complaints in effective way and with a little bit hard work by giving them the expected items and by compensate them the organizations can retain the old clients. And if the response of the staff member is quick and attitude and the behavior remain good, polite and kind and with smile face then the quality of services and product both will create loyalty and happiness among them.

2.7    Conceptual Framework of Literature Review

2.7.1  Introduction

In the following figure the researcher has been designed the conceptual framework for the above discussed review of literature so that the flow of work can be understandable for all people.

2.7.2  Explanation

Every organization has the objectives to achieve them the organizations invest money and arrange other resources and procedures and design the structures and all other struggle made by the other departments to achieve some kind of purposes that are called the aims and objectives of the organizations. So these organizations pay fully their attention on the customers because the services and products made by the organizations are always consumed by the customers and they try to remain happy their customers in the market, because they know that if the customers are happy then their products will be sold out otherwise there will be no business. In the above figure it has been shown that the organizational objectives can be achieved with the help of customer relationship management and especially with its skilled and equipped workers. The customer relationship management can play its role for the identification of customer’s needs and requirements (expectations) and in this way that information after analysis pass to the manufacturing department and in this way there are also benefits first of all the identification of client’s expectations and their requirements, secondly the resource wastage will be stooped and accurate information about the market demand will be passed to the manufacturing department. After that the products and services will be offered to the customers at cheap prices as compared to the competitors and the prices can be lowered by implementing the latest technology and procedures to manufacture the products. Then by handling the customer’s complaints the customer relationship management will also create the happiness that will lead them to wards loyalty and finally the organization can achieve the targets. The role of customer relationship management is also important from customer expectation’s identification to delivering them the expected products and services the customer relationship management plays its positive role and this because cause of organizational objectives in efficient manners. The customer relationship management can reduce the difference between the customer’s needs and wants and their expectations and can offer them suitable products and services to bring happiness and loyalty among the clients at maximum level. The customer relationship management department has its strengths which includes the highly skilled, well equipped and professional and dedicated people those are handling, keeping, updating taking feedback, opinion, views of the customers and making analysis on their data and offering them the best solutions just to offer them products and services as per their requirements by reducing or by minimizing the difference between the customer’s expectations and offered products and services. After using the products the client may could not be happy with the results it means there are two kinds of possibilities either the product was not suitable for the customer either the product features were poor and the customer become anger with the organization. Here is also an opportunity for the organizations to make and create happiness in angry customers by handling their problems and by removing, replacing and by compensating them the organizations can bring happiness among them. And all this is only possible due to effective customer relationship management department, because this department has the ability to deliver the customer valued and quality of product and services and by identifying the customer’s expectations offer them the expected products and services is playing its role for achieving organizational objectives.

Chapter 3:         Research Methodology

3.1    Introduction

In order to reduce the cost and to save the time and money and to bring quality in the work the researchers must adopt effective research method that will lead him towards success and will provide him a map (Anderson, 2008). The researcher has been discussed the research method adopted by him during this research conducting and the tools and the research techniques have been discussed by the researcher in this section. The research method that includes the sampling techniques, sampling selection, interviews and questionnaires and source of primary and secondary data has been discussed by the researcher in this section. it is very important for the researchers to keep the record of the research which includes the research techniques, sample size, procedure of selection of samples from the whole population, source of primary and secondary data, recoding system like tables, electronic form or printing format (Anderson, 2007).

3.2    Aims and Objectives of the Research

The researchers must have the aims and objectives of the research before selecting the research methods and adopt the research technique (Bennett, 2008). The main objective of this research is to find out the role of customer relationship management department in reducing and minimizing the difference between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services to create happiness, loyalty and satisfaction among the customers in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher will found out the main duties and functions of the customer relationship management in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher will find out the significance and magnitude of the CRM department for the benefits of business organizations.

The researcher will find out the customer relationship management and its other relations with the other departments to fulfill the manufacturing requirements and other technicalities and to remove the complexities in the business operations.

The researcher will find out all those other factors those can have their influence on the success in both ways directly and indirectly.

The researcher will also find out those factors those have positive influence and impact in creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the clients and the organization’s employees.

The researcher will find out the factors and skills which are necessary for the employees to handle clients for organizational success

The researcher will find out the factors those can lead the customer relationship management in identification of client’s needs and requirements and the success of the business organizations especially in the superstores in Manchester.

The researcher will find out the expected problems and issues related with the customer relationship management in the selected organizations in the future and also developed the recommendations and conclusions for the selected organizations for improvements and for the wellbeing of the organization.

The researcher will also find out the further study for the future aspects to conduct the other factors for identification of client’s expectations and needs.

3.3    Research Methods

According to the Bhote, (2007) that the researchers must select the research method before they start to conduct the research and the research must be based on the specific aims and objectives. The researchers must select the best one option (research method) as per the aims and objectives to conduct the research and the research method always leads the researchers towards the success (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The researchers must use the appropriate research method to conduct the research, first of all the researchers must know the limitations of their research and then they follow the research objectives and then according to their circumstances and resources they must follow the research method (Buttle, 2005). The research wants to achieve the research objectives then they must follow the research method very strictly, in this way they can gather the valid and reliable data (Caruana et al., 2002). It depends on the aims and objectives of the research to choose the effective and best research method follow by the researcher to achieve the organizational and research objectives in effective way (Chen & Popovich, 2004). According to the Caruana et al., (2002) that the researchers can use the qualitative or quantitative research method to conduct the research in effective way to achieve the organizational objectives, and the researchers can use both of them to conduct the research but it depends on the nature of the research on the nature of aims and objectives of the research. The researcher has been decided to choose the both qualitative and quantitative research methods to conduct the research. Because in this research the researcher needs the statistical data as well as the researcher main output will be the conclusion and recommendations.

3.3.1  Quantitative Research Method

In the quantitative research method the researchers gather the data and make analysis on the data that has been gathered by the researcher from some respondents and in this way the researchers first of all define the population and then after defining the population then based on the attributes and characteristics the researchers use techniques to select the respondents (Bhote, 2007). In order to make conclusions and the recommendations the researchers always collect the data through different means, some researcher use the questionnaires, observations, interviews to collect primary data (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The quantitative research method will allow the researchers to make different analysis by using different techniques to gather primary data (Chen & Popovich, 2004). In quantitative research method the researcher play with the quantity rather than the quality.

3.3.2  Qualitative Research Method

According to the Getty & Thompson, (2005) that the researchers need to fist make hypothesis and then after making it they follow the procedure to conduct the research as per the research aims ad objectives, in this way the researchers need to conduct the research deeply as compared to the quantitative research methods. In the qualitative research methods the researchers need to select the best one case study one or more it depends on the available time and other resources and then the researchers make plan to conduct the interviews structured or unstructured and it depends on the nature and aims and objectives of the research and then they design the questionnaires for the research process. As compared to the quantitative method there is no involvement of statistical data because in this way the researchers only come to know about the motivational factors, reasons and understandings rather than to know the statistical data, all the conclusions and recommendations are made by the researchers always depends on the qualitative bases.

3.4    Research Tool (Case Study)

According to the Kandampully and Suhartanto, (2002) that the research tool have their own importance and the researchers must select the research tool before they start to conduct the research. There are so many benefits of the case study to the researchers and when the researchers have some limitations then the researchers must select the case study as a tool if they have short time and other limitations, in that situation the case study is very suitable and helpful for the researchers with shortage of time limitation and the researchers can gather valid and reliable primary data (Kim, 2006). Some other scholars have been stated that to save time and to bring more validity and reliability the researchers can select the case study as research tool (Looy et al., 2004). The researcher has been selected the Sainsbury supermarket in the United Kingdom situated in the Manchester center. The researcher has been chosen the Sainsbury super market in the United Kingdom as a case study tool due to some reasons

At the Sainsbury supermarkets the customer relationship management is working with its all features and have been designed the marketing plans and strategies for the handling customers and for achieving organizational objectives effectively.

The customer relationship management at Sainsbury supermarket is in operations with all its features and implementing its strategies and operations and integrating all other departments for achieving organizational objectives and the customer relationship management department is striving for recognizing the customer’s requirements and their expectations positively and effectively.

The customer relationship management department is also record keeping the customer’s data and also updating their records and assessing their priorities and their requirements and then after gathering the data the department make analysis on the data and made decisions on the behalf of that gathered data and then made the marketing decisions by considering these data into their minds while designing the 4 P’s of the marketing.

3.5    Source of Data

According to the Kim, (2006) that the researcher can use must select the source for primary and secondary data because it is very important for the researchers to find out the source for primary and secondary data. The validity and reliability of the primary and secondary data is always based on the source of data (Looy et al., 2004). The researcher has been defined the source for primary and secondary data which have been discussed below.

3.5.1  Secondary Data Source

According to the Gronroos, (2003) that the researchers must select the valid theories and scholar statements to gather secondary data and the resources must be valid and fresh scholar’s statements to gather valid and reliable secondary data. The researchers can use the books, electronics books, research papers, electronic research papers, articles and electronics articles and journals and electronics journals, websites and annual reports, news papers, press releases for gathering secondary data (Gundersen et al., 2003). The researcher will use the online resources which include the libraries, online books, online journals and articles and books, online newspapers and Sainsbury supermarket website on the topic of CRM role in identifying customer’s needs, wants and their expectations to gather secondary data. Then the researcher will make critics on the data as well and make it rational.

3.5.2  Primary Data Sources

The researchers can conduct the interviews and can distribute the questionnaires among the respondents to gather primary data, similarly the researcher can conduct online and offline surveys and can make observations on time watching the situations for gathering primary data (Helgesen, 2003). According to the Jones & Sasser, (2006) that the researchers can use many sources for gathering primary data which includes the online and offline sources, which includes the observations, case study tools, questionnaires and interviews and group discussion the researchers can gather valid and reliable primary data.

3.5.2.1          Questionnaires

The researchers can gather primary data of more consistency and of more reliability by distributing the questionnaires among the samples and the questionnaires must be designed by the researcher if he or she has the necessary skills to develop the questionnaires and the researcher must have the knowledge about the open ended, close ended, rating scale and all other types of questions and before designing the questions the researcher must have the knowledge about the aims and objectives of the research (Jones & Sasser, 2006). The distribution of the questionnaires and developing of questionnaires is not easy but it is a complex way to gather primary data (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). The cheapest and quick way to gather valid and reliable primary data the researchers must use questionnaires for gathering primary data (Kim, 2006). The researchers must understand the communication system and its requirements and must understand the customer’s level of understanding then the researchers must develop the questions and the questionnaires must be distributed among the relevant respondents then the researchers can gather reliable and valid data (Looy et al., 2004). The real way to gather primary data and valid data the researchers must use the questionnaires technique (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2009). Minimum 80 questionnaires must be distributed among the respondents and each questioner must have the about 22 questionnaires in a questionnaire (Oliver, 2002). The researcher has been decided to distribute the 90 questionnaires among the males and females respondents with the age range from 20 to 60 years old respondents. The researcher has designed and develops the 20 questions for a questionnaire and 90 samples have been selected by the researcher to distribute among them.

3.5.2.2.         Interviews

According to the Bhote, (2007) that the interview is basically the two way conversation between the interviewee and interviewer with a specific purpose in which the researcher prepare the questions to gather real facts and figures as per the research aims and objectives. Similarly some scholars have been stated that to get the information on a specific topic and to get the facts for the specific area the researcher can gather the information from the respondents by conducting an interview, because the interviews are the effective techniques (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The researchers can use the best and useful techniques and methods which includes the surveys and experiments and observations to collect real and fact information from the respondents for gathering primary data (Buttle, 2005). The researchers can use one of the interview technique structured that means closed interview or unstructured means open style of interview to gather primary data (Caruana et al., 2002). The researchers must conduct the interview with the field workers or with the administration to get valid and reliable data, because the administration and the field workers have the real and facts about the problems and advantages of technology and about the procedures, processes and strategies, more they have the experience about the real work and they have knowledge about the problems and their solutions (Chen & Popovich, 2004). The interviewer can use the open ended questions to gather answers in detail and the validity and reliability of the data is depend on the researcher skills and qualities and the quality of the questions (Chi & Qu, 2009). According to the Bhote, (2007) the researcher can conduct the interview for a specific problem. The researchers must try to avoid the unstructured interviews because in this way the researchers can become double minded because of the open questions and it will affect the validity and reliability of the primary data (Buttle, 2005). The researchers must use the structured type of interview because in this way the researchers can gather reliable and valid answers and those answers will be free of biasness (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The researcher has been decided to conduct the structured interview and for that purpose the researcher has been designed the close questions to ask the respondents to gather primary data and the researcher has been designed the questions by keeping in mind and by considering the aims and objectives of the research. Together the primary data by using the interview technique the researchers must conduct the interview with the key position holders in an organization because in this way they can get the valid and most reliable data from them and the data will not contain the biasness and the researchers must make appointment with them and in advance let them know about the topic of the interview (Helgesen, 2003). The researchers must avoid to un necessary questions and they must avoid to make assumptions because assumptions and biasness always de track the researchers to achieve their aims and objectives (Jones & Sasser, 2006).

3.6    Population

According to the Bhote, (2007) that the population is the basically set of the people or population may be the set of the events from which the researchers can select the samples and all those people must have the same characteristics, they must be homogeneous not heterogeneous (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005).

3.6.1  Sample

According to the Buttle, (2005) has been defined the sample that, sample is the group of people selected by the researchers from the population with some specific goals and objectives like respondents, to get some information from them, being the representatives of the population the respondents (samples) respond to the researchers. According to the Caruana et al., (2002) that there are different types of methods that can be used by the researchers to select the best sample from the population, those have been discussed below.

3.6.1.1           Non-Random Method

 The non random selection of the sample is the method that is used by the researchers for the medical purposes and the medical researchers use this technique to gather external validity of the study, and in this method the samples do not belong to the large population, whereas in this method the samples recognize the facts and figures about the samples (Chen & Popovich, 2004).

3.6.1.2           Stratified Random Sampling

In this way the researchers divide the whole population into small groups for example group of people with specific age range, with specific color or size or height then they select the samples from the sub groups (Flyvbjerg, 2007). The researcher will not use this method because the researcher needs to consider the whole population and will include the all customers with their age and will include both genders in the respondents.

3.6.1.3           Proportional Sampling

This method is used by the researchers to make it sure that the sub groups are well maintained and in the sub groups the people have contained the relevant characteristics or not, for example in a sub group the ratio of male to female is 20:30  (Gefen, 2003).

3.6.1.4           Cluster Sampling

In the cluster sampling the researchers get the samples when there is large number in a population and it is very important for them to find out specific factors and variables, and they need very small number of samples from the whole population  (Getty & Thompson, 2005).

3.6.1.5           Simple Random Method

In this way the researchers other than the medical study adopt this method to identify the samples to gather facts and figures about non medical factors like in the business related researches the researcher use this method (Chi & Qu, 2009). The researchers use the simple random method to find out the samples to conduct the research in different areas and they want to disclose the different variables and factors to find out the motivations and reasons of motivations when there is a large population and it is not been possible for the researchers to involve whole population in the process of research method and then they identify the samples from the population (Feagin, 2004). The researcher in this research will use the random number like 5th or 6th or 3rd or 11th customer in the Sainsbury supermarket and then every 5th or 11th or 7th customer will be considered as respondent. While conducting the research in customer relationship management the researchers must include both the male and female as respondents and their age must be starting from the 20 years and maximum age should be 65 but no more 65 and not less than 20 years, then in this way the researchers can achieve their goals and objectives associated with the specific research (Gronroos, 2003). The researcher must identify the respondents before dividing the questionnaires among them and must make the schedule before going to conduct the interview (Gundersen et al., 2003). The researcher has designed the table that shows the sample size.

GenderRespondentsAge Range in (Years)RatioTotal
Male4520——–6550%45
Female4520——–6550%45
Total90  90

From the above table it has been mentioned that the researcher will distribute the questionnaires among the 90 samples and the researcher will distribute the questionnaires among males and females and there will be no any kind of discrimination on the basis of religion, color, ethnicity, disability, young or old, the researcher will not include his own opinion in the primary data. The researcher will make analysis on the data by using authentic statistical tools.

Chapter 4:         Data Analysis and Presentation

4.1    Introduction

The researcher has been discussed the tools and ways in this section in detail to conduct this research. The researchers must use the tables to record the primary data to avoid the duplication of result (Bhote, 2007). The researchers must calculate the ratios and percentage of the numerical values and also find out the relationship among the different variables and must understand their dependencies on each other (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). The pictorial representation of data can be more effective as compared to simple numerical values do the graphs, bar charts and pies charts can be used by the researchers to represent the outcomes of their research (Caruana et al., 2002). Sainsbury is the big supermarket in the United Kingdom that is offering its best services and products in different areas like grocery, toys, clothing, kitchen stuff, toilet stuff, bakery, food items, cosmetic, embroidery, pharmacy and optician and clothing and in financial sector as well. The Sainsbury has customer relationship management department that is running its strategies and business operations successfully with other departments and trying its best in identifying the customer’s requirements and their needs and wants and reducing the differencing between the requirements of customers and the quality of products and services offered to them for creating happiness and loyalty among them for achieving organizational objectives.   

4.2    Questionnaires

The researcher has designed the following questions by keeping in mind all the aims and objectives of this research and the researcher has the sufficient skills and abilities to design the questions open ended and close ended and their results have been also discussed here below.

Q:        What is your main purpose to visit Sainsbury?

Answer:

AnswersMaleFemaleTotal
For a visit004
For shopping41403
For making price comparison0040
For job interview1033
With family member352
Total454090

Some scholars have been stated that the customer step in the super markets to buy the products and the hiring the services to solve their problems and to overcome their needs and wants for which they entered the supermarkets (Anderson, 2007). The researcher wants to know the main purpose of the customer’s that they came to the supermarket, as in the tables it has been showed that majority of the people came for buying products or hiring the services from the super market.

The researcher came to know after making the bar charts and pie charts. The charts are showing that majority of the people 91% of the people come to the Sainsbury supermarket to buy the products and hiring the services. The people those come with their family members to support them and to help them while making their decisions for buying products and for hiring the services from the superstore their ratio is 7% only and the people those came for job interview is only 2 percent and the people those came for job interview are 0% and the only for general purpose is also 0%, so from the above results it has been cleared that majority of the people come to buy products.

Q:        Are you regular customer at Sainsbury as shopper?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male321345
Female351045
Total672390

The table and the bar chart shows that majority of the people are the regular shoppers those buy the products and services from the Sainsbury supermarket and their percentage is 74% whereas the rest of 26% are the people those come to buy from the Sainsbury but they are not regular buyers. The 26% is not negligible percentage and the opportunity is available in the market to attract new customers from the market and this figure shows the performance of customer relationship management at Sainsbury as well.

Q:        Are you satisfied with the products and services offered by the Sainsbury?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male331245
Female321345
Total652590

According to the Bennett, (2008) that the satisfaction always leads to the loyalty and satisfied customers always play their role for achieving organizational objectives in increasing the sales volume and the in increasing the revenue for the organization. The researcher has been designed this question to know about the satisfaction level of the customers.

From the above table, pie chart and bar chart it has been cleared that the only 72% of the people are satisfied with the products and services of the Sainsbury whereas only 28% of the people are not satisfied with the products and services of the supermarket. The 28% is a big percentage which shows the performance of the customer relationship management and on the other hand the CRM department could not perform its duties and its strategies are not good and its policies are not effective and they need to review their policies and strategies and plans to find out the weaknesses and after improving their strategies and policies they must avail the opportunities for maximizing the market share for the supermarket.

Q:        Do you think that the CRM department is playing its role in identifying your requirements and needs and wants at Sainsbury supermarket?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male301545
Female271845
Total573390

Some scholars have been stated that the customer’s requirements and their needs and wants are the main important players in the CRM departmental in designing effective strategies and policies for achieving organizational objectives (Chi & Qu, 2009). The researcher has designed the above question as per in the light of above scholar’s statement and the results were recorded by the researcher which showed that majority of the responded that they have believe in the role of CRM department.

The above pie and bar charts are showing that 63% of the people are completely satisfied with the products and services offered by the Sainsbury and 37% of the respondents have been responded that they are not satisfied with the products and services. According to the scholars that after consuming the products and services the customers came to know about the effectiveness and efficiency of the products, and they become angry or satisfied, if they receive the results as per their expectations and as per their needs and demands then they become happy and satisfied otherwise they become angry (Anderson, 2007). And 37% of the people are not satisfied with the products and services of the organization, which is not negligible amount.

Q:        Why do you buy from Sainsbury, select the best option?

High Quality

Lower Prices

Full range of Products

Unique Features of Products

Value added services

Money back Guarantee

Answer:

FactorsYesNoTotal
Quality30  
Price12  
Product Range8  
Unique Features5  
Value added services5  
Money Back Guarantee   
Convenient30  
Total90 90

Helgesen, (2003) has been stated that the people buy from super stores to overcome their needs and wants if the products are available, some people buy because of quality, lower prices, unique features, long expiry dates and some people are convenient because their home location is near the superstores, they do not have time to go at other places. So the researcher has made the above question to know about the main reason of the customer that they buy the products from the superstore. As shown in the table that the majority of the people buy from the Sainsbury supermarket because they found high quality of items from the supermarket, second one due to low price and a majority of the people just buy the items because they are most convenient it means that their homes are near the store, or the opening and closing time is suitable for them.

Both the pie and bar charts have been showed the main reason and the main interest of the buyers are quality of the products which is about 33%, and after that 13% are the people buy from supermarket because of the low prices, 9% buy because of the products range, or availability of the products, 6% buy because of the value added services, 6% because of the unique features of the products and 33% of the people buy because they are convenient.

Q:        Why you buy the products from the superstores, select the appropriate option?

To overcome their needs and wants

For enjoyment

For satisfaction

For loyalty

For spending money

Answer:

Reason of buying products and servicesYesNoTotal
To overcome needs and wants90090
Enjoyment000
Satisfaction000
Loyalty000
Spending money000
Total90090

According to the Parasuraman, (2001) market is a place where buyer and seller meet together, the buyer came to overcome its needs and wants and seller also come to sale the products. The researcher wants to know the reason that why people buy the products from the supermarkets and about 100% responded that they come to buy products to solve their problems.

Q:        Do you believe that products and services as per your expectations and requirement can create happiness and satisfaction among you?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male45045
Female45045
Total454590

According to the Looy et al., (2004) that the CRM department can identify the customer’s expectations and other factors and can implement those strategies and policies to understand customer’s priorities for achieving organizational objectives, if the CRM department has the proper resources and well trained and equipped workers. The researcher has designed the question to understand the effectiveness of customer’s expectations. And the result was stored in the above table.

The above table, pie and bar charts have been showed that 100% of the customers have been responded that their expected and required products can create happiness and satisfaction among them.

Q:        Are you sure that if Sainsbury supermarket offer you products as per your expectations then you will buy the products from them?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male45045
Female45045
Total90090

The organizations can maximize their market share if they provide the customers products and services as per their requirements and their expectations (Oliver, 2002). The researcher has designed this question to understand the opportunity in the market, that if the organizations provide the customers as per their needs and requirements then they can maximize the market share.

1005 customers have been stated that yes, if they perceive the products and services as per their expectations and the requirements then they will buy from the supermarket to overcome their needs and wants.

Q:        Which factors are important in identification of your expectations, select the appropriate so that the CRM department must consider them for developing the strategies to identify your expectations?

Low Price

High Quality

Unique Features

Volume and size

Ingredients

Risk Free

Low carbon emission

Range of Products

Availability of products

Money back guarantee

Answer:

FactorsYes
Low Price87
High Quality90
Unique Features88
Ingredients80
Risk Free90
Low Carbon Emission90
Money Back Guarantee90
Range of Products`90
Availability of products90

According to the Schneider and Bowen, (2008) that there are so many factors that can help the CRM department in identifying their expectations and the CRM department can play positive role in reducing the difference between customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products.

Majority of the respondents have been responded that the main factors are low price, high quality, unique features, risk free, money back guarantee, ingredients and low carbon emission and availability of the products and range of products these factors can play their role in the identification of their expectations. And the CRM department can play its role in identifying their expectations and can create satisfaction among them. Majority of the respondents have been responded 100% in the favor of the asked factors.

Q:        Are you sure that the customer relationship management is helpful for you in handling your complaints and delivering you the best opinion and solution for your problems?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male43245
Female42345
Total85590

Customer relationship management can provide the best solution and can handle the client’s complaints in effective way, and the skilled and equipped workers can provide the customer’s support in creating loyalty and satisfaction among them with their productive behavior and attitude (Jones & Sasser, 2006).

The respondent came to know that 94% customers have been stated that they are sure that the customer relationship management is helpful in handling their complaints and offering them the best option. Whereas the only 6% are not agreed with the statement and they do not believe in CRM activities.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department can create satisfaction and happiness among you while identifying your expectations and offering you products and services as per your requirements?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male41445
Female40545
Total81990

Some scholars have been stated that the only CRM department is responsible for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers while handling their complaints and offering them best solution, and it can be only done if the workers have sufficient resources and authorities.

90% of the customers have been responded that CRM department can create satisfaction by handling their complaints and can offer them the best solution of their problems. Only 10% are not believe in the efforts and strategies and policies of the CRM department, this is because of their past experience or they may do not have knowledge about the importance of CRM department.  

Q:        Do you agree that there is a difference (gap) between your expectations and products and services’ quality those you received from the Sainsbury supermarket?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male45045
Female45045
Total90090

There exist a gap between the customer’s expectations and the quality of the services and products of the organization those customers offered and in the result the customer’s become angry (Helgesen, 2003). The researcher wants to know about the difference between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of products and services, and the above table showed that all the respondents have been responded that yes there is a difference.  

The above bar chart and the given below pie chart have been represented that 100% of the respondents have been responded that there is a difference between their expectations and the quality of the products and services. No single respondent said that the products and services are as per his or her expectations.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM staff member’s attitude and behavior is good and they behave with you politely and they tried their best to understand your problems?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male351045
Female331245
Total682290

CRM department can create satisfaction and can identify customer’s problems and their other expectations by their attitude and their behavior (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). The researcher wants to know the attitude and behavior of the CRM department for identifying customer’s needs and wants.

The researcher came to know that the 76% of the customers are agree that the CRM departmental workers attitude and behavior is so good and they treat their customers in well manner to identify their expectations and offering them best solution of their problems. But the remaining 24% which is not negligible ratio are not happy with the CRM employee’s and their attitude.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department is trying its best to reduce the difference between your expectations and the quality of products and services those you perceived?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male331245
Female291645
Total622890

According to the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2009) that CRM department can increase the quality of services and products and can find out the solution for the customers for achieving organizational objectives

The 69% of the respondents have been responded that the CRM department is reducing the difference between their requirements and expectations and quality of items and customers whereas the 31% of the respondents are not agreed with the researcher statement. And these are significant customer those have not believe in the CRM department’s efforts.

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department can offer you the expected products and Services and can create happiness and loyalty?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male351045
Female351045
Total702090

The researcher made this question to understand the role of CRM department in creating loyalty and happiness among customers because some scholars have been stated that CRM department can create loyalty among the customer (Oliver, 2002).

The charts showed that the 78% of the respondents has been responded that CRM department can offer them the expected products and services whereas 22% of the people do not believe in the CRM department efforts for offering them the expected items and services.

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department can increase the market share after attracting new customers from the target market and can create satisfaction among them?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male40545
Female41445
Total81990

This question was made by the researcher to understand the knowledge and awareness of the customers about the customer relationship management role in increasing market share for the organization.

The respondents have been responded and about 90% which is the clear majority have been responded in positive sense that yes the CRM can play its role in increasing market share from target market, but only 10% people were not agreed with the researcher.

Q:        Please select the select the best options with priority that which factor or factors can be helpful in creating loyalty among the customers?

Answer:

FactorsResponseTotal
Fast response9090
Attitude and behaviour9090
Promises9090
Price Discounts9090
Brand positioning9090

Reicheld & Sasser, (2005) have been stated that there are so many factors those are very important to consider by the CRM department in creating loyalty among customers which includes quick response, brand positioning, honor promises, employee’s attitude and behavior and high quality and price discounts.

All the respondents have been responded that the successive factors are fast responses, attitude and behavior of workers, price discounts, promises and bran images or brand positioning are the main factors those can play their role for creating loyalty among the customers. All the respondents have been responded 100% that each factor is important and necessary.

Q:        What was employee’s response when you registered complaint against a product or service and are you satisfied with the response and quality of response?

Answer:

RespondentsMaleFemaleTotal
Yes383977
No7613
Total454590

The 86% of the respondents have been responded that they are satisfied with the response of the CRM workers. They registered the complaints against the product and services and they get the feedback and they are satisfied with the feedback. Only the 14% are not satisfied with the response and feedback of the workers in handling their complaints.

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department has skilled and well authorized workers those provide you quick response?

Answer:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male321345
Female331245
Total652590

Customer relationship management can provide customers quality of services because they have the highly skilled workers (Oliver, 2002). The researcher designed this question because the researcher was interested to know about the skilled workers at CRM department in Sainsbury super market.

The 72% respondents have been responded that the staff workers of CRM department are well equipped and they have sufficient skills to handle their complaints. The remaining 28% have been responded that the CRM department did not have the skilled workers.

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department take your feedback properly and update your priorities and keep in touch with you in understanding your requirements?

Answer:

ResponsesMaleFemaleTotal
Yes351045
No331245
Total682290

The CRM department must take customers feedback and their opinion to redesign and review the marketing 4P’s for creating happiness and satisfaction among the customers (Parasuraman, 2001).

The majority of the respondents like 76% have been responded that CRM department is taking their feedback and their opinion to identify their expectations and to offer them the expected items and services the 24% customers have been stated that the customer relationship management is not taking feedback from the customers.

Q:        Do you agree that the CRM department must improve the skills and knowledge and well equip the CRM workers and must improve the communicational skills to handle your complaints?

Answer:

ResponsesMaleFemaleTotal
Yes153045
No202545
Total355590

Customer relationship management must review and update the skills and knowledge of the customers so that they can perform well and can contribute effectively in achieving organizational objectives (Parasuraman, 2001).

The respondents have been responded that 39% have been responded that the staff members need to update their skills and knowledge because these respondents have believe that it is necessary to update their skills and competencies to find out their problems and offering them best solution. 61% have been stated that the CRM department employee’s have sufficient skills and equipment and knowledge to understand their requirement.

Q:            Are you sure that there exist a relationship between the satisfaction and happiness, loyalty and sales of organization?

Answer:

ResponsesMaleFemaleTotal
Yes434285
No235
Total454590

There exist a direct relationship between the expected products and happiness and happiness always create satisfaction and the satisfaction always leads the customers towards success, and when the customer will become loyal that will come again to buy and will share happiness among others being social responsible and in this case the sales will increase (Powell & Single, 2007) .

About 94% have been responded that yes there exist a relationship between the customer’s loyalty and the increase in the organizational objectives. Only the 6% have been responded that no there is no any relationship between sales increase and the loyalty of customers.

4.3    Interviews

The researcher has designed the questions close ended for the structured interviews conducted with the key management of customer relationship management at Sainsbury supermarket in Manchester United Kingdom. The researcher has been designed the questions by keeping in mind the aims and objectives of the research.

Q:        What is the role and responsibilities of the CRM department at Sainsbury supermarket?

Answer:

The respondents have been responded and researcher has been recorded their answers as follows.

Identify the customer’s expectations by making strategies and policies and by implementing those policies and strategies the CRM department is responsible for reducing the difference or gap between the customer’s expectation and their perceived quality of product and services.

Understand and find out the customer’s needs and their requirements

Deliver them the value added services and products as per their needs and requirements

Solve the customer’s problems and offer them the best option of solution

Creating satisfaction, loyalty and happiness among the customers by all means

Handling customer’s complaints and providing them the compensations and the provide then best solution

CRM department always make communication with the customers and assist the sales team and marketing team, advertisement team and all other departments and make it sure that all the departments are working with alignment and all operations are working properly in identifying customer’s expectations.

The CRM department create, manage, update customer’s data and make analysis on the data and make conclusion and involve this data in the decision making.

Generating and updating reports for customers.

Creating long term relationships by providing well and effective services to the customers as per their requirements

Q:        What is the flow of work in CRM department at Sainsbury in reducing difference between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products?

Answer:

The researcher has designed this question and the researcher design the flow of work and the flow of procedure of CRM department at Sainsbury in the given below diagram.

The researcher came to know that customer relationship management perform some multiple duties and perform different tasks to create long term and profitable relations with the customers.

The CRM department has the knowledge that there are two types of customers

Quality conscious

Price Conscious

The quality conscious customers always pay the price for buying the quality product and services, whereas the price conscious always buy the product with lowest cost. And in the Sainsbury Superstore the main focus of the CRM department is to design the product and follow the 4P’s of the marketing as per the gathered information and analyzed data from the customer during the record keeping, during gathering information from them while during surveys and while giving feedback and while updating their record and while handling their complaints. The CRM department pass such analyzed data to the manufacturing department and the manufacturing department then process that information and shape this information into new product or service and offer to the customers in the market to buy and overcome their problems. The flow of the process and work is given below in detail in the following diagram.

Source:            Author

When the customer buy the products as per their expectations then they become satisfied and then they again come to the supermarket to buy those products and they also told other people about their successful experience with their friends, family members and colleagues, and in result the sales volume increases. It means that the CRM department is identifying the customer’s expectations and then offering them expected products to increase the sales volume by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services in Sainsbury Manchester United Kingdom.

Q:        Do you believe that there exist a difference between the customer’s expectations and the quality and values of the products and services those they buy from the supermarkets?

Answer:

The respondents have been responded that yes there exist a difference between the customer’s expectations and their requirements and the values and quality of services and products those they buy and come to know after using those items and products.

There are following steps taken by the CRM department at the Sainsbury in identifying that difference.

Each customer allocate a unique code

Generate unique file (database) for the unique customer

Their age, interests, income level, race, ethnicity, hobbies and expectations have been recorded periodically

CRM department involve the customers in online and offline surveys to ask them about their interests and about their experience after consuming the products and get their feedback.

CRM department then conduct surveys open in the target market and conduct research to find out the customer’s requirements which includes the following factors and variable

Price

Quality

Prompt response

Online queries response

Complaint handling and refunding money, replacement of products and services and paying compensations

Taking opinion

Offering them full range of products under single floor

Provide them facility of delivery at their home door

Price discounts

Offers like buy one get one free

Commitments (honoring the promise)

Q:        How the customer relationship management policies and strategies are playing their role in minimizing that difference (gap) for creating loyalty among customers?

Answer:

The customer relationship management is trying its best to reduce this difference between the customers by offering them the products as per their requirements. The CRM department is doing the following steps to reduce the difference

Collecting customer’s data

Collecting their interests

Collecting their priorities

Collecting their priorities

Gathering their feedback

Gathering their interests

Gathering their hobbies and other factors like their age, income level, position, religion, food habits, dependents, job nature and living style

Frequency of shopping

Life style

Savings

And after collecting and updating their requirements like

Fast response

Honoring promises and offering them price discounts

Unique features of products

Value added services

Discounts and offers

Guarantee and warrantees offering

By handling their complaints and offering them the suitable products, compensations and replacements for identification of customers needs and wants

Then making analysis on the gathered data and then CRM department pass that information to the manufacturing department and then after redesign the products and including unique features, CRM department offer those products and services to the customers for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.

Chapter    5:      Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1    Conclusion and Limitations

The researcher has been selected the case study tool (Sainsbury Supermarket) to save the time because the researcher have been already discussed in detail that the researcher has shortage of time and financial limitations, being the student in MA in marketing and Innovation at Anglia Ruskin University the researcher will submit the report to pass the examination and for saving time the researcher has select the case study to save time. The financial resources were also limited and the researcher has been done all the resources from his own means and some resources were allocated by the selected organizations. The researcher had no experience of conducting research in the past that’s why the researcher has used the interview and questionnaires techniques to save the time and to conduct the research in effective way. The people come to the supermarket for buying purpose or they come along with their family members (Anderson, 2008). It has been cleared that majority of the people 91% came to buy products for shopping and some of them about 7% came to buy the products or for hiring the services from the Sainsbury superstore, and the total percentage of the people become as 98%, there are main reasons that the people are satisfied with the products and services and they might be loyal with the supermarket or it means that the prices are low or it means that the quality is good and they found all those necessary items from the super market. The researcher make a conclusion that the majority of the people like 76% people are regular customers at Sainsbury and the other 26% are not regular. It means that the 74% are the satisfied and loyal with the supermarket whereas the 26% are not loyal. CRM department in an organization is responsible for creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers at maximum level if the department has been allocated proper and necessary and required resources and then the department has been implemented those strategies successfully and the CRM department must identify the requirement of the customers (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2005). It has been cleared that 28% of the people are not happy with the products and services and they are not satisfied with the results of the products. According to the scholars that there are main two factors those can attract the customers to buy the products and the services (Bhote, 2007). As the results have been showed that majority of the people are satisfied with the products and services whereas the 37% more than the one third are not satisfied with the quality of services and products and their results, it means that 37% of the people are not happy and they are not loyal and they will switch to other organizations. According to the Anderson, (2008) that no customer no business, and Bennett, (2008) has been stated that the angry customer switch themselves and the organizations have to bear the switching cost and in this way the organizations must try their best to retain the angry customers by the effective strategies of CRM department for creating loyalty among customers. As the Jones & Sasser, (2006) have been stated that the majority of the people buy because of quality of products, lower prices, convenient, range of products, unique features and value added services, and these factors always play their role in the customer’s buying decision making, and customer relationship management can identify these factors and the priorities of the customers and redesign the products as per customer’s needs and wants and then offer them for achieving organizational objectives. 33% of the customers just buy because of conveniences and the CRM department can identify their expectations by developing and implementing effective strategies and policies for achieving organizational objectives. Majority of the people have been stated that the expected and required products can create satisfaction and happiness among them. Expectations always leads to the happiness and angry, and happiness always leads towards satisfaction and loyalty and loyalty of the customers always leads towards success of business organizations (Oliver, 2002). People are ready to buy from the supermarket if the products are available as per their requirements and expectations, and in this way the happiness and satisfaction will be created. The researcher concluded that the customers demand always derived from the specific factors which includes low price, high quality, availability of products, range of products, ingredients and risk free and unique features of the products. The researcher came to know that about 94% believe in the CRM department functions and its responsibilities and its efforts and they are sure that this department can solve their problems effectively. Effective media channel can play its role in creating awareness among the customers about the effectiveness and responsibilities of the CRM department so that customers can take advantage of this department by providing them the necessary feedback and their opinions about the products and services. All the respondents are not getting products and services as per their expectations and it are necessary for the organization to understand their expectations, because in this way the customers may switch to other organizations in the future. Customers switch from one organization to other organizations to overcome their problems and their loyalties also switched and the organizations have to bear this cost as well (Jones & Sasser, 2006). A significant ratio 24% of the customers is not happy with the CRM worker’s attitude and behavior and they are not happy with their complaints handling activities. And these people do not believe in that CRM department could not perform effectively in identifying their problems and offering them best solutions. This response of customers indicates their past experience, because happiness or unhappy attitude always comes from the past experience (Kim, 2006). About 31% of the respondents have been responded that they are not agreed with the CRM departmental efforts in identifying their expectations and their wants. Majority of the people believe in the role of customer relationship management positively for achieving organizational objectives and for increasing market share and for identification of customer’s requirements. Majority of the people have been responded that there is no need to update CRM employee’s skills and equipments and 39% which is significantly a large amount of people those have been responded that the CRM department need to improve its worker’s skills and their competencies for finding out their problems and offering them the best solution. The CRM department must update and revise the training sessions to improve the worker’s competencies and their skills to play role very positively and effectively for achieving organizational objectives. The researcher came to know that the CRM department is playing its effective role in identifying the customer’s requirements effectively and playing its role in identifying customer’s requirement to reduce the gap between the expectations and quality of items those they buy from the products.

5.2    Recommendations

  1. The majority of the people are not satisfied with the supermarket and they are not loyal with the supermarket. So the customer relationship management must keep in consider all those factors to create the satisfaction and loyalty among the customers and to create satisfaction among them and to build strong relationship between the customers and the supermarket for earning more profit and for earning more revenue. The customer relationship management must focus their strategies and policies for creating loyalty among the customers and review their procedures and policies and must alignment the other departmental procedures for creating loyalty and happiness among their customers and supermarkets (Chen & Popovich, 2004).
  2. The customer relationship management must review the policies and find out the factors those can play their role for creating satisfaction and loyalty among the customers, 28% of the people come to buy due to some other reasons but they are not regular customers and they are not loyal and satisfied with the customers. After reviewing the policies and procedures to advertise the product’s features and to offer those features to the customers and must keep in mind that those promises and features are being honored by the CRM department on time, in this way the organizations can maximize the market share effectively, but it can be possible when the CRM department effectively create the loyalty among the customers after understanding their expectations. It is the only customer relationship management department that can identify and understand the customer’s requirements and reduce the difference between the customer’s expectations to achieve organizational main financial objectives (Caruana et al., 2002).
  3. CRM department must start to review the policies and must pay its attention on the identification of the customers and then as per gathered data the CRM department must produce the products and services as per their needs and wants. Some scholars have been stated that for maximizing the market share and to achieve the organizational objectives (Buttle, 2005).
  4. CRM department must review the skills and competencies of the staff members against the standards and measure their performance and plan for their personal development to update and improve their weaknesses and to improve their skills and competencies for handling client’s complaints because the customers believe in the CRM department’s efforts in identification of their priorities and their expectations.
  5. Customer relationship management can pay its vital role in recognizing their priorities and their expectations and all those factors those can play their role for offering them suitable products with specific features so that organizations can achieve their objectives and goals (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2002). The customer relationship management must focus on the priorities of the customers and must make such system and policies and implement them for understanding the customer’s needs and wants like lower prices, high quality, full range of products, and 33% of the people those buy because of the conveniences are the big opportunities for the organization to create loyalty among them and this can be done only if the CRM department can successfully identify their expectations. According to the Kim, (2006) that people buy because of high quality and low price but the products must be available in the markets and they must know the features of the products, price discounts, unique features and availability of the products are the sales boosters.
  6.  The selected organization can create happiness and satisfaction among the customer if they offer the people products and services as per customer’s requirements and expectations. So the CRM department must consider these main factors and must design the strategies and policies to identify their expectations and then after designing the products as per their needs and requirements they can create satisfaction. Satisfaction and happiness always leads the customer towards loyalty and loyalty will leads the organization for building long term and profitable relationship with customers (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2009).
  7. Customer relationship management must pay its focus on identifying the customer’s expectations and must reduce the difference between their expectations and offered products and services values and quality so that happiness and satisfaction can be created among them.
  8. The CRM department must consider the lower price, high quality, full range of products, availability of products and risk free and unique features in the products and services and money back guarantee must be included in the products while designing the strategies and policies for attracting new customers from the target market and for retaining old customers while creating satisfaction and loyalty among them. The CRM department must install the latest technology and latest procedures for reducing the cost and for maximizing the quality (Schlesinger and Heskett, 2003).
  9. The CRM department must pay its attention in creating its effectiveness among the customer’s because it is very important for the organization when the CRM department can create the awareness among the customers then they will come to the CRM department for registering their complaints and they can be benefited and the organization will also benefited from this opportunity. So CRM department must consider its advertisement policies and must select the effective media channels to create awareness of CRM among customers.
  10. Customer relationship management must review its procedures and skills and competencies of the workers and must update their skills and competencies. CRM department must review and redesign the development programs to improve and update their skills and competencies to handle customers (Looy et al., 2004).
  11.  The organization must pay its attention and specially the customer relationship management must review the development plans and programs and must update them with the latest technology and tools to make their workers equip with latest technology of IT and psychology to achieve organizational objectives.
  12. The management of the Sainsbury supermarket must provide the resource to the customer relationship management department to accomplish its tasks and in achieving the organizational objectives and to adopt the new latest and updates technology, processes and procedures to offer the customers products at lower costs but with high quality of products as compared to the competitors to achieve competitive advantages as well, to create satisfaction and happiness among the customers by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and the products quality and by offering them products and services as per their requirements.

5.3    Future Research

The researcher came to know that there are some other areas which are necessary to be taken into considerations by the researchers to conduct research on them because for the creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and to reduce the difference between the customer’s expectations and offered products and services values and quality to increase the loyalty among them for achieving organizational objectives. The researchers must consider the factor like lower carbon emission products at low price because the people will buy those products and the opportunity is available in the market, because the people are now social responsible and they want to play their role for saving their environment and in this way the organizations can play role for increasing market share.

Chapter 6:         References and Bibliography

a.      Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. (2007) Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention, Marketing Letters, 13(34), pp: 212-346

Anderson, W. & Mittal, V. (2008) Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain, Journal of Service Research, 21(14), pp: 197-334

Bennett, R. (2008) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 35(13), pp: 217-356

Bhote, K.R. (2007) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty: The Key to Greater Profitability. 2nd ed. New York: AMA Management Briefing

Bowen, J. & Shoemaker, S. (2005) ‘Loyalty: a strategic commitment’ Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 31(16), pp: 323-445

Buttle, F. (2005) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools 3rd ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Caruana, A., Money, A.H. and Berthon, P.R. (2002) ‘Service quality and satisfaction-the moderation role of value’ European Journal of Marketing, 35(11), pp: 735-9360

Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2004) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM):

People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 15(11), pp. 522-977

Chi, Q. & Qu, H. (2009) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management, 27(9), pp: 345-654

Feagin, J., Orum, A., & Sjoberg, G. (2004) A case for case study Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press

Flyvbjerg, B. (2007) ‘Five Misunderstandings about Case Study Research’ Qualitative Inquiry, 21(11), pp: 413-762

Gefen, D. (2003) Customer loyalty in e-commerce, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 22(11), pp: 323-467

Getty, J.M. & Thompson, K.N. (2005) ‘The relationship between quality, satisfaction, and recommending behaviour in lodging decision’ Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 15(22), pp: 313-527

Gronroos, C. (2003) Service Management and Marketing, 4th ed. Manchester: John Wiley &

Sons Ltd.

Gundersen, M.G., Heide, M. & Olsson, U. (2003) ‘Hotel Guest satisfaction among Business Travellers: What are the Important Factors?’ The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 25(9), pp: 345-557

Helgesen, O. (2003) ‘Are Loyal Customers profitable? Customer satisfaction customer action loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level’ Journal of Marketing Management, 26(10), pp: 675-823

Jones, T.O. and Sasser, E. (2006) ‘Why satisfied customer’s defects’ Harvard Business Review, 17(11), pp: 234-375

Kandampully, J. and Suhartanto, D. (2002) ‘Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image’ International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(13), pp: 464-652

Kim, H. (2006) ‘Developing an index of online customer satisfaction’ Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 26(11), pp: 345-587

Looy, V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, V. (2004) Services Management: An Integrated

Approach, 3rd ed. London: Pearson Education Publishers

Macintosh, G. & Lockshin, L. (2009) ‘Retail relationships and loyalty: A multi-level perspective’ International Journal of Research in Marketing, 35(12), pp: 312-413

Oliver, R.L. (2002) Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective On The Consumer. 1st ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill

Oliver, S.L. (2002) ‘A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of satisfaction Decisions’ Journal of marketing Research, 17(9), pp: 524-778

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2001) ‘A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research’, Journal of Marketing, 37(19), pp: 434-653

Powell R.A. & Single, H.M. (2007) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 29(9), pp: 423-558

Reicheld, F.F. & Sasser, W. (2005) ‘Zero defections come to services’ Harvard Business Review, 22(9), pp: 315-489

Reinartz, W. J. & Kumar, V. (2004) ‘The impact of customer relationship characteristics on profitable lifetime duration’ Journal of Marketing, 25(11), pp: 456-578

Schneider, B. and Bowen, D.E. (2008) Understanding customer delight and outrage, Sloan Management Review, 22(9), pp: 409-523

Schlesinger, L. and Heskett, J. (2003) ‘The Service-Driven Service Company’ Harvard Business Review, 55(9), pp: 523-740

Soderlund, M. (2010) ‘Customer satisfaction and its consequences on customer behavior revisited: The impact of different levels of satisfaction on word-of-mouth, feedback to the supplier and loyalty’ International Journal of Service Industry Management, 18(9), pp: 327-678

Sugandhi, R.K. (2008) Customer Relationship Management. 5th ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Zeithaml, V.A., Pasuraman, A. & Berry, L.L. (2007) Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. 2nd ed. New York: The Free Press

b.      Websites

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp [Accessed on 13th June 2013]

http://help.sainsburys.co.uk/ [Accessed on 16th June 2013]

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp?GLOBAL_DATA._searchType=0 [Accessed on 11th June 2013]

https://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/my_account/global_login.jsp?bmUID=1373248216026 [Accessed 24th June 2013]

c.      Bibliography

Chi, C. and Qu, H. (2009) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management, 30(15), pp: 535-756

Choi, T. and Chu, R. (2001) ‘Determinants of hotel guest’s satisfaction and repeat patronage in the Hong Kong hotel industry’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20(12), pp: 277-297

Faullent, R., Matzler, K. and Fuller, J. (2008) ‘The impact of satisfaction and image on loyalty: the case of Alpine ski resorts’ Managing Service Quality, 28(22), pp: 163-178

Gilbert, D. and Horsnell, S. (1998) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in United Kingdom hotels’ Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 22(14), pp: 450-464

Su, A.Y.L. (2004) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in Taiwan hotels’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22(9), pp: 397-408

Chapter 7:         Appendices

Questions

Q:        What is your main purpose to visit Sainsbury?

Q:        Are you regular customer at Sainsbury as shopper?

Q:        Are you satisfied with the products and services offered by the Sainsbury?

Q:        Why do you buy from Sainsbury, select the best option?

High Quality

Lower Prices

Full range of Products

Unique Features of Products

Value added services

Money back Guarantee

Q:        Do you think that the CRM department is playing its role in identifying your requirements and needs and wants at Sainsbury supermarket?

Q:        Why you buy the products from the superstores, select the appropriate option?

To overcome their needs and wants

For enjoyment

For satisfaction

For loyalty

For spending money

Q:        Do you believe that products and services as per your expectations and requirement can create happiness and satisfaction among you?

Q:        Are you sure that if Sainsbury supermarket offer you products as per your expectations then you will buy the products from them?

Q:        Which factors are important in identification of your expectations, select the appropriate so that the CRM department must consider them for developing the strategies to identify your expectations?

Low Price

High Quality

Unique Features

Volume and size

Ingredients

Risk Free

Low carbon emission

Money back guarantee

Range of products

Availability of products

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department can create satisfaction and happiness among you while identifying your expectations and offering you products and services as per your requirements?

Q:        Are you sure that the customer relationship management is helpful for you in handling your complaints and delivering you the best opinion and solution for your problems?

Q:        Do you agree that there is a difference (gap) between your expectations and products and services’ quality those you received from the Sainsbury supermarket?

Q:        Are you sure that CRM staff member’s attitude and behaviour is good and they behave with you politely and they tried their best to understand your problems?

Q:        Please select the select the best options with priority that which factor or factors can be helpful in creating loyalty among the customers?

Q:        Are you sure that CRM staff member’s attitude and behaviour is good and they behave with you politely and they tried their best to understand your problems?

Q:        Are you sure that CRM department is trying its best to reduce the difference between your expectations and the quality of products and services those you perceived?

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department can identify your expectations and can sort out your problems?  

Q:        What was employee’s response when you registered complaint against a product or service and are you satisfied with the response and quality of response?

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department has skilled and well authorized workers those provide you quick response?

Q:        Do you agree that CRM department take your feedback properly and update your priorities and keep in touch with you in understanding your requirements?

Q:        Do you agree that the CRM department must improve the skills and knowledge and well equip the CRM workers and must improve the communicational skills to handle your complaints?

Q:        Are you sure that there exist a relationship between the satisfaction and happiness, loyalty and sales of organization?

Interviews

Q:        What is the role and responsibilities of the CRM department at Sainsbury supermarket?

 Q:       What is the flow of work in CRM department at Sainsbury in reducing difference between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products?

Q:        Do you believe that there exist a difference between the customer’s expectations and the quality and values of the products and services those they buy from the supermarkets and how the customer relationship management policies and strategies are playing their role in minimizing that difference (gap) for creating loyalty among customers?

Q:        How the customer relationship management policies and strategies are playing their role in minimizing that difference (gap) for creating loyalty among customers?

PESTEL Analysis Political, Economical, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal Factors

Organizational Introduction

ASDA is a bid super store chain in United Kingdom and offering both tangible and intangible products to the potential customer since many decades and with the passage of time ASDA is also updating its business operation with regards to all thing which includes range of products, range of services, range of quality of services and products and playing its role being social responsible for the progress of United Kingdom and for the betterment of public.

Current Business Position

Mostly PESTLE analysis is used by the researchers to analyse the current situation of any business anywhere.

Political Factor

According to Acemoglu and Jackson, (2011) that the customers are paying a lot of money to the government in terms and in shape of value added tax and increment in the employee’s wages. Being the social responsible the ASDA tried it’s best to offer products at reasonable prices to the potential customers, whereas political factor has put a negative impact of organization on the superstores industry in United Kingdom.

Economical Factor

According to the Benfield, (2008) that increment in wages of labour, electricity, fuel, tax rate, profit margins these all factors play role in economic situation and per capita income also represent the nation’s lives status. In this era customer are really worried about their income levels and about high prices and current economical situation is not so good and there are bad impacts on the ASDA customers and business is so slow.

Social Factors

Obviously due to high prices more tax rates people are not happy and they are price conscious rather than quality conscious and they are willing to buy low price products and services.

Technological factors                                                                                        

According to Byars, (2005) that latest technology play its effective role in cost minimization and organizations can get advantages of latest technology and can also take advantages over the competitors. ASDA has adopted latest technology and offering low cost to the customers. Due to advance and latest technology the ASDA has advantage of low cost in all areas of business activities.

Environmental Factors

According to the Capron and Glazer, (2003) that due to weather conditions sometimes the imports are delayed and it has bad impression on the customers and organizations suffered from this delay. In United Kingdom tourists visited the country they buy food, clothes and all other stuff online as well as physically visits to ASDA and increase the revenue.

Business Planning and Strategy

Objectives

ASDA has the following main objectives which are discussed below and relevant strategy to achieve them is also discussed. ASDA has an objective to capture more new clients and retain the old and will capture market share this year about 88%.

ActionInitiativeResourcesDate of completion
Identify clients requirementsAdvantages for the clients must be declaredEmployees  November 2013
As per client’s requirements developments in the quality and services and designing products as per client’s requirementsConduct surveyEmployees  November 2013
Expansion, review Product, price, placement and promotional activities as wellNew ideas to offer and deliver message and making new commitmentsEmployeesNovember 2013
Focus on high quality products and services, and low pricePromotions as per high quality and low pricesEmployeesNovember 2013
More quality and value added features, benefits and advantagesPromotional campaign, limited offers, reviewsEmployeesNovember 2013

Source: Author

Marketing

Marketing ASDA services and products to the targeted customers

ActionInitiativeResourcesDate of completion
Conduct the survey to make it sure that the product’s features and services are designed as per customer’s requirements.Select the effective media channel to start the marketing and make it sure that the message is clear and there is no ambiguity in the messageEmployeesNovember 2013.
Communicate with all other departments for coordination and make it sure that all other departmental work will remain smooth.To make it sure about the current business situation the conduct the analysis to know about the organizational strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats.  Employees  November 2013  

Source: Author

Improvements

Get customer’s feedback and increase the quality of products and services

ActionInitiativeResourcesDate of completion
Get feedback from customers and employees, involve the employees in decision makingOffers, promises must be made by the organizations  and commitments and offer features, advantages, benefits over the competitorsEmployee  November 2013  
All the features, advantages and benefits of the products and services as compared to the competitorsIdentify the customer’s expectations and manufacture the products as per customer’s needs and wants  Employee  November 2013  
Periodically update the clients about products and services informationStart campaign about the promotion by offering some offers to attract new customersEmployee timeNovember 2013  
Select the best one media channel according to the targeted customersSelect the alternative media channel listEmployee  November 2013    
Use different channels to communicate with customers  By using the media channel start promotions and the best media channels are emails, letters, text messages  Employee  November 2013  
Plan and implementAfter review the performance make alterations  Employee  November 2013  

Source: Author

Assess Opportunities

ActionInitiativeResourcesDate of completion
Assess the opportunities available for the organization to improve the business condition for achieving organizational objectivesResearch and development department will conduct a survey and will make it sure about the available resources to avail opportunities  Employees of concerned departmentNovember 2013

Source: Author

Improve Employee’s skills and Competencies

ActionInitiativeResourcesDate of completion
Construct and design the trainings objectives and time of training and associated cost  Start the procedure step by step and initiate the procedure after planning his or her personal development planStaff membersNovember 2013  
Set the leadership qualities and its objectives  Define the objectives Define the leadership scheduled time Evaluate the positions  Leadership TaskNovember 2013  
Scheduled the training objectives and define its goalsDefine the evaluating process steps   Gauge the performanceLeadership Task ForceNovember 2013  

Source: Author

Financial statement of ASDA

There are the following KPI’s of ASDA to know about the fiscal performance and about the progress and about the main objectives of the ASDA, these financial indicators are given below one by one.

Financial Indicator

Different financial indicators are called the financial indicators which are used to gauge the financial achievements of superstore from 2012 to 2013 (http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2012/financials.aspx).

2012/2013                   (4.0)

2011/2012                               (3.4)

2010/2011                                           (3.0)

These above mentioned figures showed that every year the financial growth is gradually start from 2010 to 2011 and the figure was 3.0 million pounds, whereas in 2011 to 2012 it was 3.4 it showed that there was an increase of 0.4 million and in 2012 to 2013 it reaches up to 4.0 means 0.6 million increment in one year (http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2012/financials.aspx).

Targets

As explained above that in coming 6 years ASDA has objective to capture 88% market share and it means that ASDA will achieve more 22% margin in next 6 years which is a huge amount and is challenge for the employees.

Initiatives

To achieve the above financial objectives ASDA management has designed the following action plans to achieve above stated objective

Resource allocation at right time to right person

Maximum resource utilization

The business strategies are designed and developed in such a way to attract about 88% of market share in coming six years

Customer Indicators

ASDA has belief in that the revenue can be generated and can be enhanced by only creating loyalty and satisfaction among the clients and this satisfaction and happiness is based on the features and quality of products and services to achieve its overall objectives.

Key Performance Indicators

Basically the main key performance indicator is the reference group which we call it recommended customers.

2012/2013                   (82)

2011/2012                               (76)

2010/2011                                           (66)

Targets

To increase the customer’s recommendations the super store has decided to improve the quality of products and services.

Initiatives

Create happiness and satisfaction among the clients and increase the level of loyalty

To achieve organizational objectives the super store has decided to improve the quality of services and also measure the employee’s skills and performance and improve the skills and abilities by giving.

Business Indicators

Here main objective of the superstore is to create loyalty and satisfaction among the client to enhance the revenue of the superstore.

Key Performance Indicators

There is a gradual increment in this sector starting from 2010 up to 2011 it was 54 and then from 2011 till 2012 it was calculated as 65 means that there was an increment of 09 million great British pound and from 2012 to 2013 it was recorded as 79 means 14 million increment (http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2011/financials.aspx).

2012/2013                   (79)

2011/2012                               (65)

2010/2011                                           (54)

Targets

ASDA has planned to get 70% as new target

Initiatives

To achieve above mentioned target ASDA management team has decided to take following steps to achieve above mentioned goals.

To get proper recorded feedback from customers and make contact with them and handle their problems and provide them solution as soon as possible, the ASDA has decided to install proper latest procedures and technology to minimize the cost.

Financial Ratios

Following are the financial ratios for ASDA Super Store

ASDA in United Kingdom
 Ratios20122011
Liquidity Ratios
1.Current Ratio = Current assets /Current liabilities26740 / 37400 =0.70 times23460 / 41420 =0.56 times
2.Quick (Acid Test) Ratio = Current assets – stock/Current liabilities26740 – 980 / 37400 =0.68 times23460 – 1270/ 41420 =0.55 times
3.Operating Cash Flow To Maturing Obligation = Cash Generated from Operations/Current Liabilities3310 / 37400 =0.088  times1330 / 41420 =0.032 times
Gearing Ratios
1Gearing Ratio = Long-term (non-current) Liabilities/Share capital + Reserves + Long-term Liabilities(79730 / 2880 + 6920 + 79730)*1000 =88 %  (81420 / 2880 + 4300 + 81420)* 1000 =90%
2Interest Cover ratio= Profit before interest & tax/Interest Payable-5310 / 1360 = -3.88  times-4010 / 1770 =  -2.29 times
Profitability Ratios
1Net profit margin = Net Profit before interest & after tax/Sales(-4250 / 79940)*100 = – 5.31%(-3580 / 89920)* 100 = – 3.98%
2Return on shareholders’ funds = Net Profit after tax /Ordinary Share Capital + Reserves(-4250 / 2880 + 6920)*100 = – 43%(-3580 / 2880 + 4300)*100 = – 49%
3Return on capital employed = Net Profit before interest and tax/Share Capital + Reserves + Long-term Liabilities(-5310 / 2880 + 6920 + 79730)*100 = -5.3%  (-4010 / 2880 + 4300 + 81420)* 100 = -4.52%
Efficiency Ratios
1Asset utilization ratio = Sales/Capital Employed Capital Employed = Current Asset+ Fixed Asset- Current Liabilities79940 / (26740 + 79730 – 37400) =1.157 times89920 /(23460 + 81420 – 41420) = 1.42 times
2  Average settlement period for debtors = Trade Debtors/Credit Sales x 365No Information about Credit Sales provided so Assume sales on CashNo Information about Credit Sales provided so Assume sales on Cash
3Average settlement period for creditors = Trade Creditors/Credit Purchases x 365 Credit Purchases = Cost of sales+ Closing Stock-Opening Stock(6230 / (2900 + 980 – 1270))*365 =  871days(6660 / (3690 + 1270 – 11200 ) )* 365 = 633days
Working Capital Management
1Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities26740 – 37400 = -106623460 – 41420 = – 1796
2Working  Capital Turnover = Sales / Working Capital79940 / -10660 = -7.4989920 / -17960 = – 5.0066
  3Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Inventory2900 / 980 = 2.963690 / 1270 = 2.91
  4Days Inventory = 365 Days / Inventory Turnover365 / 2.96 = 123.3 Days365 / 2.91 = 125.43 Days
Solvency Ratios
1Current Liabilities to Net Worth Ratio = Current Liabilities / Net Worth Net worth = (Total Asset – Total Liabilities)(37400 / (106770- 85640))*100 =  177%(41420 / (104880-86420))*100 = 224.37%
  2Current Liabilities to Inventory Ratio = Current Liabilities / Inventory(37400 / 980)*100 = 3816%(41420 / 1270)*100 =3261 %
  3Total Liabilities to Net Worth Ratio = Total Liabilities / Net Worth(85640 / (106770-85640))*100 = 405%(86420 / (104880-86420))*100 =468 %
  4Fixed Assets to Net Worth Ratio = Fixed Assets / Net Worth(79730 / (106770-85640))*100 =377 %(81420 / (104880-86420))*100 = 441%

Source: (http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2012/financials.aspx)

References and Bibliography

a.        Books and Journals

Acemoglu, D. and Jackson, M.O. (2011) History, Expectations, and Leadership in the Evolution of Cooperation 2nd ed, Oxford: McGraw Hill publishers

Benfield, E. (2008) The Moral Basis of a Backward Society 3rd ed, London: Free Press

Byars, L. (2005) Strategic Management, Formulation and Implementation, Concepts and Cases 2nd ed, New York: HarperCollins.

Capron, N. and Glazer, R. (2003) Marketing and technology: a strategic coalignment, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51 Issue 3, pp.10-21.

Cooper, L. (2004) Strategic marketing planning for radically new products, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 64 Issue 1, pp.1-15.

Jan, Y. (2002) A three-step matrix method for strategic marketing management, Marketing Intelligence and Planning, Vol. 20 Issue 5, pp.269-272.

Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (2003) Exploring Corporate Strategy 3rd ed, Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall

b.        Websites

http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2011/international.aspx [Accessed on 3rd February 2013]

http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2011/ecommerce.aspx [Accessed on 3rd February 2013]

http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2011/directors.aspx [Accessed on 3rd February 2013]

http://www.walmartstores.com/sites/annualreport/2011/financials.aspx [Accessed on 3rd February 2013]

c.         Bibliography

Kotler, J. and Schlesinger, L. (2001) Choosing strategies for change, Harvard Business Review, 3(12), pp.24-29

Kotler, P. (2008) Marketing Management – Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control, 9th Edition, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Locke, R.M. (2002) Building Trust in A Flora 5th ed, Manchester: Pearson publisher

Putnam, R.D. (2003) Making Democracy Work 3rd ed, Princeton: Princeton University Press

Robinson, S., Hichens, R. and Wade, D. (1988) The directional policy matrix-tool for strategic planning, Long Range Planning Journal, Vol. 11, pp.8-15.

Thompson, J. (2002) Strategic Management, 4th Edition, London: Thomson Press

Management of Financial Resource Management and Performance

Organizational Introduction

At ASDA superstore in United Kingdom which is offering a series of products and financial services and other services in mostly all the areas just to serve the people. ASDA not only serving and providing products in the field of wearing, kitchen, vegetable, non vegetable, cleaning, garments, ready mate, bakery, cookies, world food and all the material which is used in the homes similarly in the financial sector ASDA is offering its services to serve the people in the form of loans, credit cards on very easy terms and conditions. And in the other sectors being the most social responsible the ASDA is serving the people by manufacturing high quality of products at very reasonable prices in the United Kingdom.

Stakeholders

According to Bateman et al., (2009) that in an organization there are some people or group of people those have influence on the organizational operations directly and indirectly whereas the organizational operations are for the achievements of its main objectives. There are different kinds of stakeholders, some stakeholders have interests with the profit and operation of organizations and sometime the stakeholders do not have any interest from the organization, it means that it depends on the nature of business and kind of stakeholders. Stakeholder can be any person who is benefited or not benefited by the organization and it may be a client, staff member, investor party, government, any financial institute, suppliers and distributors or anyone who is attached or concerned with that organization.

ASDA Stakeholders

There are two types of stakeholders at the ASDA, one stakeholder are those stakeholders who are called external stakeholders and second form of stakeholders are called internal stakeholders, there is a big difference among both of them. I will briefly describe both of them one by one. So first of all I will explain in detail about the external stakeholders

External Stakeholders

All the competitors of ASDA are the basically external stakeholders of ASDA in the United Kingdom for example Tesco, Sainsbury and other big super stores, where as in the external stakeholders the customers, clients, raw material suppliers, third parties, government, tax department, police all those external forces are the basically external stakeholders of ASDA. Primary stakeholders are the stakeholders which are positively or negatively affected by the change in the organizational policies or due to change in the strategies as well and in such situation primary stakeholders or group of stakeholders can be affected negatively and bear a loss or it may compel primary stakeholders to change its policies and strategies as well to save it from the negative effect.

Primary Stakeholders

According to Bennis and Warren, (2007) that sometime when the organizational reduced the prices for their products or services then in such situation the investors may go to bear a loss in the profit but the clients or the customer who are the stakeholders will get benefits so it is clear now that the clients or customers are primary stakeholders.

Key Stakeholders  

According to Gemmill & Judith, (2002) that some stakeholders can be affected by the strategies and policies positively or negatively and it all depends on their own hardworking and their directions to be infected positively or negatively for example the staff members of an organization are called the key stakeholders because the staff members can do their most efforts and can be benefited a lot.

Secondary Stakeholders

Some stakeholders can be affected in both ways like in negative or positive way and these kind of stakeholders are called secondary stakeholders for example when at the ASDA staff members are given training and the ASDA have to pay cost for the trainings and improving skills of such employees and the staff members devote themselves towards organizational growth and put all efforts from their hearts for achieving ASDA objectives.

Internal Stakeholders

The internal people who are directly connected within the organization are called as internal stakeholders and those people who are also the part of business strategies, operations and involved in the decision making system and implementing organizational strategies are called internal stakeholders

Interest of Stakeholders

All the stakeholders have their interest with the organizations but there are some common interests of all kind of stakeholders which are discussed above.

Economic

When the stakeholders benefited economically is called economic interest which includes, wages, pension, medical and life insurance, free of cost trainings, professional courses, professional trainings and short courses

Social changes

According to Hersberger, (2007) that in a multicultural environment in which the thinking power become mature and more chances the stakeholders can achieve to learn different cultural norms and values and in the multicultural environment the stakeholders can enjoy and learn more and more.

Environment

c environment at the work placement because in this way productive attitude increases and the organizational objectives can be achieved easily and all the stakeholders can be benefited economical.

Decision making involvement

To get maximum satisfaction and to become the part of the organization and to be proud of being trusty team member the stakeholders want to be involved in every decision making process it also increase internal satisfaction and stakeholders believe in that they are proud of it when they are involved in decision making process by the high level management.

Health and Safety

The stakeholders have the interest in the health issue at the work placement and all the areas of organization and in all the procedures and operations and working areas because all are conscious about their health and about their families, so organizations must have proper installed all the necessary equipments for safety control (Intagliata, 2002). Now a day people are mostly conscious about their health and safety positions and they want to be insured regarding health and death and safety, while working at the work place if they got injury they need compensations and in case of serious injury they want job protection and holiday with pay.

Stakeholder’s management

According to the Kotter and John, (2003) that there are following steps involved in the procedure of stakeholder’s management effectively and efficiently.

Identification

In the first step the ASDA identify the stakeholders and also identify the category of stakeholder, key stakeholder or primary, internal or external stakeholder and then the organization set the goals and objectives and then identify the stakeholders and then set the influence of role of stakeholders in achieving organizational goals and objectives.

Nomination

After identification of stakeholders the administration at ASDA nominate the stakeholders the different positions in the organization as per their status and wait for approvals and according to the qualification, skills and professionalism and experience the organization nominate positions to play their role in achieving organizational objectives.

Feel

After a certain period as per the stakeholder’s abilities and role in team the administration analyse the stakeholder attitude and behaviour with colleagues and confirm the competencies and as per results present stakeholder’s name in suitable category.

Observation

In this stage the administration observes the stakeholder as per assigned duties performance and monitors his or her activities and interest and productive attitude.

Review

Here after observing the administration changes the stakeholder position and role as per outcomes find out in the observation step.

Manage

According to the Mech and Terrence, (2003) that while stakeholder managing the administration must end the management process with the information about administration expectations to the stakeholders and get the feedback from stakeholder.

References and Bibliography

a.        Books and journals

Bateman, Thomas, S. and Scott, A. (2009). Management: Building a Competitive advantage, 4th ed., Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Bennis, and Warren, G. (2007) “Where Have All the Headers Gone?” Technology Review,

79 (4) pp: 45-46

Gemmill, G. and Judith, O. (2002) “Leadership: An Alienating Social Myth?” Human Relations, 45(2) pp: 113-29

Hersberger, R. (2007) “Leadership and Management of Technological Innovation in Academic Libraries” Library Administration & Management, 11(1) pp: 26-29

Intagliata, J. (2002). “Levering Leadership Competencies to Produce Leadership Brand: Creating Distinctiveness by Focusing on Strategy and Results.” Human Resource Planning, 23(6) pp: 13-67

Kotter, and John, P. (2003) A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management, N.Y.: The Free Press, 6th July 2012.

Mech, and Terrence, F. (2003) “The Managerial Decision Styles of Academic Library Directors,” College & Research Libraries 12(7) pp: 375-386

Moore, and Audrey, D. (2004) “Reference Librarianship: It Was the Best of Times” Reference Librarian, 54(7) pp: 3-10

The role of Customer Relationship Management activities in the growth and expansion of hotel industry while finding out the gap between customer’s requirements and offered quality of services and products

Today,service organizations are shifting their focus from “transactional exchange” to “relational exchange” for developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers. Extended relationships are reported to have a significant impact on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime value. Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as the customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all organizational activities. The hotel industry, especially the luxury segment hotels needs to be purely customer-centric and focus on the customer needs and duly fulfill them.

Customers will not blindly accept poor service quality from a luxury hotel. They expect high quality of service in return for the money, they spend in luxury hotels. This paper is an attempt to explain the dark side of CRM in the luxury segment of the hotel industry with the help of the ‘Gap Model’ referred to in literature which suggests that gaps in service occur at various instances. The author explains that the gap CRM is a useful tool to explain the dark side partly. There is more to the dark side like privacy issues, unwillingness of customers to build a relationship with the service provider, changing tastes and preferences of the customer. Hotel Company has been chosen as a single case study and the research questions have been devised, addresses the industry at large, using a classic example of superior service quality to the customers. Some simple measures to reduce the dark side have been mentioned, which addresses the third and last research question.

The project would contribute as a useful guide for luxury hotels, provide them some valuable information on what the customer expectations are and if they are duly met then service gaps shall not occur. This research shall provide scope for luxury hotels to improve their overall service quality and strengthen their position in the industry. The relevant existing theory has been reviewed and the subject has been explored, using the ‘Gap CRM’ (Parasuraman et al 1998) mainly. Based on the research findings and analysis, recommendation has been given to reduce the dark side at this hotel and luxury hotels in general.

Chapter # 1:     Introduction

1.1    Problem/Issue

Chen and Popovich, (2003) have been stated that in order to create the satisfaction and loyalty among the customers the business organizations are trying their best level to create and build strong and long term relationships for increasing sales and making maximum market share from the potential target market. Customers buy and hire the products and services to overcome their needs and wants and for this purpose they go to market to buy and hire services and products and spent money just to overcome their needs and wants and ultimately they got an experience after utilizing the products and services and on the behalf of the experience they make decision to again buy those products and services, if the products and services have already satisfy their needs and wants then they again buy the products and services otherwise they become angry and never come again to buy those services and products. There are so many benefits of CRM department and especially in the hospitality sector it is very important for the business organizations to establish CRM department for making sales and earn profit. Customers can buy different products and hire the services from different outlets remaining at their homes due to advancement in technology and vendors have been improved the features of products, and the different strategies have been used by the vendors to set the pricing and designing the products features. Due to high competition in the hospitality industry among the different hotels each hotel is offering its products and services at low price but better quality of services and products as compared to each other just to build strong relationship for earning more profits from the customers by implementing different customer relationship strategies and policies. Sugandhi, (2002) has been stated that customers have a full range of different opportunities and options as per their requirements and expectations to buy any products or service to overcome their problem at low price as compared to its competitors. In the field of hospitality, customer services are playing its role in creating information among the clients regarding quality of services and products in the hotels. According to Chen and Popovich, (2003) that these days in hospitality industry the hotels those providing best services and products to its potential customers in the market are trying to offer the services and product of high quality because all the hotels in the same market are offering same services and products, and each hotel is trying to offer better quality of services as compared to each other to make more clients to earn generate more revenue and to increase the sales and making more profit for the organization. Sugandhi, (2002) has been stated that customers are the startup and end of any business activity in the hospitality industry, and it is very important for the business organizations to create more quality in their services and products to offer their customers at high quality but at low price for making more and more customers. Customer relationship management is playing its effective role in creating and providing better quality of services and products and in identification of customer’s needs and wants and for this purpose the companies are paying more money and huge budget for maintaining CRM department. Strong relationship can be built in a way that if the customers are happy and satisfy and loyal and in this way the organizations can make more money and profit by establishing strong relationship with clients with the help of CRM department because without CRM department help it is very hard for them to create loyalty and satisfaction. In the hospitality sector the hotels can easily recognize its client’s expectations to offer them suitable services for creating happiness and loyalty among them (Parasuraman et al., 1985). When all the hotels in the same industry are providing the same services and products and with the passage of time and enhancement and change in the technology at high speed the requirements and the needs of clients are also changed with the change in technology so there is an opportunity for the hotels to achieve that opportunity to achieve its objectives and for the survival and to capture the more market share, CRM department as has been discussed above the responsibilities and role of CRM towards achieving this opportunity and all the hotels have the same opportunity. Only one issue is to identify their expectations and then as per their expectations if the same quality of services and product can be offered then the market share can be increased by capturing more new clients from the market.

1.2    Research Title

The role of Customer Relationship Management activities in the growth and expansion of hotel industry while finding out the gap between customer’s requirements and offered quality of services and products in Hotel Industry in United Kingdom (A Case Study of Holiday In Hotel London).

1.3    Research Aims and Objectives

The main aim of this research is to find out the importance and activities of the customer relationship management department and its activities in the sales and growth of hotel industry in United Kingdom, the researcher want to find out the role and importance of CRM department and its strategies designed by the management of the department for achieving organizational goals and objectives in the era of high competition in the hospitality industry in United Kingdom. And the researcher will find out the main role of CRM department in recognition of customer’s expectations and their needs and wants in hotel industry for increasing sales and participating in hotel growth in United Kingdom. The researcher will also find out the key success factors those can play their important role in finding out their level of quality and their priorities while hiring hotel services and the way of hotel management to keep the client’s record for future purpose, the researcher will also find out the main relationship between the CRM activities and the customer’s expectations. The researcher will also find out the relationship between the requirements identification and satisfaction of customer and loyalty and overall impact of these factors on the sales and growth of hotel. The researcher will also interest in find out the association between the CRM challenges and problems faced by the CRM department while designing and implementing its effective strategies and policies for positive outcomes. The researcher will also investigate the actual nature and main responsibilities of the CRM department and its other liabilities and its obligations towards employees and customers in achieving organizational goals and objectives. The researcher will also find out the main factors those can contribute their important role in creating and enhancing loyalty, satisfaction and happiness among the customers in the hotel industry and finding out their main priorities. In the end the researcher will make conclusion and will find out the weak areas of CRM department and management in the selected hotel and will also designed the positive suggestions and recommendations for the Holidays In hotel to improve its services and quality of services and products to achieve organizational objectives.

1.4    Research Questions

There are the following main questions related with this research, the researcher has made these questions while keeping all the aims and objectives of this research in the mind and for achieving the above mentioned aims and objectives.

What is the importance of CRM department at hotel industry in the United Kingdom?

What is the relationship between the sales and the CRM department?

What are the factors that can be helpful in identifying the client’s requirements and their priorities for offering them suitable and as per their requirement quality of services and products?

How CRM department can design and develop effective policies and strategies for achieving organizational objectives?

What is the role of client’s perception and their expectations in enhancing sales and growth of an organization?

What are the main challenges and problems that the CRM is facing while implementing and designing its strategies in the hotel industry?

How happiness, satisfaction and loyalty can be created by the CRM department among the potential clients?

How the CRM can reduce the gap between the client’s requirements and their perceived quality of services and products and how it can be reduced by the CRM effective strategies?

1.5    Scope of Research

In the hospitality industry the researcher will find out the role and importance of CRM department on the sales and growth of hotel in the hotel industry effectively and this research will play its important role for the hotel industry in United Kingdom while the CRM department will design and implement those strategies for capturing new and retaining the potential clients by establishing strong relationship with them after analysing their requirements and identifying their priorities in hotel industry. This research will also play its important role in the hotel industry when the CRM department will design and implement its effective strategies for creating happiness, loyalty and satisfaction among the clients for achieving organizational objectives and this research will also disclose the important factors for the organizational success. This research will also identifies the way to recognize the client’s priorities and the necessary skills and information will also be disclosed by the researcher and it will very helpful for the management and the CRM department administration for making important decision in the future to obtain organizational objectives successfully. All of the hotels in the hospitality industry have implemented the customer relationship management department and are running its operations effective for achieving organizational objectives and a high level of competition is there in the industry among the hotels for capturing more market share for sales and profit earning.

1.6    Ethical Considerations

There are so many ethical considerations that will be adopted by the researcher in order to create reliability and validity of the research and the conclusion, while gathering primary and secondary data, while representing the primary data and while making analysis and conclusion and making suggestions the researcher will adopt the ethical considerations for the validity and reliability of research. First of all the researcher will never ever cheat someone else work and will not steel work of his any colleague or student and will never allow someone to steel his work. The researcher will use fresh references and will use the valid sources of gathering primary and secondary data and researcher will not include his opinion in making analysis and conclusion, just will rely on the findings and analysis. The researcher will not use this research for another academic purpose and will keep the respondents data secret. The researcher will not disclose the details of respondents and not disclose the secrets and trademarks of the selected hotel to anyone.

1.7    Limitations

There are so many limitations of this research associated with this work because the research is a student, and being the student he has limited time and limited financial and other resources and for this purpose he has been selected the case study as tool to conduct his research and limited number of respondents were selected. The researcher has not too much budget for conducting this research and has limited time schedule to present his report for achieving master degree and the researcher has no already any experience of conducting research that’s why the researcher has decided to conduct the interviews and distributing the questionnaires among the potential clients and will select about 150 individuals as respondents. Remaining the financial resource will be arranged by the researcher from his own means and a supervisor will be allocated to the researcher to follow his guidelines and under the supervision of a supervisor all the research will be conducted.

 

Chapter # 2:     Review of Literature

2.1    Introduction

In this chapter the researcher has been explained about the main duties of customer relationship management in the hospitality sector in the United Kingdom and the researcher has also explained the relationship of CRM departmental activities and its strategies for achieving organizational main goals and objectives. According to Gronroos, (2001) that CRM is responsible for making sales and profits in an organization and making different strategies to achieve overall goals is also the responsibility of the customer relationship management. The effective way and all other related aspects and factors have been also discussed here, the previous and fresh scholar’s statements have been included and a rational review of literature has been presented and at the end of the section the conceptual frame of reference has been discussed regarding this research. In this section the researcher will also explain the scholar’s statements and the literature about the importance and role of customer relationship management in making sales and profit.

2.2    Customer relationship Management

CRM can capture new and more clients from local and international markets only in one way is that first identifying their expectations and then as per their requirements offering them the suitable services and as per their priority offering them the services as per their priorities then the CRM can be successful in the job, because in the hotel management some customer gave priority to their privacy and some of them gave priority to the luxury, and some of them gave priority to the both luxury and to the privacy. According to Buttle, (2004) that the customer relationship management is mainly responsible for the business promotions, marketing, sales, maintaining, profit earning, introducing the new and old products and services in the hotel management industry is always managed by the CRM department and this department is the major responsible for capturing new clients from the target market. According to the Sugandhi, (2002) that instead of customer relationship management the business organizations can use the new and latest technology of communication for making an interaction with the clients is the internet and online you can make interaction with them to solve their problems or to solve and introduce them the new or change in the product or services and new clients can be captured by using the latest media rather than the CRM department inside the hotel. CRM staff must have the skills to use and to offer the best services and the products to the customer on the computer and in this way the customer from the distance can be captured with a little extra efforts and spending little bit amount on the trainings for the employees and in this way international customer can be captured by the hotel industry, foreign visitors is the big and huge target market for the hotels in United Kingdom and especially hotels situated in the London can capture them.  According to the Gronroos, (2001) It is not easy for the customer relationship management to find out new clients from the international markets and from the local market without new and latest procedures and technology usage, and more making promises and then overcome on these promises is not an easy task for the hotel management. CRM can play its role in marketing as well as in the other sectors, when the customers will perceive the expected quality of services and expected priorities then in this way they will become the reference groups and free of cost marketing and testimonials marketing has great impact on the others to attract more new clients from the market. As the scholars Schneider and Bowen, (2007) have been stated that CRM main responsibilities are to create strong relationship with the clients for making money and earning more profits and for the more success to get more market share is also the main responsibility of the customer relationship management in the hospitality industry, in the meanwhile to create loyalty and the satisfaction among the clients it is CRM department responsibility to recognize their expectations for offering them the services and products and creating high level of satisfaction and loyalty among them. And the same is vise versa, when some client become angry he or she will let others and will inform others like his or her colleagues, friend, family members and family friends about his or her experience and in this way the hotel can lose the business, and it is famous statement of a scholar that no client n business and in this way the competitors will get maximum benefits because the angry customer will next time hire the services from the competitors and will buy their products rather than from you. So in both case the CRM can play its important role in creating happiness and loyalty among the client, the angry clients can also be satisfied by negotiation and by offering them the suitable solutions and in this way a strong and long term relationship can be established with them for making more money and earning more profits. Bennett, (2006) has been stated that in the high competition among the same services and products manufacturing organizations only the CRM department can assure the success for the organization, because the main purpose of this department is to develop effective policies for the organizations in the hospitality sector in United Kingdom. This department can recognize the customer’s expectations and their needs by using skilled and latest technology equipped staff members to offer them the services and products as per their own wish so that they become happier and become loyal. According to Sugandhi, (2002) that through getting feedback from the customers the CRM department can be able to find out the customer’s level of satisfaction and level of happiness and in this way CRM has the opportunity to make the relationship with the clients on long term basis for making more money and can earn more money for the organization as well. Gefen, (2002) has been stated that CRM department can be used by the hotel industry to design and develop profitable strategies for the new and old customers by creating loyalty and satisfaction after implementing those strategies and by considering customer’s priorities and their expectations for business success. This is CRM responsibility to make string relationship with the clients as by offering them the suitable and as per their expectations the products and services for earning money and achieving its main objectives and goals for long term. Sheth and Parvatiyar, (2007) have been stated that instead of paying money to the CRM department, the business organizations can spend this amount for the welfare of customers and for the advertisement and can offer the services and products to the customer at very low price, and in this way the organizations can also get more money and can lead and can become market leader in hospitality sector, the standards of hospitality and other standards are already the part of legislation in United Kingdom and all the stakeholders act on legislation in the hospitality sector so without the CRM department the clients can be made and client can be attracted and retained.

2.3    Loyalty and satisfaction

Anderson and Mittal, (2006) both have been stated that there is a string relationship between the quality and services and satisfaction and there is also direct relationship between satisfaction and loyalty, satisfaction always leads to the loyalty whereas the quality and the services play its role in creating the satisfaction level among the clients and among the staff members. And for all this purpose only one department named as customer relationship management can only create the satisfaction and loyalty among the clients as the researcher has been explained in the following figure as the researcher has been showed that the level of satisfaction can be created among the clients easily with the help of customer relationship management and in this way both the organization and the client can be satisfied, client will receive the expected quality, services and products for which he or she has paid the money and the organization will earn the money by selling its products and services to the client and in between client and organization the CRM department has played its important role as discussed in the following figure.

Deliver, as per requirements and after utilizing client will receive good results and satisfaction will be created, and loyalty will be created.  

Some scholars have been stated that the satisfaction always leads to loyalty and I this way the organizations can make money and earn more profits. CRM with its skilled workers those have the complete knowledge about the features of the products of other competitors and have the communication skills to discuss their problems and have the authority to offer them the suitable solutions and allocated the full resources and access of all other necessary options and making arrangements for providing essential requirements, so after identifying their needs and requirements after filling forms and asking them by utilizing their skills and communication skills, and after identifying their expectations they send their expectations to the concerned department for serving them as per their own expectations, the manufacturing department is responsible for manufacturing those services and designing the services and products as per requirements and after using those services and products the clients will get very good results and satisfaction will be created among them and in this way the organizations can earn more money and clients will be retained. As Anderson, (2005) has been explained that sales and revenue can be enhanced if the organizations can be able to create satisfaction and loyalty among the clients by offering them the suitable services and products in the hospitality sector, the customer will come again and again only in one situation when he or she has satisfaction after utilizing the product or services in the past and they will bring the other clients after sharing their knowledge and experiences with their colleagues, mates, friends and family members being the social responsible and in this way the organizations can be benefited in both ways, sales enhancement and increase in the market shares. Whereas scholar Buttle, (2004) has been stated that instead spending a lot of money on the CRM department and other arrangements for equipping the CRM staff with latest technology and providing them other information and arrangements of training and spending lot of money, the organization in the hospitality sector can generate satisfaction and loyalty among the clients and can make more new contacts from the target market by spending this money for the welfare of employees and for the welfare of clients means to offer them the services and products at cheap price. Whereas Looy et al., (2003) have been stated that if the hotels could not provide suitable and necessary services and products to the customers then in this way instead of satisfaction and loyalty, discourage and disappointment can be created among the customers and when there is no customers then no business. According to the Buttle, (2004) that satisfaction always leads to the loyalty and loyalty always leads to the increase in the sales whereas the disappointment leads to the anger and anger leads to the disappointment. Anyway Looy et al., (2003) have been stated that CRM can create satisfaction among the clients only in one way that if they become success in finding out the exact needs and want of the customers and succeed in finding out the client’s expectations and then successfully offered them the services and products as per their wish and priority then the CRM departmental policies and strategies are successful and organization can achieve its targets and goals.

SatisfactionLoyaltyGoals and Objectives
Quality, Priority, features, speed, volume, design and functions, availability and price  Happiness and alternatively become loyal for the organization and will come again to buy the products and servicesIncrease in sales and more profit

According to the Buttle, (2004) that there is a link between the customer’s expectations and his or her happiness and this happiness can create satisfaction which is directly related with the loyalty and as shown in the above table that loyalty will attract the customers to buy again the products and services from the past organization and in this way the organizational objectives can be achieved and in the hospitality sector the people spend lot of money like 200 pounds per night stay and they need luxury, privacy and high quality of services and they may require taxi, mini cab or other facilities like lunch, breakfast or tea or high tea but as per their own wish and selection, and if the hotel management can be successful in finding out their priorities and their expectations then the clients will be more happy and next time they will book the room with the same hotel otherwise if they did not have the good experience then they may go to the competitors.

2.4    Quality f Services

According to the Gronroos, (2001) in the hospitality sector the organizations must deliver the high quality of services because the quality and the price are those both key factors those play their role in the success of organization. There is a deep and direct relation of sales with the quality of services and the quality of products, quality of services always includes way of serving clients, fast, speed, components, behaviour, attitude, politeness and proper solution, and some time when there is no difference between the customer’s expectations and the perceived values then it means that the client has perceived the quality of services of high level and excellent quality of services were provided by the organization and this all is due to the identification of client’s demands and expectations of services and his or her priorities, and especially in the hospitality industry the client’s always gave priority to their privacy and luxury and these are the main key success factors of hospitality industry to achieve the organizational objectives (Caruana et al., 2000). Kandampully & Suhartanto, (2000) has stated that client’s loyalty and satisfaction always influenced by the quality of services in hospitality sector and especially in the near future the sales of the service in hospitality sector depends on the previous experience and quality of the services of the hotel. They both have been explained that there are some different factors those mutually called the quality of services and some important are delivery of the product, Bahaviour while dealing, prompt response or reply of client’s call, offering him or her privacy and luxury priorities must be keep in consideration while serving the client and product’s ingredients and dealing style are the main components of quality of services, and clothing, neat and cleanliness, wall decoration and furniture and decoration pieces color matching has also great impact on the satisfaction and loyalty of clients, because some time the environment of the hotel may like free environment and client must feel that he or she is living at his or her own home. So the environment, furniture, staff behaviour, attitude, food, taste, serve style, privacy and luxury all together called as the quality of services and this quality starts and end on the expectations of clients. So the hotel management must keep in mind all these key success factors in order to achieve organizational objectives.

2.5    Gap Model

According to the Gronroos, (2001) that there are some ways to understand the way and procedure to identify the client’s needs and wants, and these needs, wants, requirements and expectations are very important for the hotel management to understand before offering the services to them to build strong relationship for making money and ultimately achieving top level goals and total administrational objective, the customer relationship management must understand the gap model defined by the Gronroos, (2001) to identify those expectations as the importance has been explained by the researcher above.

 

                              Gap # 1

Difference between the expectations and the perceived by the customers  

                                         

                                 Gap # 2

Served by the employees and offering of services and products (Full Range)  

                

 

                                   Gap # 3          

As per the expectations of customer and his or her choice serving  

 

                                       Gap # 4

Sharing the expectation information with manufacturing department for manufacturing the products and services and changing the products as per client’s needs and wants, to offer them the services as per their main requirements to compete in the market and become leader in the market.  

 

        Gap # 5

In the above figure as the Gronroos, (2001) has been given the model as discussed above that there are five gap levels and this is the main problem of the customer relationship management in the hotel industry that CRM department could not understand the gap between client’s expectations and the services and product’s qualities for offering and the hotel could not attempt the 100% targets in well manners. He also stated that if the CRM department pay its complete attention towards above model and design its strategies and policies as according to the gap model then the CRM can identify the client’s requirements in positive manners and the loyalty and satisfaction level can be raised among the clients for achieving market share and profit share as well. But there are some scholars those have been stated the solution of the above gap and they have also discussed the model in detail and gave the proper solution to the CRM department (Looy et al., 2003).

SituationProper and Reasonable solution
Gap exist because of lack of information about customer’s expectations to the managementThe management must review the employee’s skills and their training and the information and must measure the procedural impact and its importance and must check the total system and make necessary amendments and bring the change where it is necessary and for this purpose the management must hire some expertise people for proper solution.
  The gap occurs due to misperceive of employees and the staff member pass the wrong information to the services department and the services department offered the wrong services and products to the clients.Here in this gap the management must review all the weak points of communication and investigate the whole matter and must check the data entry system and must check the communication skills of staff and must review the communication system between the CRM staff member and the services booking officer and services provider staff and check their competencies and arrange courses or training sessions for all of them and make necessary amendments for improvements for achieving success in future.
This gap is because of the quality of services the clients has received the proper product and services as per his or her requirement but only the quality is of low level like the response was late, too slow, not complete, no feedback after offered and no proper solution of complaints.  In this situation again the management and the CRM department must pay their attentions towards the communication skills and towards the quality of services and its improvement mechanism and must involve the staff and customers in making decision and making it sure that the priorities and the expectations are cleared on the manufacturing department and supervisor staff must keep an eye on the staff work and they also make it sure that the clients are happy and they are perceiving the expected quality of services by negotiating with clients.

Looy et al., (2003) have been stated that while delivering the quality of services and products the staff members must take it into their considerations the all components of quality for successful achievements of business.

2.6    Gap reducing and Customer Loyalty

Bhote, (2006) has been stated that when the customer will perceived the quality of services and products as per its own choice then the satisfaction increased and the loyalty always increased because there is direct relationship between the satisfaction and loyalty, similarly the Getty and Thompson, (2007) have been stated that it is the loyalty factors that can be benefited for the organizations while making the market share and loyal people become testimonial and in this way the reference groups also come and buy products and services and the organizations can be benefited in this way as well. Whereas the Kandampully and Suhartanto, (2000) have been stated that relationship of customers with organizations, their decision making power and buying making decision, customer’s loyalty and services and product’s quality have the a major difference among all of them and the clients make a big difference, there are some customer those always buy and pay low price to buy product or service and some of them always pay their emphasis on the quality of services which includes the luxury and their privacy as well, and they do not like that others may interfere in their privacy. To create the loyalty to achieve the loyalty for achieving organizational objectives the CRM staff must pat its attention to reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services and products for the successful business operations. Some scholars Reicheld and Sasser, (2003) have been stated that loyalty always enhance the sales volume and the loyalty can be built among the customers by identifying their needs and wants and then as per their demands and expectations the necessary quality of services and products can be offered to those customers for building strong and long term relationships with them in hotel industry for making more money.

2.7    Client’s attitude

According to the Schlesinger and Heskett, (2002) that in order to create the loyalty among the customer it is very important for the organizations to first identify their attitudes, because through their attitude their expectations can be identified, some women do not like if the staff members follow them and they ask them on the telephone line about tea of coffee and even then if the male staff member ask them about their schedule and those women prefer that the female staff deal with them. Jones and Sasser, (2005) have been stated that re sales and frequency of the customer are the main factors to measure the customer’s attitude and behaviour and in this way the attitude can be understand by the companies especially by the hotels in United Kingdom. Loyalty is a factor that can be created among the clients by identifying their main expectations and needs and wants and after offering them the service and products as per their needs and wants the loyalty can be created easily and in other means it is not easy to create among the clients. The Customer relationship management staff need the especial skills, competencies and abilities to identify the clients attitude to create the loyalty among them for making suitable sales and building long term basis relationships with them for achieving organizational objective in efficient manners and those trainings and policies are the actual parts of their duties and these are basically tools for them to identify their attitudes and demands and finally their attitudes towards services and products and their quality for making more money. Some scholar have been stated that the there is a gap exist between the organizations and the clients and due to this gap the organizations are suffering from the market share loss and it is easy for the organizations to reduce and minimize this gap by just identifying their attitude and their expectations for offering them suitable products and quality of services (Zeithaml, et al., 2006).

2.8    Skilled employees and Customer’s complaints handling

To handle the angry customer’s complaints it is important for the customer relationship management to understand their requirements and their problems to make proper solution of their problems and for this they need some special skills and information to handle the client’s problems and their needs first to identify and then creating the happiness and satisfaction by offering them the best and reasonable solution for loyalty (Zeithaml et al., 2006). This is customer relationship management manager’s duty to allocate proper resources which includes the trainings, competitor’s products and services complete information and the customer’s information, necessary skills and delegate the necessary authorities for solving the customer’s problem and in this way the loyalty and satisfaction can be created the only one way is that the CRM departmental attention is necessary in whole this procedure, and skilled employees can play their effective role in enhancing the customer’s loyalty and increase the profit ratio by their expertise and their skills by handling angry clients and creating loyalty among them (Helgesen, 2006). And Kim, (2005) has stated that it is the only loyalty that can be created by the skills and trained person and only the Customer relationship management department can train and equip its employees with suitable skills and proper trainings to accommodate its customers while handling their complaints and fulfilling their needs and requirements and creating happiness among them, and in this way CRM department can play its effective and efficient role in achieving main objectives of an organization. You can measure the loyalty level of customers in hotel industry while taking their feedback and their opinions and you will come to know the exact ratio of satisfied customers and you can ask them their priorities and ask them their expectations for more positive results (Gundersen et al., 2006). After selling the product or services the CRM staff can ask the customers about their experience about that service or products and in this way the CRM department can make amendment and can make change and can achieve financial objectives in good way and the market ratio can be captured at maximum level and thus the profit will be achieved maximum level, but the main factor is the skilled workers because without highly skilled worker it is not easy task (Oliver, 2002). Rather than to spent money on the CRM department the hotels management must provide the best offers, cheap offers and more decorated rooms, good services, more high quality of stuff, food, residence packages and other benefits just to create the loyalty and creating strong and long term relationship with them, but this all is possible in a situation that when the hotel’s administration provide the suitable offers of its services and products on reasonable price (Chi and Qu, 2008).

2.9    Luxury and Privacy

In hotel management the customer relationship management can play its role in creating loyalty in so many ways and some of them are discussed here like handling the client’s complaints, feedback and offering them the suitable offers and on reasonable prices and one more intrusting and beneficial thing is that the customers have two type of expectations in the hotel industry, first of all the luxury environment and second one is the privacy and the people need privacy and they like privacy, all the tourists need privacy and luxury because after whole day journey they need peace and calm in luxury and privacy environment so the CRM department can achieve this opportunity (Bowen & Shoemaker, 2008). There are some other very common and very important factors those can also participate in achieving organizational objectives especially in the hotel management sector with its CRM department which includes decoration, services offering style, staff manners, staff attitude, politeness, dealing with the customers and prompt services also can create happiness and loyalty among the clients and in this way the hotel can achieve the targets and market share in this way as well, because CRM is always responsible for capturing new clients and retaining old client as well. According to Su, (2004) that it is proved that the Luxury and the privacy are the most common factors those can play their important role in creating loyalty among customers in hotel industry and skilled workers can easily judge their priority and can offer them the suitable services and products. cleanliness, food, taste, variety of other things like food, pooling, games, grounds, cabs these all are the necessary but sales booster but the loyalty can be only built by the CRM effective policies.

2.10  Conceptual Framework of Literature Review

The researcher has designed the figure for conceptual framework of review of literature and the researcher has been explained the flow of work as explained in the below figure and researcher has explained each step in detail.

All the business organizations have their own goals and objective to achieve them the organizations do the business operation and transaction also done by the organizations. The above figure has mentioned that there is a positive impact of CRM department and its activities on the sales and the growth of the organization while contributing its staff in the business operations in achieving organizational main goals and objectives and in the growth of organization. Most of the business organizations have the same business operations and same economical objectives and goals. To achieve those business goals and objectives the business organizations it is necessary for the organizations to have clients from the target market and this proportion is called the market share and the volume of sales depends on the market share this ratio is directly proportional with the sales and profit as the researcher has explained in the above literature review. In the same market all the competitors provide the same services and products and the difference between the strategies and policies always leads the organization towards achieving organizational objectives especially in achieving market share maximum and sales volume. All organizations in the same industry trying their best to sell their services and products and for selling these products and services organizations have customer services department to develop and design the business strategies and policies and to identify the customer’s requirements. To make differentiation among the services and products the organizations can offer the variety of products and services on the behalf of high level of quality and other improving its services especially in the hospitality sector. To create the loyalty and satisfaction in order to achieve the sales targets and growth targets the organizations have the CRM department and the department is responsible for complaints handling and providing sufficient quality of services to the clients, and in hotel industry the main focus of the CRM department is always to recognize the customer’s expectations and requirements for offering them the suitable quality of services and products to achieve the targeted market share and sales and growth targets.

Chapter # 3:     Research Methodology

3.1    Introduction

The researcher has explained in detail the way of research and the methods he has adopted to conduct this research in detail and all those resources and the associated resources, sampling size, population size and primary and secondary data gathering techniques, data presentation and tools used in this research have been discussed in detail. The researcher has explained the aims and objectives of this research here in this section and all about the procedures of this research have been explained in this section. According to Soderlund, (2008) that the researcher must keep all the record of the research conducting which includes the methods, procedures, techniques and analysis tools and population and sample size as well as the main objectives of the research must be keep in record. According to the Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) that the researcher must follow a research method and keep record of all the work, due to the research method the researcher will save the resources and cost and the results are always valid and reliable when the researcher has adopted the specific way and method to conduct the research. Here in this research method the researcher has adopted the mix of qualitative and quantitative research method and selected a Case Study as tool to conduct the research because the research is associated with the academic purpose and the researcher has no such experience o research conducting and for the inexperienced person the case study tool is the better way to conduct the research and the researcher when has no time and money and for saving the time and resources the researcher must select the combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods and in the qualitative research methods the researcher must use the questionnaires for conducting the research.

3.2    Research aims and Objectives

There are the following aims and objectives of this research and all of those objectives have been discussed below one by one in detail, the researcher has explained the importance of customer relationship management in identifying organizational objectives and identification of customer’s requirements and other factors those can play its role effectively in the growth of organization. The researcher has also explained the main aims and objective of this research and has explained the relationship of sales with the loyalty and the satisfaction and the effective strategies designed by the customer relationship management and implementing these effective strategies for the positive output. Through the review of literature the researcher has discussed about the customer relationship management it is clear that there is direct relationship of sales with loyalty and satisfaction. The main research objectives and aims are given below in detail one by one

What is the relationship between the sales and the customer expectations?

What is the main relationship between the customer’s expectations and the customer relationship management department and its strategies?

How the customer relationship management can develop effective strategies for achieving organizational objectives and identify the customer’s expectations?

How the customer relationship management can reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products in well manners in hotel industry?

Which factors can create the main gap between the customer’s requirements and the customer relationship management?

How the CRM can reduce the gap between the different level of the gap and the factors that can minimize this gap?

What are the main benefits of customer relationship management strategies and its importance in the hotel management and the effectiveness of its policies in hotel industry?

Which factors can create more loyalty and satisfaction among the clients in the hotel industry for achieving the organizational objectives?

What are the changes and amendments are required by the selected hotel for improving the customer relationship management strategies and policies to achieve organizational objective in effective way in order to become market leader in the hotel industry in United Kingdom?

The researcher will describe the conclusion and make the positive suggestions for the selected hotel to improve the weak areas and will also describe about the opportunities and its proper way to achieve them for positive outcomes.

3.3    Research method

The researcher has completely described the research method that was selected and used by the research to conduct the research, before selection of research method the researcher has keep all the aims and objectives of the research and all available resources and the cost associated with the research and its own expertise in the mind and then the research has made the research method selection. In this research as the research is completely associated with the quality based analysis and methods and for this purpose the researcher has been selected the both qualitative and quantitative research method and for achieving organizational objectives the research has been described to select the Holidays Inn hotel situated in the London United Kingdom as a research tool and the researcher has followed the case study tool, according to the Soderlund, (2008) that the researcher can achieve the organizational aims and objectives in effective and in easy way. Same the Flyvbjerg, (2006) stated that the researcher must follow the research method for achieving organizational objectives. According to the Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) have been stated that the aims and the objectives of the research always provide a way to the researcher for selecting either qualitative or quantitative methods or both of them and the researcher can also select the other resources and way of resource as on the behalf of the aims and objectives of the research. Here in this research as the research aims and objectives have been described above and as per the aims and objectives of the research the researcher has selected the qualitative research method and designed the questionnaires and designed the questions as per the aims and objective of the research, the researcher has decided to conduct the interviews of the administration staff members. And the researcher has decided to gather the primary data by conducting the semi structured type of interviews to obtain the research aims and objectives in all ways and the research method always gave a path way to the research to conduct the research according to the aims and objectives of the research. In order to gather valid and reliable primary data the researcher must conduct the semi structured interviews and designed the questionnaires effectively (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003). The researcher will use the computerized tables and paper work to record the primary data and will use the different tools like charts and tables to analyse the data for making conclusions. In order to gather valid and reliable primary data the researcher must use the specific way to collect, gather, analyse the research method (Soderlund, 2008).

3.4    Case Study

According to the Feagin et al., (2001) that the researcher can achieve the organizational objects while selecting the case study as a tool to achieve the organizational objectives while selecting the organization as a case study tool when the researcher has no experience. According to the Stakes, (2005) that the case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researcher has no back ground of research conducting and the best method of conducting the primary research is the case study tool for positive (valid and reliable) outcomes, and in the case study selection the researcher can pay its full attention on the aims and objectives of the research because in the case study selection the researcher has a chance to consider its main focus on the specific people and on the specific methods. Here in this research the researcher has been selected the case study tool as a research method due to some reasons which involves the limitations of the research, that the researcher is a student and has no enough money to spend on large number of sample size and can select more than one hotels as case study tools secondly the main important aspect of this research and limitation of this research is that the researcher do not have unlimited time or sufficient time to conduct the research on large scale, so availability of time and finance are the main two important constraints of this research. Although the customer relationship management and its effective strategies are well implemented in the selected hotel and researcher want to fulfill the criteria for obtaining the academic master degree. According to the Flyvbjerg, (2006) that the researchers can select the case study as a research tool to obtain valid and reliable results from the research, and in this research the researcher has been selected the Holiday Inn hotel due to following reasons.

This hotel has many branches in all over the world and it has customer relationship management department in operation effectively and the management has been granted the permission to the administration to conduct the research and the administration has promised to allocate the necessary resources for the researcher to continue the research.

The Holiday Inn hotel has the latest technology and the human resource management and the HR department has designed the effective strategies for training and development the career development of its employees in all the branches and the Hotel branches have effectively implemented the HR system and CRM system effectively in the branches for booking and all the branches are connected with each others.

The CRM department is most active and effective strategies for achieving organizational objectives and effective strategies and policies for doing creating the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and for capturing the most market share and new customers from the market.

The Holiday Inn hotel has the strong strategies and effective resources to provide the necessary services at high level of quality and products to the customers which includes like swimming pools, Television lounge, common room, dining hall, meeting room, decoration, taste, recipes, auto doors auto shower, furniture and all other system like music system, telephone system, whole night services availability, pick and drop facility and other facilities have been remained always in the considerations of management and management remained always up to date about the activities of staff members. The researcher has the following questions to conduct that research and the researcher was interested in finding the answers of these questions.

3.5    Population and Sample Size

The researcher has decided to conduct the interview from the key responsible in the Hotel management and they must be about 5 people and the researcher has been decided to distribute the questionnaires among the 80 respondents which includes the males and females and their age range is in between the 18 years to 55 years and the mix of genders will be selected by the researcher, one thing is more important that the researcher has selected all the respondents on random basis. According to the Powell and Single, (2006) that the researcher must first decided about the sample size and must include the both ganders while distributing the questionnaires among them and the best way to distribute the questionnaires is randomly method.

DescriptionMale RespondentsFemale RespondentsTotal
 404080
Percentage50%50%100
Age Range18 years to 55 Years18 years to 55 Years 

According to the Macintosh & Lockshin, (2007) that researcher must have the abilities to design the effective questions and to design and distribute the questionnaires among the respondents while maintaining the quality, validity and reliability of the questions. Whereas the Powell et al., (2006) have been stated that the researcher must keep the aims and objectives in the mind while designing the open and close ended questions to find out the main and actual problem of the customers and the researcher must find out the problem of the customers and must keep all the aims and importance of CRM department in researcher mind.

3.6    Source of Primary and Secondary data

The researcher will use the books, electronics books, journals and electronics journals, magazines, newspapers and websites and reports to gather the secondary data and the other issues which are related with the importance of the customer relationship management and its role in finding out the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products for gathering secondary data whereas for gathering the primary data the researcher has distributed the questionnaires and the researcher has included the mix of open ended and close ended questions in the questionnaires and the semi structured interviews were conducted by the researcher to find out the primary research.

3.6.1  Questions

Following questions were designed to get response from the respondents to gather primary data and the researcher has selected the CRM employee (key staff members) for the response. The researcher has keep in mind the importance of CRM department and its role in reducing the gap and in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.

What is the role of customer relationship management in the hotel industry?

How can you define the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services?

How do you believe that Customer relationship management can reduce this gap and can create the loyalty and satisfaction among the clients?

How do you believe that customer relationship management can play its effective role in achieving organizational objectives?

3.6.2  Questionnaire

According to the Soderlund, (2008) that the researcher can obtain the real fact if the researcher can design the open and close ended questions in the questionnaires and can design the questions according to achieve the organizational objectives. The researcher has designed the following questions

Question:         Why did you come in this hotel?

Questions:       Did you ever been here (in this hotel) before and for how long you are coming and how many times you been here?

Question:         Are you satisfied by the quality of services offered by this hotel CRM department?

Question:         Do you believe in the gap between the customer expectations and the offered quality of services and products?

Question:         Do you believe that the customer relationship management department can play its effective role for enhancing sales and growth of an organization in the hotel industry and will reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products?

Question:         Did you ever find the CRM staff helpful for their problem handling and in identifying their expectations to reduce the gap?

Question:         Do you believe that is there a link between the customer’s expectations and their loyalty and satisfaction?

Question:         Do you believe that loyalty and satisfaction can lead towards the re sale and can create the happiness for customers?

Question:         Which factors can play their important role in identifying their expectations and in creating more quality and happiness as compared to the other hotels?

Question:         Which one or set of priorities would you like to prefer while booking a room in Holiday Inn and common factors those can helpful in identifying their expectations as well?

Question:         Did you ever register the complaints about the gap between offered quality of services and products and their expected quality of services and products?

Question:         Did you ever receive the response from CRM department against registered complaints and did they provide you the solutions at the spot or not?

Question:         Did you ever share your feelings, loyalty and your experience about the hotel quality of services with your friends, family friends and your colleagues?

Question:         Do you believe that the price and quality can play their role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customer in the hotel industry?

Chapter # 4:     Data presentation and Analysis

4.1    Introduction

Here in this section the researcher has been described that the researcher has used the pie and bar charts to show the results and association of different factors has been showed in the charts, the researcher has used the percentage and ratio calculations to show the interest and dependencies of different factors on each other in effective way and has been described the relationship of different factors on each other.

4.2    Interviews

In order to gather the primary data the one main tool was to conduct the interviews of the key responsible people at Holiday Inn hotel, so for conducting the interview the researcher first of all get the permission from the head office and the manager allowed the researcher to conduct the research and the appropriate resources were allocated to the researcher by the hotel manager and one meeting was called by the manager and all the key responsible were introduced to me for all kind of help related with research. During the interview and during the distribution of questionnaires the researcher feel that the staff member including administration and customer relationship management all were very cooperative and they allowed researcher to meet with customers and they allocate me the proper resources and facilities for conducting the research. During the research the researcher gather the necessary information and one by one all the data has been presented in bar and pie charts. The following questions were asked by the researcher during the research and the appropriate results are also given here and conclusion has been presented in the end of the interviews.

Question:        What is the role of customer relationship management in the hotel industry?

Answer:

This question was asked by the researcher to know about the main responsibilities of customer relationship management in the hotel industry and then the researcher can understand the role of this department and then the recommendations and suggestions can be designed and then the questions related with customers can be amended or changed as per according to the CRM department. The manager of the department responded that the customer relationship management is responsible for the following activities in the hotel industry

To understand the client’s expectations

Find out the necessary opportunities in the market

According to client’s expectations offering them the suitable services and products

Those services and products can be offered through highly skilled staff

CRM is responsible for skilled workers

CRM is mainly responsible to measure the staff skills and make necessary arrangement to improve the necessary skills and update the skills as per improvements and change in the technology

CRM is responsible for creating strong and long term relationship with the clients and profitable relationship with the clients

Developing most appropriate CRM strategies for increasing sales volume and retaining old clients and making new clients

Question:        How can you define the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services?

Answer:

The researcher has asked the above question to the respondents to understand the main problem and main role of customer relationship management and to understand the knowledge of CRM staff and their possible efforts for solving the problem to create more satisfaction and loyalty among the clients for increasing sales volume and growth of organization. The respondents replied that customers come on visits and for official tours from all over the world especially from America, Middle East or from Pakistan, India and Canada or from the Europe and they all stayed here for about 2 weeks for their official visits and sometimes they stay for 1 week like Government delegations they stayed here with us for more than 2 days and all these people need luxury and privacy environment and sometimes when the visitors came and stay with us they have also their own priorities. I mean that different clients from different origins have their different cultures and they have different habits and food and tastes, so it is very hard for the CRM department to offer them the services and products as per their own desires and this is the main factor to understand their requirements. For identification of their requirements CRM department need highly skilled professional staff and for this purpose they have the highly qualified and skilled staff to understand their requirement and the Holiday Inn have very good and effective software that help the CRM department to recognize their expectations, and then after the identification of their requirement the information has been passed to the concerned department for manufacturing the services and products as per the client’s requirement for creating the happiness and satisfaction among them. So this is not possible but not impossible for CRM department to understand their expectations and their main requirement and then as per their requirements the quality of services and products can be offered to the clients. Quality means the speed, feedback response, taste, ingredients, style of services, quick response and neat and cleanliness environment, matching, painting and wall paints and decoration inside and outside, beautiful environment and peace and music selection these collectively called the quality of service and products quality. So when the skilled worker could not understand the proper requirement of the client due to communication problem or due to some other reasons then it happened and the customers could not sometimes deliver his or her requirements due to culture and communication barrier in this way the gap between customer expectations and offered quality of services and products increased and the customer relationship management could not create loyalty and satisfaction among the clients effectively.

Question:        How do you believe that Customer relationship management can reduce this gap and can create the loyalty and satisfaction among the clients?

Answer:

In order to understand the effectiveness of CRM department the researcher has described this question to know about the responsibilities of this department effectively and the researcher came to know that the respondents responded that as this is the main duty of CRM department to understand the main requirements of the CRM staff members to understand the customer’s requirements and then as per their requirements the quality of services and products must be offered and in this way the CRM department can reduce this gap and ultimately the happiness and level of satisfaction will be created among the customers and the organization will achieve its financial objectives in better way. The CRM is responsible for equipping its staff as per new technology and necessary trainings and courses and new methods and procedures have been introduced to the staff members and the trainings sessions have been arranged for the staff members to achieve organizational objectives in well manners and positively the staff members can identify their requirements and for this purpose the old data of the client must be saved in the computer that will be more helpful for the CRM department to understand the main requirements of the specific client. The CRM department can consider the following factors into its consideration to reduce the gap which are given below

Fulfilling the commitments

By providing the high quality of both products and services

Fast and quick feedback

Through creating better image of brand

Offers at highly quality but low price

Taking into consideration the Luxury and privacy of clients and offered them the suitable and necessary requirements

Question:        How do you believe that customer relationship management can play its effective role in achieving organizational objectives?

Answer:

The respondents responded that yes the customer relationship management can play its role in achieving organizational objectives in efficient way and in achieving financial and growth related objectives as well. The steps are given below

Research the opportunity available in the target market

Staff skills

Identification of problems

Passing information to the concerned department

Manufacturing the services and products

Offering to the customers

Review the whole process

Take the feedback from the consumer

Make amendments

Handling their complaints

Review the process again

Measure the staff abilities and skills and arrangements for trainings as per requirements

Gathering customers requirements and taking their opinion

Review the whole process and making amendments and changes as per requirement

4.3    Conclusion

As this has been described by the researcher that the CRM department in the hotel is mainly responsible for the strategies development and then implementing those strategies and policies for achieving organizational objectives by enhancement in the sales and increasing the volume of sales high by retaining the old client and capturing new clients from the market by offering suitable products and services at high quality to the customers and by creating strong and long term relationships for earning more profit from them. The gap always exist due to communication barriers and cultural barrier, and the target market based on mostly on the foreign tours and foreign delegations and they have different cultures and their habits and food taste and their priorities also differ from each other so the gap between their expectations and offered quality of services increases and the CRM department is trying its best level to minimize this gap. It is also recommended by the management that the CRM has the resources and financial budget to equip its staff to face any kind of challenge in the future and on current situation so it depends on them and they must equip their staff to remained them update and software can also be helpful in reducing the gap between the CRM department and the customers satisfaction. The customer relationship management can also play its role in creating loyalty and happiness among the customers and in this way the organizational objectives can be achieved.

4.4    Questionnaires

The following questions their answers and the analysis have been presented by the researcher in detail and each separately have been described by the researcher the researcher has use graphical representation of each response in detail and have been made the recommendations and conclusion in detail in the next chapter.

Question:        Why did you come in this hotel?

Answer:

Respondents ReasonsMaleFemaleTotal
To meet someone112
To attend a seminar213
Visit the country221840
For official visit141933
To attend marriage ceremony112
Total404080

The researcher has designed this question to understand the purpose of the customers inside the hotel because if they are just visitors then the response can affect the research and the target market of the hotel is the foreigner visitors and official visitors, anyway majority of the people responded that they are in the hotel for the official and as a tourists in the United Kingdom.

In the given both charts the researcher came to know that the majority of the respondents belongs to the tourists and the second big number is belongs to the official tourists that belongs to the business meetings and for the government delegations where as the other purposes can be neglected and the main focus of the Holiday Inn must be on the foreigner tourists and on the official visitors because their proportion showed that these two kind of group mainly stayed in the hotels. The majority of the people is 49% those belongs to the foreign tourists and they stayed at the hotel and the second major proportion is the foreigner official delegation those stayed at the hotel.

Questions:      Did you ever been here (in this hotel) before and for how long you are coming and how many times you been here?

Answer:

Respondent’s Frequency per YearMaleFemaleTotal
Never Before325
1 to 5 times a year151732
5 to 10 times111021
15 to 20 times6713
More than 20 times549
Total404080

In this question the researcher has asked the respondents about their frequency of visits in London because there are some reasons behind the visitors’ tours in London, some of the people came here for the business purpose because the main services offering sector of the world belongs to London city and from the middle east and from the all over the world (European Union Countries) official visitors came for dealing and negotiation with the official people in London and whole year the tourists from all over the world they came in London for visiting historical places and they prefer to stay in hotels and they prefer to stay in the hotel as per their requirements. So from the responses the researcher came to know that majority composed of 41% of the tourists came in London and they belongs to minimum 1 and maximum 5 times in a year, whereas the next major proportion is the 26% that people visit the London minimum 5 times and maximum for 10 times in a year, and then 16% of the tourists belong to the group those came in London for minimum 15 and maximum 20 times in a year and 11% of the people visits the London more than 20 times in a year and 6% came in London for the first time, so from the responses the researcher came to know that the opportunity is available in the market to capture more new clients from the target market and in this way the CRM department can make more benefits for the organizations.

Question:        Are you satisfied by the quality of services offered by this hotel CRM department?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsMaleFemaleTotal
1Yes343064
2No8816
Total 404080

The researcher has asked this question to understand the level of satisfaction among the customers so that the CRM strategies and the identification of the expectations of the customers can be identified and this process can be reviewed for the effective and positive outcomes of the CRM policies. So from the respondents it is very clear that the 80% of the respondents are satisfied with the quality of services and products offered by the Holidays Inn customer relationship management. And this ratio showed that the customer relationship management is offering the high quality of services and the products to the customers and it means that the CRM department has been implemented the system to recognize their expectations and the staff members have been the necessary skills to understand their expectations in the hotel.  

Question:        Do you believe in the gap between the customer expectations and the offered quality of services and products?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male38240
2Female38240
Total 76480

From this question the respondent came to know that 95% of the respondents have believe in the gap between their expectations and the only 5% of the respondents do not have an idea about the gap existence. A significant majority have the awareness about the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products to the customers.

Question:        Do you believe that the customer relationship management department can play its effective role for enhancing sales and growth of an organization in the hotel industry and will reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male32840
2Female301040
Total 621880

The researcher wants to know about the importance of the customer relationship management and its importance towards their problem solution and the researcher wants to know about the awareness of clients regarding the CRM effectiveness in the hotel industry, the respondents showed that 77% of the respondents responded that they believe in the effectiveness of customer problem solutions and they believe that the CRM department can solve their all problems and there are only 23% of the respondents responded that they do not have knowledge about the effectiveness of CRM department.

Question:        Did you ever find the CRM staff helpful for their problem handling and in identifying their expectations to reduce the gap?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male32840
2Female301040
Total 681880

About 85% of the respondents replied that they believe in the importance of the customer relationship management and its practices towards problem solving and helpful for themselves and they have also believe in that the CRM can also reduce this gap between their expectations and perceived quality of services and products, whereas only the rest 15% did not believe in the CRM strategies or their effectiveness. There are some reasons behind this answer first of all the clients 15% which is not negligible amount may do not have some idea or they do not have the knowledge about the effectiveness about the CRM departmental activities and its advantages for them or they did not have such experience, they did not benefited by the staff members in both ways they have responded that CRM staff is no useful or helpful for them. In this situation the CRM department can pay its attention on both sides first of all the skills and the information and training of the staff members and secondly it must pay its attention towards the customers as well to gather their opinion and satisfaction level must be measured.

Question:        Do you believe that is there a link between the customer’s expectations and their loyalty and satisfaction?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male38240
2Female38240
Total 76480

As the 95% of the respondents have been responded that the customer’s expectations and their loyalty and satisfaction have a link, the 95% said that yes the link exist between their expectations and the loyalty, the main reason is that when the hotel administration will identify their expectations and their desires about the quality of the services and products then they will try their best to deliver the same quality of services and products and in this case the CRM department will automatically created the happiness and loyalty among the clients and satisfaction will be there that when the client will receive as per their own expectations and wishes then they will happy and will pay the bill by smiling and they will pay thanks as well otherwise they will become angry and they will never come again.

Question:        Do you believe that loyalty and satisfaction can lead towards the re sale and can create the happiness for customers?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male40040
2Female40040
Total 80080

100% of the respondents replied that there is no doubt and they all have believe in that loyalty and satisfaction are the factors those will lead them for re sale and become the reason of happiness among the customers and they all have believe in the satisfaction and the loyalty creating by identifying their expectations and by reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered or delivered quality of services and the products.

Question:        Which factors can play their important role in identifying their expectations and in creating more quality and happiness as compared to the other hotels?

Answer:

Serial #Important FactorsResponseTotal
1Quick response2626
2Employee attitude2248
3Commitments1260
4Offerings1878
5Brand Image280
Total 8080

The above question was designed to know about the factors those can play their important role in creating quality and creating loyalty and happiness to reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products so the customers have the priorities like 32% of the people believe that fast and quick response can create the quality of services and products whereas 27% of the respondents have responded that staff behaviour that includes the style, way of talking, communication and dealing is the major factors that can create quality and satisfaction among the customers, then 23% of the respondents have responded that offers which includes the low price at high level or pay for 2 nights and get i night free or book for 7 days and dinner and breakfast free same like the hotel must offer to create the quality and happiness among the customers and 15% of the respondents have replied that promises also play their important role in creating quality of services and products and happiness among the customers and there is no doubt that the keeping words and honour the promises always bring happiness and loyalty among the customers, only 3 % respondents have responded that brand image can create happiness and loyalty among the customers. As the customers have been stated that the gap can be reduced if the above mentioned factors can be involved in the process of expectations identification process by CRM department then it is possible for them.

Question:        Which one or set of priorities would you like to prefer while booking a room in Holiday Inn and common factors those can helpful in identifying their expectations as well?

Answer:

Promises, Quality of services and products, Quick response of your call, Behaviour

Respondent’s Priorities listYesNoTotal Respondents
Quick response of call701080
Promises75580
Quality of services and Products76480
Staff behaviour78280

From the above question and answer the researcher came to know about the customer’s priorities and their main factors and their expectations priorities while and before booking the room at Holiday Inn hotel in London, majority of the respondents have been responded that about first of all the customers gave the priority to the staff behaviour and after the behaviour the quality of the services and products is the priority of the customers while before booking the room at Holiday Inn and then their priority is always promises made by the hotel while marketing campaign and in the last the priority is quick response always while the customers make a booking with Holiday Inn, and the CRM department must take care of these priorities for their expectations as well.

Question:        Did you ever register the complaints about the gap between offered quality of services and products and their expected quality of services and products?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male32840
2Female281240
Total 602080

Most of the respondents have been responded in yes that they have registered their complaints against the gap and this ratio is 75% the higher ratio and only the 25% of the respondents have been responded that they never registered their any complaints against the gap regarding the quality of services and products.

Question:        Did you ever receive the response from CRM department against registered complaints and did they provide you the solutions at the spot or not?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male38240
2Female38240
Total 765480

Majority like 95% of the respondents have been responded that the CRM department has responded them and the CRM department has responded them and provide them the best option and solution of their problems, only 5% people responded that they did not received the solution of their problems and they remained angry and waited for the solution. SO THE CRM department must take care of the customer complaints handling for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the clients.

Question:        Did you ever share your feelings, loyalty and your experience about the hotel quality of services with your friends, family friends and your colleagues?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male36440
2Female38240
Total 74680

Majority of the people like 92% of the respondents have been responded that they share their experience of the travel and about their satisfaction and loyalty, quality of services and products with their colleagues and with their family members and with their family friends. Only 8% of the respondents did not share their experience with their family, friends and colleagues. It might be possible that those people do not have their social network or it might be possible that these people do not like to share their personals with the other people.

Question:        Do you believe that the price and quality can play their role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customer in the hotel industry?

Answer:

Serial #RespondentsYesNoTotal
1Male40040
2Female40040
Total 80080

There are two types of customer quality conscious and quality conscious, and always customers gave priority to the high quality of products at low price items and that’s why 100% of the respondents have been responded that the price and quality always play its role in creating loyalty and happiness among the customers. And all the customers have been responded in yes that it is the main desire of every customer in the world that the price of services and products must be low but the quality must be high.

4.5    Discussion/Conclusion

In the last after gathering primary data and making analysis on the data the researcher came to know that the CRM department is working at its best in the Hotel and the staff is also working and majority of the customers are happy with the staff and the policies of the Holiday Inn hotel. The researcher has designed all the above mentioned questions by keeping all the aims and objectives of the research and conducted the research and main conclusion and recommendations have been made in the next chapter. Here after conducting and making analysis on the data the researcher came to know that the gap exist between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products and the customer have the knowledge about the factors those can play their role in identifying their expectations and the customer relationship management has skilled employees and the customers are happy with the policies and strategies of the CRM department at Holiday Inn, some of the amendments are required by the CRM department in order to understand the customer’s requirements and to identify their needs and demands for achieving organizational objectives and goals. 

Chapter # 5:     Conclusions and suggestions

5.1    Limitations and Conclusion

The researcher has some limitation associated with this research and the major limitations were also discussed by the researcher in the first chapter by the researcher and the researcher has explained about the overcome way, first of all the time schedule problem that the researcher has very short time to cover the research for the academic purpose and second thing is that the researcher has no such an experience to conduct the research in a professional way to overcome these problems the researcher has decided to select the case study and the hotel management has allocated the resources to the researcher and for the experience problem the researcher has selected the qualitative and quantitative research methods to conduct the research and for the valid and more reliable result the researcher has been selected about 80 respondents and for their response the researcher make it sure that the visitors are as according to the target market, while conducting the whole research the researcher has keep all the aims and objectives in the mind and then go through for the research. The management of the hotel has arranged for the tea and sitting arrangements for the researcher and the respondents. From the interview of customer relationship management department management the researcher has concluded that the customer relationship management is responsible for the customer care and for the identification of customer expectations and for the improvements of the system in order to gather customer’s data. The researcher has been concluded that according to the management the customer relationship management can also find out the actual expectations of the customers and can play its role in delivering the quality of services and products as per the client’s needs and expectations and in this way CRM departmental role can be proved that there is a deep link between the CRM activities and sales and growth of the Holiday Inn hotel in London and this is the main purpose of the research to find out the factors and CRM activities to increase the sales volume and its role in growth of hotel industry in United Kingdom while its role in reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and the delivered quality of services and products. The researcher has found out that there is a link between the CRM department strategies and the customer’s satisfaction and the loyalty and the loyalty and satisfaction have the direct relationship with the sales and growth of the organization.

Majority of the clients have believe in that their expectations and their loyalty are attached and have a deep link with each other and if the CRM department successfully understand their expectations about the quality of services and products then they will be able to deliver the same quality of services and products and in this case the clients will become happy and the organization will successful in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients and the client will come again to buy the products and will hire the services from them again and in this case sales and the growth will increase.

The researcher has found out the factors those can play its role positively in the increasing the sales of the hotel while successfully creating the satisfaction and the happiness among the customers through effective CRM departmental policies and business strategies and overall its activities towards the betterment of hotel industry, the researcher came to know that there are some problems with the skilled staff workers while communicating with the clients to understand their actual problem and while dealing with them to understand their complaints and they do not have the proper authority to offer them the best alternative on the spot and this is the main problem with the CRM department that the quick response is always leads towards happiness. One thing is clear that most of the respondents have the knowledge about their expectations and they can easily understand their expectations and they can demand only for their expected quality of services and that’s why they have registered their complaint and the rest of the respondents have been responded that they never registered complaints about the quality of services and products this showed that they may do not have any complaints  and it  might be possible that CRM department have identified completely their expectations. This is very clear to all of the respondents about the gap existence between their expectations regarding the quality of the services and products and this gap is the main hindrance in achieving organizational objectives.

The researcher came to know that the CRM department and its activities at Holiday Inn need more concentrations and some factors as discussed above that need to be included in the process of identification of customer’s expectations. There are too opportunities available in the target market to capture more clients from the market and the Holidays Inn can become the market leader because most of the people have visited the London for different purposes and majority of the people came here for their different purposes minimum 5 times in a year. And this is the big target market for the hotel industry and the potential customer’s can be targeted by the CRM department for the organizational objectives and its achievements. In this way for achieving the market ratio and growth of organization the customer relationship management must design and implement the marketing strategies effectively and those strategies must be designed with the coordination with the research and development department and marketing department. The 20% is not the negligible amount and the CRM department must review the whole procedure as the researcher has described that the CRM department must consider those factors those can play role in identification the customer’s expectations which includes priority, privacy, luxury, food, taste, pick and drop facility, neat and cleanliness and decoration, fast response and decoration and more important factors like low cost but high quality of services and products must be undertaken these factors and the staff skills and especially their communication skills must be reviewed and necessary actions must be taken by the department to improve their skills and communication process between CRM department and manufacturing department for manufacturing the services and products as per client’s expectations and the performance measurement must be evaluate so that the customer’s complaints must be handle in efficient way to create happiness and satisfaction among the customers for earning more money and become the market leader.

The researcher came to know during the interview with the manager and the staff of CRM department and came to know that there are some challenges and problems faced by the department in Holiday Inn hotel and they have planned to face them successfully and they have been improved their system to minimize those threats by enhancing its threats.

All the customers have believe in the loyalty and satisfaction and they responded that trough their expectation identification the CRM department can create satisfaction and loyalty among them if they provide them the quality of services and products as per their expectations then there will be significant increase in the sales and organization will make growth and the organization will capture new more clients and old will be retained y the CRM department in this way.

Here the researcher concluded that the 77% of the customers are linked with the new technology and they have the how and know about the CRM and its effectiveness where as the remaining 23% of the customers do not have interest in the new technology either the message of the awareness about the CRM effectiveness could not reach to them. The 15% is not negligible amount of the respondents and the 85% of the respondents have believe in the advantages and helping behaviour of the CRM staff and this is the loyalty and the happiness for the customers but the remaining 15% must be taken into consideration by the CRM department and pay its full attention towards achieving the effectiveness of CRM department for these 15% by actions and making policies that why these customers have been ignored. It is clear from the respondents that promises, quick response, staff behaviour and offers and brand image can create the quality of services improve and better for creating more loyalty and satisfaction among the customers.

Majority of the respondents 92% people share their feelings, experience and quality of services and products with their family friends, friends and colleagues and probably they may recommend them the products and services as per their experience and in this way loyalty can play its role for free marketing and this reference group will make string and permanent new clients and will help in achieving satisfaction and loyalty among them.

5.2    Recommendations

The researcher came to know about the main responsibilities of the customer relationship management department in achieving organizational objectives and its main features and its role in creating happiness and satisfaction among the clients. The researcher has made some recommendations for the Holiday Inn hotel situated in the London 103-109 Southwark street London, England to get more positive results from the customer relationship management department. As according to the aims and objectives of the researcher the researcher has concluded the results after making analysis explained above and now made the suggestions for the Holiday Inn hotel to achieve its objectives while contributing the CRM departmental efforts positively, all the recommendations have been listed below

The hotel management must keep its full concentration on two types of target market number one is the foreigner tourists and second one is the official visitors those come and stayed in the United Kingdom and they pay high amount for short stay and those people expect high quality of services and products in the return of their amount, so the customer relationship management department must design the marketing plan for these two above stated targeted market to capture new clients and to hold and retain the old clients with the hotel for increasing the sales volume.

The customer relationship management must designed the marketing strategies with the coordination of other departments marketing and research and development department and after considering all those factors those can capture new and can retain old customers from the targeted market for achievement of organizational objectives.

The CRM department must review the specific skills and the software review according to the advance technology that has a great impact on the demand and expectations of the customers and the CRM department can also identified the expectations of the remaining 20% of the customers which is a major portion and the CRM department must check its communication process from top to bottom in the process of expectation identification in order to minimize the gap between the customer’s expectations and the quality of services offered to the customers in order achieve the main objectives to become market leader in hotel industry.

The researcher has suggested that the CRM must take it into consideration seriously and must design the promotional campaign and message convey policies must be affective and all other media channels used by the tourists for creating awareness among the tourists and making it sure that strategic alliance with the other business organizations is effectively conveying its message to the target people for awareness about CRM department.

CRM department must make it sure to get the feedback from them and in this way the customers will also feel that the CRM departmental staff is doing work for them and they can be benefited from them and in this way the more satisfaction and loyalty can be generated.

The CRM department must consider strictly the staff behaviour, brand image, always honour the promises made during the marketing campaign with the customers and always offer some kind of offers for the customers to attract them, to improve and increase the level of quality better and to make the customers happy and loyal with the Holiday Inn hotel.

To achieve organizational objectives the CRM department needs to pay its focus on the priorities of customers to create loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and for reducing the gap between the customer’s expectations and offered quality of services to capture more market share from the market and to earn more money from the customers.

Customer complaints handling process must be checked by the CRM department and the employee’s skills must be reviewed and they must be well equipped by all means in order to create happiness and loyalty among the clients so that they will come again to buy the products and services and sales volume will become high and organizational objectives will be achieved.

CRM department can reduce the gap between the customer expectations and offered quality of services and products to the customers by keeping in mind all those above discussed factors for identifying their expectations and for this purpose the CRM department must improve the staff skills and must keep in considerations the factors affecting priorities and expectations and increasing the quality of services and products and through the customer the free marketing opportunity can be availed.

All the customers want to buy the products at cheap price but with high quality of the products and in this way the CRM department in the Holiday Inn must design the offers to the customers and loyal customers in the seasons and loyalty card or the valued customers card guest card can be designed and a proper strategy must be designed by this department for special offers (low cost but high quality) in order to again attract these clients and in this way the old clients will also remain in contact and the new customers will also be captured by the CRM department from the market share easily and the organizational objectives can be achieved.

The hotel customer relationship management must find out the customer’s expectations and for this purpose the CRM department must update the software and must review the whole process because some important factors are missed from the software and those factors can play their important role in identification of customer’s expectations.

5.3    Further Research

There are some other factors and areas which must be taken into considerations by the CRM department in the Holiday Inn hotel for further progress and those factors can play their positive role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and in achieving organizational objectives. Which includes marketing strategies, mass marketing, hotel location and decoration of the rooms and furniture can also play their role in the achievement of organizational objectives positively.

Chapter # 6:     References and Bibliography

a.   Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. (2005) Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention, Marketing Letters, 24(13), pp: 412-546

Anderson, W. & Mittal, V. (2006) Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain, Journal of Service Research, 13(9), pp: 97-234

Bennett, R. (2006) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 43(9), pp: 117-256.

Bhote, K.R. (2006) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty: The Key to Greater Profitability. 1st ed. New York: AMA Management Briefing

Bowen, J. & Shoemaker, S. (2008) ‘Loyalty: a strategic commitment’ Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 23(13), pp: 123-145

Buttle, F. (2004) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools 2nd ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Caruana, A., Money, A.H. and Berthon, P.R. (2000) ‘Service quality and satisfaction-the moderation role of value’ European Journal of Marketing, 33 (9), pp: 1335-13360

Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2003) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM):

People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 11(12), pp. 222-777

Chi, Q. & Qu, H. (2008) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management, 33(17), pp: 786-890

Feagin, J., Orum, A., & Sjoberg, G. (2001) A case for case study Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press

Flyvbjerg, B. (2006) ‘Five Misunderstandings about Case Study Research’ Qualitative Inquiry, 17(7), pp: 313-562

Gefen, D. (2002) Customer loyalty in e-commerce, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(9), pp: 123-167

Getty, J.M. and Thompson, K.N. (2007) ‘The relationship between quality, satisfaction, and recommending behaviour in lodging decision’ Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 11(14), pp: 113-227

Gronroos, C. (2001) Service Management and Marketing, 3rd ed. Manchester: John Wiley &

Sons Ltd.

Gundersen, M.G., Heide, M. & Olsson, U. (2006) ‘Hotel Guest satisfaction among Business Travellers: What are the Important Factors?’ The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37(12), pp: 145-457

Helgesen, O. (2006) ‘Are Loyal Customers profitable? Customer satisfaction customer action loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level’ Journal of Marketing Management, 34(17), pp: 123-323

Jones, T.O. and Sasser, E. (2005) ‘Why satisfied customer’s defects’ Harvard Business Review, 14(9), pp: 134-675

Kandampully, J. and Suhartanto, D. (2000) ‘Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: the role of customer satisfaction and image’ International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 10(9), pp: 364-252

Kim, H. (2005) ‘Developing an index of online customer satisfaction’ Journal of Financial Services Marketing, 23 (9), pp: 145-178

Looy, V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, V. (2003) Services Management: An Integrated

approach, 2nd ed. London: Pearson Education Publishers

Macintosh, G. & Lockshin, L. (2007) ‘Retail relationships and loyalty: A multi-level perspective’ International Journal of Research in Marketing, 24(13), pp: 112-213

Oliver, R.L. (2001) Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective On The Consumer. 1st ed. Singapore: McGraw Hill

Oliver, R.L. (2002) ‘A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of satisfaction Decisions’ Journal of marketing Research, 22(13), pp: 324-478

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1985) ‘A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research’, Journal of Marketing, 43(11), pp: 234-453

Powell R.A. & Single H.M. (2006) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 27(12), pp: 113-254

Reicheld, F.F. & Sasser, W. (2003) ‘Zero defections comes to services’ Harvard Business Review, 18(12), pp: 105-111

Reinartz, W. J. & Kumar, V. (2003) ‘The impact of customer relationship characteristics on profitable lifetime duration’ Journal of Marketing, 23(7), pp: 123-453

Schneider, B. and Bowen, D.E. (2007) Understanding customer delight and outrage, Sloan Management Review, 17(11), pp: 156-289

Schlesinger, L. and Heskett, J. (2002) ‘The Service-Driven Service Company’ Harvard Business Review, 69 (15), pp: 111-240

Soderlund, M. (2008) ‘Customer satisfaction and its consequences on customer behaviour revisited: The impact of different levels of satisfaction on word-of-mouth, feedback to the supplier and loyalty’ International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(11), pp: 113-512

Sugandhi, R.K. (2002) Customer Relationship Management. 3rd ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Zeithaml, V.A., Pasuraman, A. & Berry, L.L. (2006) Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. 1st ed. New York: The Free Press

b.   Websites

http://www.ihg.com/holidayinn/hotels/us/en/reservation [Accessed on 13th March 2013]

http://www.ihg.com/holidayinn/hotels/us/en/reservation/rewardnights?scmisc=nav_rewardnights_hi [Accessed on 16th March 2013]

http://www.ihg.com/holidayinn/hotels/us/en/global/deals/DiscountPrograms?scmisc=nav_DiscountPrograms_hi [Accessed on 11th February 2013]

http://generallythinking.com/answers/research-methods/what-are-the-advantages-of-qualitative-research/ [Accessed 24th February 2013]

c.   Bibliography

Chi, C. and Qu, H. (2008) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management, 29(12), pp: 624-636

Choi, T. and Chu, R. (2001) ‘Determinants of hotel guest’s satisfaction and repeat patronage in the Hong Kong hotel industry’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20(12), pp: 277-297

Faullent, R., Matzler, K. and Fuller, J. (2008) ‘The impact of satisfaction and image on loyalty: the case of Alpine ski resorts’ Managing Service Quality, 28(22), pp: 163-178

Gilbert, D. and Horsnell, S. (1998) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in United Kingdom hotels’ Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 22(14), pp: 450-464

Su, A.Y.L. (2004) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in Taiwan hotels’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22(9), pp: 397-408

Appendices

Questionnaires

The following questionnaires were involved in the questionnaire

Question:         Why did you come in this hotel?

Questions:       Did you ever been here (in this hotel) before and for how long you are coming and how many times you been here?

Question:         Are you satisfied by the quality of services offered by this hotel CRM department?

Question:         Do you believe in the gap between the customer expectations and the offered quality of services and products?

Question:         Do you believe that the customer relationship management department can play its effective role for enhancing sales and growth of an organization in the hotel industry and will reduce the gap between the customer’s expectations and the offered quality of services and products?

Question:         Did you ever find the CRM staff helpful for their problem handling and in identifying their expectations to reduce the gap?

Question:         Do you believe that is there a link between the customer’s expectations and their loyalty and satisfaction?

Question:         Do you believe that loyalty and satisfaction can lead towards the re sale and can create the happiness for customers?

Question:         Which factors can play their important role in identifying their expectations and in creating more quality and happiness as compared to the other hotels?

Question:         Which one or set of priorities would you like to prefer while booking a room in Holiday Inn and common factors those can helpful in identifying their expectations as well?

Question:         Did you ever register the complaints about the gap between offered quality of services and products and their expected quality of services and products?

Question:         Did you ever receive the response from CRM department against registered complaints and did they provide you the solutions at the spot or not?

Question:         Did you ever share your feelings, loyalty and your experience about the hotel quality of services with your friends, family friends and your colleagues?

Question:         Do you believe that the price and quality can play their role in creating loyalty and satisfaction among the customer in the hotel industry?

Which factors can play their role in creating gap between the expectations and perceived quality of services

Introduction

1.1    Introduction

Different companies are offering their services and goods in the same market these days at different prices in the competition and it is era of high competition, whereas the customers are also looking for the best services and high quality of services and products at low prices and they do bargaining as much they can. There are some kinds of customers like price conscious, quality conscious and both price and quality conscious. Now days the customers are looking for better quality of service at reasonable prices. While in the hotel industry when customers are looking for the best deals and their preferences are different like luxury, neat and clean environment and privacy is also a major factor. In order to achieve organizational goals and objectives the business organizations are trying at their best level to create long term and good relationship with their customers for making money from them by offering them suitable and expected quality of services and products (Chen & Popovich, 2005). Similarly Sugandhi, (2004) stated that the organizations are paying their more attention on the quality of services provided to the customer instead of the other areas like manufacturing and delivering products, because they came to know that the quality of services is always appreciated by the customers and more loyalty can be generated through the quality of services. In the hotel industry the main focus of the organizations is to offer the best services to the clients and in this way the hotel industry organizations can achieve their ultimately goals and objectives effectively. The organization in the hotel industry can achieve more market share if there is no difference between the expectations and the perceived quality of services and products. Some customers are quality conscious and some are price conscious but in the hotel industry where the visitors came from abroad just for enjoyment and refreshment they need privacy, luxury, no tension and quality of services at reasonable price. So the main factors in the hotel industry are the privacy and the luxury factors and quality of services includes privacy, luxury and fast response. And it is not necessary that all the customers have the same expectations. Some visitors require only privacy and they do not bother about the luxury and some visitors need only quality of services like no disturbance, fast and quick response from hotel administration and some visitors looking for just stay they just care about their money they just bother the cheap price. In the hotel industry the main successive factor is to understand and identify the needs and wants (expectations) of customers and if the hotel administration has successfully delivered the expected quality of services and products then in such way the organization will achieve the organizational objectives in easy way. And in this way the hotel administration will be successfully increases the market share by identifying and delivering the expected quality of services and products to the clients.

1.2    Research Aims

Different customers have different priorities and demands which are called the expectations. The main aim of this research is to identify the gap of CRM activities in the United Kingdom in Hotel Industry. Basically the researcher wants to identify the effect of CRM gap on the sales and growth of organization. The researcher wants to identify the main gap which exists between the customer’s expectations and the perceived quality of services and products its role in sales and growth of the organization and its drawbacks will be also find out by the researcher. The researcher will also find out the reasons of the gap and kind of gaps those exist in an organization and its impact on the sales in hotel industry.

1.3    Research Objectives

There are following main objectives of this research

The researcher will find out the impact of gap exist in between the perceived quality of services and expected quality of services.

The researcher will also find out those factors that can increase and reduce the gap between the expectations and the perceived quality of services and products

The researcher will also disclose the role of CRM in reducing gap and role of CRM activities on the sales of organization in hotel industry.

The researcher will find out the factors those can play their role in increasing quality of services.

The researcher will find out the relationship between the quality of services and the CRM

1.4    Research Questions

The researcher has designed the following questions to achieve the above stated objectives

Is there gap exist in CRM activities?

Which factors can play their role in creating gap between the expectations and perceived quality of services?

Which factors can reduce this gap for achieving organizational objectives effectively?

What is the relationship between the gap and CRM activities?

How CRM can reduce the gap?

What are the main impacts of CRM activities on the sales and customer retention in hotel industry?

1.5    Scope of Study

In the competition and in the same industry all the hotels are offering the same products and services and it is very hard for the hotels to increase their market share. But there is a hope and positive signs are available that if the gap between the expectations of the customers and perceived quality of services and products can be identified and successfully reduced then the market share can be increased and in such a way the organization can achieve the organizational objectives successfully efficiently and effectively.

1.6    Ethical Considerations

The researcher will avoid the duplication of results and the researcher will use the proper tools and procedures in order to collect valid and reliable primary data and will use recommended tools and procedures for making analysis and interpreting them for conclusion and suggestions, the researcher will also abide by old references because with the passage of time the technology and the trends also changed and there is no such value of old references so the researcher will includes the fresh arrivals books and research reports, articles and journals as reference. The researcher will also not steel someone data and will never allow someone to steel his research data. The researcher will also keep the respondent’s details and organizational trades and secrets in personal custody and will never disclose them.

1.7    Limitation of Research

Being student the researcher has some limitations and the researcher will try to overcome these limitations, first of all the researcher has no such experience of  conducting research that’s why the researcher may face some problems and it take more time and cost. But the researcher will be directed and will get proper feedback and guidance from the respected supervisor for achieving research objectives efficiently and effectively. The researcher has limited time to complete the research and has limited financial resources, by keeping all these limitations the researcher has decided to select case study tool to complete his research well in time.  

Literature Review

2.1    Literature Review

Here in this chapter the researcher will describe and discuss the previous researches and their arguments in the favour of CRM activities in achieving organizational objective. The researcher will link the relationship among the quality of services that can be provided to the clients as per their expectations and the role of CRM department in creating happiness among the clients. The researcher will also provide rational review of literature. Customer’s needs and wants for which they pay amount (expectations) and in the perceived quality of services there is a gap and there exist direct relationship of this gap with the sales of organization (Parasuraman et al., 2001). Buttle, (2005) has also supported the above statement by saying that happiness can be created and satisfaction and loyalty can be created by reducing the gap between the offered and perceived services quality. The researcher will also discuss the arguments against the CRM activities and will focus on the role of CRM in minimizing the gap between the clients expectations and offered quality of services and products in order to increase the market share for achieving sales targets and retaining more old clients and capturing new clients by offering new offers as per client’s expectations. According to Buttle, (2005) that CRM can build the strong and long term relationship with the clients to enhance the volume of sales and revenue by just creating happiness and satisfaction among the clients by recognizing the expectations of the clients through the skilled and the well trained CRM representatives. There are so many advantages of CRM department especially in the success of business organizations the CRM department always plays its effective role (Buttle, 2005).  Business organization especially in the hospitality sectors the organizations can achieve their long terms and goals just by generating profitable relationship with the clients and minimizing the difference of their expectations regarding service quality and the commitments fulfilment.

McDonald, (2006) stated and define the CRM in these words that CRM is basically the main and central department of any organization that play its multi functional role for the success of organization in achieving company goals and objectives in short and long term, in details McDonald, (2006) also stated that the CRM also play an important role and its main functionality is to first identify the client’s problems and handle their complaints and offered them the suitable solutions as per their requirements just to provide them happiness and to repeat the sales volume in the future. In the high competition in the market the success of organization is depend on the organizational personal relationships with the entire employee’s skills and their productive level as well as relationships with the outside of the organization which includes clients, raw material suppliers, distributors and supply chain departments and all these relationships depend on the CRM strategies, so organizations must put their focus on the establishment of CRM strategies for success in future as compared to the competitors in the market. Bennett, (2001) has stated that it is only the CRM department that can identify the expectations of stakeholders and can satisfy the stakeholders to achieve success, and this is only department that strong, long term and profitable relationship with stakeholders can be established just by the effective business strategies designed and implemented by the CRM department and these strategies can be monitored and regulated with the help of other departments. Bejou et al., (2001) has been described that organizations can achieve the targets and business expansion is directly related with the client’s retention ratio, he also put focus on the complaints handling and their feedback is more essential and provide a chance to the organizations to identify their needs and can be enhanced their retention ratio and market share. Revenue has direct relationship with the happiness of customers created by the CRM business strategies and volume of sales has also direct relationship with the satisfaction level of customer which is created by the CRM business policies and efforts but one thing is common that first the CRM has to recognize the client’s priorities and needs. The CRM can also create the happiness and satisfaction by just handling client’s complaints and offering them the proper and best solution at the spot and in this way the organizations can establish long term and strong relationship with them, and organizations become successful in retaining them and these people also do the free of cost marketing for the organization and CRM employee attitude and behaviour to other people and become reference group (Anderson, 2008). Bennett, (2001) has been stated that CRM can reduce the gap between the offered and expected quality of products and the services and in this way the happiness can be created and sales repetition can be possible. When there the expectations are not meet by the offered quality of services and items then the happiness level will be very low and when there is no gap then the happiness level will be high and ultimately the company will achieve its goals (Buttle, 2005). Similarly McAlexander et al., (2001) stated that there is direct relationship exist between sales and quality of services and items. Whereas the Bhote, (2000) stated and explained in detail that only the organizational image, brand image and company reputation has positive effect on the satisfaction and loyalty of customer.  Gap model was explained by the Parasuraman et al., (2001) in this model it was clearly described bout the client’s expectations and factors that can play their role in reducing this gap and the influence of this gap on the sales and expansion of organization and the role of CRM in reducing this gap. Gap model also described the different level of gaps in a diagram and the role of CRM in reducing this gap and effects of gap in achieving company goals and objectives effectively. Gummesson, (2002) has been stated that there is a relationship between the profit and promises, commitments and values that companies make during promotional campaign so it is necessary for the companies to take care about their words and promises and fulfil all those commitments which made during campaign. Anderson and Mittal, (2002) they both have stated that client’s loyalty has a direct relationship with the expectations and perceived quality of services and items, when gap of CRM will be low then the loyalty level will be high and if the gap between the expectations and perceived values will be high then the loyalty and satisfaction will be low.

Clients Level of Satisfaction/ Happiness  Clients Level of Loyalty created due to satisfaction  
Organizational Achievements    

 

Identification of Clients Expectations   Reduce the difference between Expectations and Perceived Quality of services and products      
Sales Repetition   Reference Group   Revenue increment    Market Share Increases   More sales volume and Revenue and Profit   Business Expansion  

 

The above diagram shows that clients happiness and satisfaction is directly linked with the expectations and values for which the clients are willing to pay amount to buy the product and to overcome their problems and CRM is responsible for recognizing this kind of expectations and when there will be no gap between these expectations and perceived quality and values then automatically happiness will be come in the clients and this happiness will leads them towards satisfaction and this kind of satisfaction will leads them towards loyalty and when the loyalty is there in the client then the client will repeat the sales and will come again and again for shopping and for hiring services from the same company and secondly the testimonial will become the reference group and they will tell their friends, family members and family friends about their satisfaction and in such a way the market share will be gained by the company and in such situation the company will achieve the targets.  On business performance there is always a relationship exist between the loyalty and satisfaction of clients that always start from the expectations (Buttle, 2005). CRM can play its effective role in creating the loyalty among the clients (Evan and Laskin, 2000). Whereas Looy et al., (2005) stated that due to low value, low quality of services and products always disappointed the clients so the organizations must pay their attention towards the quality rather than to put their focus on the CRM welfare and trainings and skills, the organizations must pay their full attention towards employees welfare because there exist a strong link between staff productive attitude and business performance.

2.2    Literature review Frame of reference

 

2.3    Explanation

The above diagram shows the flow of review of literature as the researcher has discussed in detail about the gap between the expectations and the perceived qualities and values of services and products. The researcher has showed all the flow of work in the above diagram. As a result the researcher came to know that every customer has some needs and wants for which they pay the organizations to solve their problems and to overcome their thirst. The customer’s have their own needs and demand which we called their expectations and to overcome their needs and wants the customers came and pay money to buy the products and hire the services for solving their problems and after buying the products or hiring services and after using them if the results are according to their expectations then the customer will become happy and they will become loyal with the company and next time in the future the customer will come again to buy the products and will let his or her friends, family, colleagues and family friends about the results and they will also start to buy products or hire the services from the organization and in such a way the organization can make progress by enhancing the market share. One thing is also important that some clients have the complaints about some specific products then in such a way the CRM can also handle client’s problem and solve them in such a way the loyalty and market share can be enhanced. The research showed and proved that the difference between the perceived and the expected values, characteristics and quality of products and services also play an important role in creating loyalty and market share and this factor can also play an important role in achieving sales targets and business performance can be improved and CRM can also play its role in minimizing this gap. CRM can also minimize and after identifying the expectations of the clients it will be easy for the organization to offer services and product as per client’s expectations and in this way resources and time can be saved.

Research Methodology

3.1    Methodology

In this chapter number three the researcher will also explain about the research method that which tools and methods will be selected by the researcher to complete and conduct this research according to the main aims and objectives of this research to achieve the research objectives. According to the Engel et al., (2001) that to actually structure the research to collect the secondary and primary data in a good way, to get good results according to the aims and objectives of this research the researcher use research method, and in this way the results also recorded by the researcher. Here the researcher has selected the Blakemore hotel as case study tool because the CRM department is already in operation in this hotel and hotel has all the infra structure and the administration has responded me positively and allowed the researcher to conduct the research and the administration will allocate the necessary resources. Case study tool is the best research method to conduct the research to get most reliable primary data on which the researcher can make recommendations (Kitzinger, 2000).  The researcher will use quantitative and qualitative both research techniques to conduct the research.

3.2    Population

In this research the researcher will select the CRM staff and the customers and the researcher will select the key post employees and potential clients and will distribute questionnaires among them for gathering primary data the researcher will analyse the data and will reach to the conclusion for making recommendations and suggestions.

3.3    Sampling Size

According to the Sugandhi, (2004) stated that the researcher can choose research method according to the nature and the problem of the research and in the sampling method the researcher has choice among them, which includes random, stratified, quota, snowball, judgement and systematic sampling size. Here in this research the researcher has decided to select the customers randomly and the range of their will be 19 years old to 55 years old and both gender will be included in the sampling size and total number of sample will be about 80.

3.4    Primary data source

Morgan, (2000) stated that researcher must distribute the questionnaires among the samples and must select the customers and staff members in order to disclose the actual nature of research problem and to find out the actual solution. Focus group is also the basic source of primary data but in medical research the focus group is the most strong and effective way to collect primary data (Powell & Single, 2000). The researcher will also conduct the interview to collect the primary data.

3.4.1  Interview

Open and close ended questions will be included in the interview by the researcher and the researcher will design the questionnaires in such a way to disclose the actual nature of the problem and the most reliable and valid data will be gathered in this way, the researcher will conduct the interview of managers, CRM manager, employees and to the potential customers, and the researcher will also distribute the questionnaires among the clients and will just ask some questions from the staff members and will get their responses and opinion to make it sure the effectiveness of CRM in reducing the gap and in order to achieve the organizational objectives in well manners. Interview is basically two way communication and the respondents and the interviewer they both can communicate at the same time and without bias the respondents gave his or her opinion and suggestions to the researcher (Saunders et al., 2010).

3.5    Secondary data source

Yin, (2001) has been stated that there are different source of secondary data gathering and a researcher can select more than one source to collect secondary data which includes website, electronic books, journals, electronics journals, articles, annual reports and research papers. The researcher will use college library, hotel website, different books, electronics books, journals and articles and annual reports on the CRM subject and will gather the secondary data according to the aims and objectives of this research.

3.6    Case Study Tool

Due to limitation of the research the one important limitation is the limited time and the researcher has no research conducting experience so the best way to overcome this limitation is that the researchers select an organization as case study tool which is best way to conduct the research in effective way and results of case study tool are also valid and reliable. Case study tool is the best and reliable source to conduct the research for unexperienced researcher (Goddard & Melville, 2006).

3.7    Scope of Research

Now in every market all the competitors have the same technology and procedures and all are trying to make more money by utilizing minimum amount of money or investment. Especially in the sector of hospitality the client’s priorities and the expectations plays important role in retaining them and the organization that has CRM in operation and has reduced the difference between the needs, wants and expectations of the clients and the perceived quality of services with the expected services then the company can enhance the market share figure.

Data Presentation and Analysis

4.1    Data Presentations

The researcher will present the data in the form of tables and pie charts will be used by the researcher to make analysis, the researcher will use the sheets with table diagrams on the sheets and will also use the spread sheet to record the results and data. The researcher will use the arrangements of rows and columns just to make it sure that data will not be duplicated and in this way the validity and the reliability will remain reliable and valid.

4.2    Data Analysis Tools

The researcher first of all record the results after conducting the research and after completing the interviews and the responses of the respondents will be recorded on computer in electronic sheets and on paper form tables and after that by using necessary skills the researcher will use pie and bar charts to show the different relationships among the different variables and factors and to show the ratios and dependability of other factors on each other.

4.3    Expected Findings

The researcher has expected to find out the results in the form of positive role of CRM in reducing and minimizing the gap between the offered and expected quality and value of both services and products just to enhance the market share and obtaining financial goals and objectives which is the main objective of this research. the researcher has expect to know the factors those can participate in enhancing and reducing the gap and researcher will also find out those factors those can play their role in identifying client’s expectations and their priorities from different angles. In this section the researcher will also describe the role of CRM in reducing the gap.

4.4    Data Reliability and Validity

Constancy and steadiness always referred to as data reliability. In this section the researcher will also discuss about the tools and skills which will be used by the researcher to conduct the research and the researcher can rely on the data results.

Project Planning

5.1    Project Planning

In this chapter the researcher will discuss the all steps which will be involved in the research process.

5.2    Budget and Time Schedule

5.2.1  Financial Resources

The following table shows the description and relevant cost for each activity.

S. #DescriptionTotal Cost (£)
1Travel Expenses300
2Entertainment650
3Software, documentations950
4Miscellaneous expenses1100

5.2.2  Time Schedule

History and IssueX         
Research ObjectivesXX        
Literature ReviewXXX       
Conducting Primary Data  XXX     
Time Schedule in Weeks12345678910
Data Presentation    X     
Analysis     X    
Conclusion     XX   
Recommendations      XX  
Contingency Plan (If Required)        XX

5.3    Contingency Plan

As per supervisor instructions and to remove errors the researcher will use the last two weeks to make amendments in the project.

Conclusion

6.1    Limitations and conclusions

The researcher will discuss the limitations of this research which includes time and financial resources, as the researcher is the student so it is not possible for him to conduct the research on a large scale to overcome this limitation the researcher has selected case study tool, secondly the researcher has no research conducting techniques so the researcher has selected the case study tool and being student all the cost will be beared by the researcher and some resources will be allocated by the selected hotel. The researcher will join the theories and the results obtained after making analysis on the results and in the light of both literature review and data obtained by the research the researcher will make conclusion that which factors can play their role in reducing the gap and the researcher will make conclusion according to the objectives of the research.

6.2    Positive Recommendations

In this section the researcher will also make some suggestions and recommendations after pointing out the weak areas and problems in the system and after taking feedback the researcher will make recommendations and suggestions for the betterment of the selected hotel to achieve its organizational objectives in well manners. 

6.3    Further Research Areas

In this section the researcher will also find out those areas that will be disclosed by the researcher in the result of respondent’s opinions and responses. The researcher will also point out those areas that can be taken under research by the organizations to achieve organisational objective more in efficient form.

References and Bibliography

a.   Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. and Mittal, V. (2002) ‘Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain’ Journal of

Service Research, 11, (15) pp. 20-213

Anderson, E.W. (2008) ‘Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention’

Marketing Letters, 11, (15) pp.32-245

Bejou, D., Ennuw, C. and Palmer, A. (2001) ‘Trust, ethics and relationship satisfaction’

Journalof Bank Marketing, 9, (11) pp.34-247

Bennett, R. (2001) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional

analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 6, (21) pp. 113-

234.

Bhote, K.R (2000) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty. 3rd ed. New York: AMA

Management Briefing

Buttle, F. (2005) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools, 1st ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Chen, I.J. and Popovich, K. (2005) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM):

People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 11, (12) pp. 234-345

Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. & Miniard, P.W. (2001) Consumer Behaviour, 2nd ed. London: Dryden Press

Evans, J. R. and Laskin, R. L. (2000) ‘The relationship marketing process: A conceptualization

and application’ Industrial Marketing Management, 14, (11) pp.123-321

Goddard, W. and Melville, S. (2006) Research Methodology: An Introduction 2nd ed. Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd

Gummesson, E. (2002) ‘Broadening and Specifying Relationship Marketing’ Asia-Australia

Marketing Journal, 11, (17) pp. 12-198

Kitzinger, J. (2000) ‘Introducing focus groups’ British Medical Journal, 14, (15) pp. 123-213

Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, A. (2005) Services Management: An integrated

Approach, 2nd ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited

McDonald, L. (2006) Customer Relationship Management – An Overview [online]Available at

<http://www.brillianceweb.com/betterwebdesign/tips_48.aspx&gt; [Accessed 14 December 2012]

Morgan, D.L. (2000) Focus groups as qualitative research, 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2001) ‘A conceptual model of service

quality and its implications for future research’ Journal of Marketing, 35, (12) pp.112-198

Powell R.A. and Single H.M. (2000) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 11, (12) pp. 212-344

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2010) Research Methods for Business Students 4th ed. Essex: Pearson Education

Sugandhi, R.K. (2004) Customer Relationship Management. 3rd ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Yin, R. (2000) Case study research: Design and methods.2nd ed. CA: Sage Publishing

b.   Websites

www.blakemore.org.uk [Accessed on 3rd December 2012]

c.   Bibliography

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (1998) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials London: Sage Publications

Ehrenberg, A.S.C. (2000) ‘Repeat Buying: facts, theory and applications’ Journal of Empirical Generalizations in Marketing Science, 5, (2) pp.299-600

Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J. & Stanton, W.J. (1997) Marketing International Edition. 2nd ed. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Gronroos, C. (1984) ‘A service quality model and its marketing implications’ European Journal

of Marketing, 18, (1) pp.30-50

Gronroos, C. (1994) ‘From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm

Shift in Marketing’ Management Decision, 32, (2) pp.2-30

Morgan, R.M. and Shelby D. H. (1994) ‘The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship

Marketing’ Journal of Marketing, 58, (1) pp.22-40

Implications for women in leadership positions of Inequalities regimes in organizations

1.      Introduction

In order to understand the implications for women at leadership position of Inequalities regimes in organizations we need to understand the inequalities first, basically it is the difference between employees in control and power over the resources, decisions taken by management at work placement, promotion, wages, reward, equal opportunities to all employees, job security and respect in achieving organizational goals (Aker, 2006). In organizations inequalities are different, equalities can be found in very few organizations and in job security and employee’s benefits equality may occur in some organizations. There is always discriminations on the bases of race, colour, sex, region, religion (Acker, 2000).

There are two basically implications for women in leadership positions of Inequalities regimes in organizations

1.         Individualized wage settings (that produce the inequality)

2.         Wage setting system (It is necessary to investigate the wage setting system)

Acker, (2006) has been stated that almost all inequality regimes can be found in all organizations including processes, actions and inter related practices. He also stated that different inequalities can be presented in different organizations, he also given preference to the class and race are the most two prominent factors beside the gender she also highlighted the other factors like sexual preferences at the work placement beyond the class, race and gender. It is assumed that heterosexuality is the organizational practices and processes can disturb the organizational work (Glass, 2004). Women are scare in leadership positions because of inequality regimes including race, gender and class, in most of the organizations white men and women from dominant racial group are at top positions (Davis, 1981). The relations at supervisory level can be affected because of race and gender leadership behaviour with subordinator always has an impact of inequality. It has been observed that the white man at top positions do not focus and listen the women at leadership positions due to (colour difference) race and class difference and ignore them in meetings and devalue women excluding white women at leadership position. In some organization women employees are supposed to sexually attract customers. Basically Acker has conducted the research with the aims to understand the power and work relations in an organization (Aker, 2006).

Ackers has defined the inequality as disparities among the participants in the following areas

Opportunities

Respect

Wages

Job security and rewards

Resources allocations

Assigning tasks

Power/ authority and decision making sharing

Inequality in the politics, culture, society and history has strong link inequalities regimes in organizations (Collins, 1995).

2.      Analysis

The main base of inequality in an organization is the Class rather than the sex, religion, wage and race. One more basis of inequalities is the difference between accessing and controlling resources in an organization in achieving organizational objectives. But the class is main important because the CEO (national) in an organization always lead and command the rest of the employees from different countries (Brown, et al., 2003).

2.1      Gender and Race

Lower level jobs are always done by women and men always manage them, most women are doing job such as clerks, customer care services, personal assistance and secretary, although in some organizations women are doing job at managerial level (Charles & David, 2004).

The disturbance in the organization is always started from women, women always started to disturb men at work. Race is another base of inequality in the organization. Race means the region, particular group, particular belief and culture (Burawoy, 1979).

2.2      Wage and Power difference

With the height of hierarchy salary varies in organization. Top most person (CEO) always earned more than the staff members, whereas in the organizations white men always earn more as compared to other nationals even if he or she is doing job in bottom level. Professional associations and labour unions can play their important role in minimizing this variation (Ely & Debra, 2000). Same as in salary variation there is also variation in the powers and that is connected with the height of hierarchy but professional associations and labour unions can play their important role in minimizing this variation. Race and sex are always very important in giving power and authority in an organization all the managers do not have same powers and authorities, so this is the class difference (Acker, 1991). Even then if the men and women are the manager in an organization there will be a wage difference, power difference and authority difference. First of all the main reason of inequality is the nature of work at an organization (Enarson, 1984). As the managerial work is carried out by the white people and they do not have the children responsibilities and other work at home, they just need to go office given directions to the subordinators and get heavy salaries, whereas women worker at low level has no flexibility they are responsible to look after their home and family members. There is an unjustified wag gap exist among the gender type, at the same level women are earning low wages as compared to men wages (Glass, 2004). Similarly skilled men are earning high wags as compared to skilled women at the same level in an organization. So this gender difference wage gap also creating inequality at work placement. Similarly it has been observed that women workers at managerial level do not credited whereas the men managers always credited by their performance. Some scholars have stated that from some organizations the middle management level has removed to create equality among men and women at job particularly in wage area (Brown, et al., 2003).

2.3      Supervisory Practices

Basically the first implication of for women at leadership position in inequality regime organization is the supervisory practices, because the relations between supervisor and subordinator can be influenced because of race and gender. Leader’s attitude with its subordinators may be different as compared to job nature requirement because of race and gender and can lead to inequality (Charles & David, 2004). Women working at low level and earn low wages as compared to top level managerial and they need to do more work as compared to their managers so this difference of wages and work load create inequality among men and women (Acker, 1989). Job descriptions always associated with the task and nature of job and the wages rates are as according to the responsibilities. Women jobs are related with the lower wages and most of the sexy women doing job in organizations as secretary level or at clerical level, whereas at the same position men wages are high as compared to women as the same level.

According to Ackers (2006) that at the work placement when men and women interact with each other, they involve in class, gender and race inequalities and they made different assumptions about their wages. Inequalities created by the interaction practices are complex to document. Employers believed that women workers must be pretty and sexually attractive to attract the customers to increase the sales volume (Ely & Debra, 2000). Inequalities can be controlled by maintaining the authority and power among managers, by reducing the gap between wage differences (Brown, et al., 2003). Management should start reward system to control the racial and gender difference and punishment system should be introduced for non compliance with rules and regulation (Acker, 1991). Bureaucratic system should be finished and power must be maintained among all managers as per their task nature to access and control the resources in achieving organizational objectives.

3.      Conclusion

These are class practices and the top level managers manage and control the workers by dividing work and allocating resources and set the wages as per the skills and competencies and job nature. Some scholars stated that race and gender have impact in wage setting and supervisory practices and create inequality at work placement and lead class to the unfair wage settings (Collinson & Jeff, 1996). The organizations must consider the fair wage process in order to reduce the inequality. The difference among the wage rate between men and women has been increased that produced the inequalities in organizations. To reduce the inequality the managers must reward the high performance employees with more wages for more productivity (Aker, 2006). The bases and practices those produces the inequalities in organizations have been discussed above in details and the implications for women at leadership level in inequality regime organizations have been discussed. The organizations need to review their supervisory practices and wage gap existed among men and women worker in the organizations to reduce the inequalities from organizations for more productivity. Equality can be produced by reducing the inequalities in wages, retirement benefits and in medical allowance. Whereas in order to reduce the labour cost the organizations need to do downsizing and using outsourcing for more productivity and efficiency, in this way inequalities can be reduced. Organizations must compliance with the equal employment opportunity laws to create equality in the work placement.

4.      References and bibliography

a.        Books and Journals

Acker, J. (1989) Doing comparable worth: Gender, class and pay equity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press

Acker, J. (1990) Hierarchies, jobs, and bodies: A theory of gendered organizations, Gender & Society, 11(12), pp: 52- 123

Acker, J. (1991) Thinking about wages: The gendered wage gap in Swedish banks, Gender & Society, 12(13), pp: 382-390

Acker, J. (2000) Revisiting class: Thinking from gender, race and organizations. Social Politics, 12(6), pp: 23-56

Adkins, L. (1995) Gendered work, 1st ed. London: Open University Press

Barker, J. R. (1993) Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams,

Administrative Science Quarterly, 23(25), pp: 72-98

Brown, M. K., Carnoy, M., Currie, E., Duster, T., Oppenheimer, D. B., Shultz, M. M. & Wellman, D. (2003) White-washing race: The myth of a color-blind society, 1st ed.Berkeley: University of California Press

Burawoy, M. (1979) Manufacturing consent. 1st ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Charles, M. & David, B. G. (2004) Occupational ghettos: The worldwide segregation of women and men. 1st ed. CA: Stanford University Press

Cockburn, C. (1991) In the way of women: Men’s resistance to sex equality in organizations, 1st ed. NY: ILR Press

Collins, P. H. (1995) Comment on West and Fenstermaker. Gender & Society, 11(9), pp: 73-84

Collinson, D. L. & Jeff, H. (1996) Men as managers, managers as men, 1st ed. London: Sage Publishers

Davis, A. Y. (1981) Women, race & class, 1st ed. New York: Vintage Publishers

Ely, R. J. & Debra, E. M. (2000) Advancing gender equity in organizations: The challenge and importance of maintaining a gender narrative. Organization, 12(13), pp: 323-334

Enarson, E. (1984) Woods-working women: Sexual integration in the U.S. Forest Service. 1st ed. AL: University of Alabama Press

Glass, J. (2004) Blessing or curse? Work-family policies and mother’s wage growth over time, Work and Occupations, 14(21), pp: 34-76

B.        Websites

Aker, J. (2006) Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations. Gender &amp; Society. [online] 5(20). pp: 23-46. Available from <http://www.sagepub.com/oswcondensed/study/articles/05/Acker.pdf&gt; [Accessed on 2nd November 2014]

C.        Bibliography

Featherstone, L. (2004) Selling women short: The landmark battle for workers’ rights at Wal-Mart. New York: Basic Books

Fenstermaker, S. & Candace, W. (2002) Doing gender, doing difference: Inequality, power and institutional change, 1st ed.  New York: Routledge Publishers

plan for the collection of primary and secondary data for a given business

In this assignment discuss about type of data, a methodology of gathering data from various sources, arranging them according to a system to get useful information which leads to take better decisions. Analysing data and information is very important to take efficient and effective business decisions. This will help the management to understand the industry status, can be a value addition tool and introduce new processors, rules and regulation to increase quality, quantity and productivity. Organisations use technology to arrange data and to get information according to their requirement (Yu & Chen, 2011). According to the scenario is about Halford group a product, service and expertise provider of motor, bicycle, and great getaway that means a transportation facilitator according to customers’ requirement. Halford has more than 402 superstores, 34 compact stores, 31 metro compact stores and 261 auto centres across in the United Kingdom and in the Republic of Ireland. They have introduced a Bike hut as a showcase to promote their bike brands. Where they want to increase their customer satisfaction level and need to clarify the feedback of the market about their products (Asoff, 2009).

Create a plan for the collection of primary and secondary data for a given business

Data are statistics, details, verses, photographs, charts, images and etc. There are two types of data, such as quantitative data and qualitative data (Austin, et al., 2007). Quantitative data means where data gathered from surveys, questionnaires, trials and etc. these data are much in number format. Qualitative data’s are that has recorded in detail. It is very important to collect both types of data to get a great output. Primary data can be collected by interviews, research, or by observations. But for the given scenario it is important to gather customer feedback therefore interviews are important. The Even Halfords Group can use their site, e-commerce link as a resource to collect data by adding a short questionnaire. Secondary data are records which exist currently. Plan to collect primary data and secondary data for the given situation are, quick questionnaires, informal interviews, telephone surveys, observing the customers, analyse the previous company details, use the web site to get feedback from customers and etc (Barker, 2010).

Source: http://analyticalconsulting.info/services/

1.2   Present the survey methodology and sampling frame used

Survey methodology is a tool that uses to gather data from a specific segment. In this scenario it is important to gather information mainly from cyclists about their requirements, their liking and dis-likings value additions, knowledge about the product, ideas to improve the invention and etc (Bryman & Bell, 2008). The survey question list can be made out of closed questions and open questions. Surveys can be conducted mainly in two ways that is interviews and questionnaires. This is also can be done by qualitative assessment or as a quantitative design methodology. On the other hand there are two sampling types, as probability and non probability sampling. Probability and non probability sampling has different techniques of sampling (Curran, et al., 2011). For example probability sampling has simple random sampling method, cluster sampling, stratified sampling method and systematic sampling method. Where non probability sampling has snowball sample method, quota sampling and judgmental sample method. In this case it is appropriate to use questionnaires containing both open ended and close ended questions. And non probability sampling technique can be use as the sampling frame (Craig, 2010).

Source: Author

1.3   Design a questionnaire for a given business problem

Dear Valued Customer,

We Halfords group as the leader in cycles retailing market always looking forward to give more that our client expects. We have introduced “Bikehut Stores” where you can easily reach and access premium bike brands. To enhance more customer oriented service we would like to ask few questions.

Many thanks in advance for your precious time taken to fill the below questionnaire

Looking forward to provide better service in future

Best regards,

——————–

Manager,

Halfords Group

Name: – …………………………

Address: -………………………….

Age:-…………………………..

Gender: Male £ Female £

Are you happy to deal with Halfords: Yes £ No £

If your answer is no please specify: – ………………………………………………………

Are you aware of the new store chain called “Bikehut”: Yes £ No £

Do you think the price of this product is reasonable: Yes £ No £

If your answer is no, please state why? …………………………………….

Do you recommend our products to another person: Yes £ No £

Your ideas are very important to us to provide an extravagantly personalised service and products to you. Please comment:

……………………………………………………………………………………………

Please use the envelope attached to send your valued ideas.

2.1   Relate information for decision making by summarising data using representative values

Total Response is = 225

Product use age according to the gender

Male – 150 Female – 75

Happy to deal with Halfords

Yes: (217)

No: (8)

Awareness of the “Bikehut” stores

Yes: (185)

No: (40)

Overall quality of the product

1 (4)

2 (23)

3 (68)

4 (120)

5 (10)

Overall satisfaction of the product

1 (2)

2 (32)

3 (89)

4 (79)

5 (23)

Service in the Bikehut

1 (0)

2 (93)

3 (102)

4 (23)

5 (7)

After sales services

1 (3)

2 (42)

3 (88)

4 (80)

5 (12)

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

1 (0)

2 (17)

3 (107)

4 (75)

5 (26)

Price is reasonable

Yes (157)

No (68)

Product recommendations

Yes (210)

No (15)

(1-Unsatisfied, 2-Good, 3-Very Good, 4-Satisfied, 5-Exceed expectation)

2.2   Analyse the results draw valid conclusions in a business context.

Total Response is = 225

Product use age according to the gender

Male 150, Female 75

Male 66.67%

Female 33.33%

Happy to deal with Halfords

Yes (217) 96.44%

No (8) 3.56%

Awareness of the “Bikehut” stores

Yes (185) 82.22%

No (40) 17.78%

Overall quality of the product

1 (4) 1.78%

2 (23) 10.22%

3 (68) 30.22%

4 (120) 53.33%

5 (10) 4.44%

Overall satisfaction of the product

1 (2) 0.89%

2 (32) 14.22%

3 (89) 39.56%

4 (79) 35.11%

5 (23) 10.22%

Service in the Bikehut

1 (0) 0%

2 (93) 41.33%

3 (102) 45.33%

4 (23) 10.22%

5 (7) 3.11%

After sales services

1 (3) 1.33%

2 (42) 18.67%

3 (88) 39.11%

4 (80) 35.56%

5 (12) 5.33%

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

1(0) 0%

2 (17) 7.56%

3 (107) 47.56%

4 (75) 33.33%

5 (26) 11.56%

Price is reasonable

Yes (157) 69.78%

No (68) 30.22%

Product recommendations

Yes (210) 93.33%

No (15) 6.67%

The customer base is at 66.67% of males and 33.33% female. The company should look forward to encourage more females to use the product. When advertising focus to touch famine market too.

96.44% customers are happy to deal with the establishment, 82.22% customer base is aware of the new store chain. 98% of customers are satisfied about the product quality, where 99% are overall satisfied about the product. 100% customers are happy about the service provided at “Bikehut”. 97% of customers are delighted about after sales services. 70% of clients say that the product price is reasonable. 93.33% of customers will help to bring business by recommending the product to others. This is a free advertising for the company. When considering the overall information the company is performing well. Customers are satisfied with the establishment and as well as the product and the service (Daniel & Ward, 2009).

2.3   Analyse data using measures of dispersion into inform a given business scenario.

Measures of dispersion means when scattering data how the statistics are comparable individually (Dubois & Gadde, 2007), there are three ways to measure dispersion, namely as the range, the semi interquartile range (SIR) and variance / standard deviation. In range dispersion uses the lowest value and the highest value in the given data set and the difference is taken as ranges (Thorpe & Lowe, 2006).

1

2

3

4

5

Overall quality of the product

4          1.78%

23        10.22%

68        30.22%

120      53.33%

10        4.44%

Overall satisfaction of the product

2          0.89%

32        14.22%

89        39.56%

79        35.11%

23        10.22%

Service in the Bikehut

0          0.00%

93        41.33%

102      45.33%

23        10.22%

7          3.11%

After sales services

3          1.33%

42        18.67%

88        39.11%

80        35.56%

12        5.33%

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

0          0.00%

17        7.56%

107      47.56%

75        33.33%

26        11.56%

Question

Highest Value

Lowest Value

The Range

Overall quality of the product

Highest Value 120

Lowest Value  4         

The Range       116

Overall satisfaction of the product

Highest Value 89

Lowest Value  2

The Range       87

Service in the Bikehut

Highest Value 102

Lowest Value  0

The Range       102

After sales services

Highest Value 88

Lowest Value  3

The Range       85

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

Highest Value 107

Lowest Value  0

The Range       107

Semi interquartile range (SIR) = (Q3-Q1) /2

Overall quality of the product

Q3                   68

Q1                   4

Q3-Q1             64

(Q3-Q1)/2       32

Overall satisfaction of the product

Q3                   89

Q1                   2

Q3-Q1             87

(Q3-Q1)/2       43.5

Service in the Bikehut

Q3                   102

Q1                   0

Q3-Q1             102

(Q3-Q1)/2       51

After sales services

Q3                   88

Q1                   3

Q3-Q1             85

(Q3-Q1)/2       42.5

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

Q3                   107

Q1                   0

Q3-Q1             107

(Q3-Q1)/2       53.5

Standard Deviation

Overall quality of the product

4

23

68

120

10

Std. Div:         49

Overall satisfaction of the product

2

32

89

79

23

Std. Div:         37

Service in the Bikehut

0

93

102

23

7

Std. Div:         49

After sales services

3

42

88

80

12

Std. Div:         39

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

0

17

107

75

26

Std. Div:         44

2.4   Explain how quartiles, percentiles and the correlation coefficient are used to draw useful conclusions in a business context.

Quartile use to separate data in two quarters. Percentiles are where the observed data are similar or larger than the percentile figure. The correlation coefficient is the tool that uses to interpret the linear relationship between two variables (Fensel & Bussler, 2011).

1

2

3

4

5

Overall quality of the product

4

23

68

120

10

Overall satisfaction of the product

2

32

89

79

23

Service in the Bikehut

0

93

102

23

7

After sales services

3

42

88

80

12

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

0

17

107

75

26

QUARTILE

0

1

2

3

4

4

10

23

68

120

2

23

32

79

89

0

7

23

93

102

3

12

42

80

88

0

17

26

75

107

Correlation coefficient

Overall quality of the product

4

23

68

120

10

Overall satisfaction of the product

2

32

89

79

23

87%

Service in the Bikehut

0

93

102

23

7

After sales services

3

42

88

80

12

62%

Overall quality of the product

4

23

68

120

10

Compared to other suppliers our product and services

0

17

107

75

26

78%

3.1   Produce graphs using spread-sheets and draw valid conclusions based on the information derived

Main customer sector can be identified from the above chart.

This graph will indicate the satisfaction level of customers.

This graph shows the correlations of the overall product and quality satisfaction.

3.2   Create trend lines in spread-sheet graphs to assist in forecasting for specified business information

The customers are highly satisfied about the overall quality of the product but it is important to improve product satisfaction and after sales services (Kuhn, 2004).

Quartile forecast.

Almost every purchaser likes to deal with the company.

More than 50% of the clients agree that the product price is reasonable. Therefore no need to do price change

Has to advertise more about “Bikehut” for customer awareness

3.4   Produce a formal business report

Subject: The customer satisfaction and “Bikehut” awareness survey

To: The Management

From: The Market Research Team

Date: 12th March 2014

This is about the awareness and a satisfaction survey about our products and services. In addition to that verify the new outlet chain status. As per the management request our team conducted a questionnaire survey and interview to collect the required data (Rapoza, 2011). We have got 225 feedback forms from customers.

According to the collected data after sampling and analysing them, we recognise that the males are using our product greater than the females. Overall the customers are happy to deal with our establishment. 185 customers out of 225 were aware about the “Bikehut” store. 70% of clients are pleased with our product prices. As per the information our products quality and services satisfies customers where the company has built a very good reputation. Therefore we have a 93% of word of mouth promotion via the satisfied customers. Conferring as per the data gathered the organisation performs incredibly well than the industry competitors.

We recommend that the after sales service should improve.

Most of the feedback has rated very well, but the organisational goal should be to give an extravagantly personalised service to get more rates on exceeding expectation.

The customer service manager is responsible to introduce customer oriented training (Curran, et al., 2011).

It is the human resource manager’s duty to implement appreciation programme and reward the employees as a motivation factor (Asoff, 2009). Production has to innovated appropriate cycle designs for females. Advertising team should attract feminine market and promote “Bikehut” stores as well as Halfords products

4.1   Use appropriate information processing tools

Information processing tools are the processors and tangible and non tangible equipment that use to arrange data, such as database, servers, computers, transmitters, ATMs’ as well as Software, methodologies, internet, networks, websites and etc (Austin, et al., 2007). By using the correct methods and equipment the organisation can be benefited. The output will be accurate to take effective and efficient decisions. In an organisation, budgets, project plans, cash flow statements, investment appraisals are used as information tools (Yu & Chen, 2011).

Source: Author

Prepare a project plan for an activity and determine the critical path

4.3   Use financial tools for decision making.

To evaluate a project in the main financial tool which use as a decision making technique is calculated net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). Organisation invests in projects expecting an upright return in long time span. By using NPV the management can decide the surplus or the shortage of the cash flow (Bryman & Bell, 2008). IRR calculation mainly considers about the discount rate only. The discount rate may change over the time period. Therefore the IRR rate will also change accordingly. Using the internal rate of return is not rational to evaluate a project (Barker, 2010).

Discount Rate

12%

Period              Sum

0                      (50,000.00)

1                      12,000.00

2                      15,000.00

3                      15,000.00

4                      18,000.00

5                      10,000.00

NPV                462.49

IRR                 12.371%

4.4   Explain the results of NPV and IRR

Since this has a positive NPV, it is worth to invest in this project. It will recover the initial investment and can earn a better return. Net present value is the difference that occurs when evaluating the project market value and its cost. In addition to the NPV the internal rate of return (IRR) is 12.37%. When the internal rate of return is higher than the discount percentage then it will indicate a continuation of the project. Though investors calculate net present value and internal rate of return, they mainly consider on the net present value (Craig, 2010).

5.     References and Bibliography

Asoff, M. (2009) Rich Web Applications -The Business Benefits of Web-enabled Application Development, 3rd ed. London: McGraw Hills

Austin, D., Barbir, A. & Garg, S. (2007) “Web services architecture requirements.” [Accessed on 18 May 2014] <available at: http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/WD-wsa-reqs-20020429&gt;

Barker, A. (2010) Paradigms, 7th ed. New York: Harper Collins

Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2008) Business Research Methods, 7th ed. Oxford: University Press

Craig, M. (2010) “Changing paradigms: managed learning environments and Web 2.0.” Campus-Wide Information Systems, 11(32), pp: 17-77

Curran, K., Murray, M. & Christian, M. (2011) “Taking the information to the public through Library 2.0” Library Hi Tech, 17(33), pp: 151-267

Daniel, E. & Ward, M. (2009) “Exploring the role of third parties in inter-organizational Web service adoption” The Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 13(45), pp: 10-67

Dubois, A. & Gadde, L. (2007) “Systematic combining: an adductive approach to case research,” Journal of Business Research, 12(35), pp: 113-178

Fensel, D. & Bussler, C. (2011) “The Web service modelling framework.” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 15(26), pp: 113-187

Kuhn, T. S. (2004) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 6th ed. Chicago: Chicago University Press

Rapoza, J. (2011) “IT Planners: 5 Steps to Next Generation Web Applications.” eWeek, 27(45), pp: 145-178

Thorpe, R. & Lowe, A. (2006) Management Research: an Introduction, 9th ed. London: Sage Publications

Yu, S. & Chen, R. (2011) “Web Services: XML-based system integrated techniques.” The Electronic Library, 27(66), pp: 198-278

The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives

Chapter #:1     Introduction

1.1    Introduction

Market is a place where the buyer and seller meet their needs and want and the transaction occur, the seller sell the products and buyers buy the items as per needs and requirements (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that only the customer relationship management can identify the client’s requirements to identify and then for manufacturing products and services as per their requirements which includes features and values and all other functions of the products and services by considering all other factors those can create happiness among the people. Anderson, (2009) stated that customers have specific needs and want and they come to market to buy the suitable products to overcome their needs and wants similarly the business companies have the solution of customers and they came in the market to sell their products. After consuming the products the customers came to know about the results and if the results are as per their expectations and the product features are according to their expectations and their problem has been solved after using the product then the customer will be happy and satisfaction will be there among the customers otherwise he customer will be angry and the company will lose the business (Bejou et al., 2005). According to the Bennett, (2003) that, if there is no client then, there will be no business. So this is important for the organizations to have clients and their expectations are necessary for the organizations to be identified to manufacture the specific products for the clients to make sales and the sales can be made only by offering suitable products as per their expectations (Bhote, 2003). The organizations can be successful in the way that they successfully identify their needs and wants and then they can offer them the suitable products with expected quality and services (Buttle, 2007). A gap is always exists between the expectations and the offered services (Chen & Popovich, 2007) and if this gap can be reduced then the organizations can make long term relationship with the customers and sales volume could be increased by making and implementing the strategies to find out customers needs and wants. Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that only customer relationship management staff members can identify the customer’s expectations and can provide them the suitable products and quality of services because it is the main responsibility of the CRM department and this character can leads the organizations towards successful and this is only way to create and establish such strategies that can create satisfaction and happiness among the clients and this satisfaction can lead them near the success. The gap between the people expectations and their demand quality and services and the perceived quality of products and services can be reduces and minimized only by the customer relationship management if they have the proper skilled workers and the workers are already have the proper equipments and authorities to understand the client’s problems and offer them the best solutions as per their requirements (Anderson, 2009). Parasuraman et al., (2003) has been stated that it is only the department that can reduce the gap between the client’s expectations and can consider all other related factors to create brand image and to gain competitive benefits over the available competitors in the market.

1.2    Problem

Loss and profits are the final results of business operations after financial transaction has been occurred (Bejou et al., 2005). Most of the organizations could not achieve their targets (long term and short term) and these organizations suffered from the heavy financial looses and at the end either they switch the industry or they leave the business (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). There are so many problems associated with the business organizations that’s why they could not achieve their targets well in time and all those problems are associated with their negligence and due to lack of skilled workers and lack of intentions towards identifying customer’s requirements and some time due to competitors strategies the organizational strategies become fail and organizations suffered from heavy financial looses (Anderson, 2009). There is a gap exist between the customer’s expectations and the products they perceived from the manufactures and this gap have great impact on the organizational success and can also impact on the client’s satisfaction and loyalty and in this way it has the impact on the sales and growth of organization (Buttle, 2007). The organizations can minimize this gap if they have proper and suitable business strategies to identify the client’s requirements and then they pass the information to the relevant department to design and manufacture or produce such type of products and services and include all the required characteristics in the products as per client’s requirements then in such a way the organizations can achieve their long and short term targets easily otherwise in the era of high competition the competitors can lead and there will be no success (Chen & Popovich, 2007). With the development and advancement in the technology and change in the culture the client’s requirements always changed (Bejou et al., 2005). Bennett, (2003) has been stated that change in the technology and procedure always have an impact on the people’s requirements and drawbacks and benefits of technology always pay positive and negative impacts on the demand and expectations of people in a society and even then in all over the world the change in technology have an impact on the culture and human beings. So it is important for the organizations to understand the living standards and change in the expectations and behaviours of people for their business success. It is necessary for the organizations to first understand the real requirements of their potential customers and then offer them the real solution as per their problem and in this way the satisfaction can be created and the loyalty and resale is also associated with the identification of clients problems and only the CRM department can be helpful in finding out the solution, and the clients retention ratio is also associated with the CRM department’s strategies by considering client’s expectations (Bhote, 2003). Change in the environment and change in the culture and routine always change in the demand (Kitzinger, 2006). Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that among the clients happiness always leads towards satisfaction and satisfaction leads towards loyalty and customer relationship management can create the satisfaction among the clients and this satisfaction can leads the companies towards success, and the success can be only complete when the organization meets the annual sales targets.

1.3    Title

The role of CRM department in Identifying Customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives (A Case Study of Sainsbury Superstore in Manchester United Kingdom)

1.4    Research Question

What is the role and importance of CRM department in identification of customer’s expectations to achieve organizational objectives?

1.5    Aims and Objectives

The researcher will conduct this research to find out the main role and importance of customer relationship management departmental activities in achieving organizational objectives and for this purpose the researcher will achieve this stated aims by dividing the aim into different objectives which are given as under

1.6    Objectives

To achieve the above stated aim and as per the above stated title and research question, the researcher has been divided the objectives to achieve the main aims of the research into small objectives which are given below here

First of all the researcher will find out the main responsibilities which includes the benefits/advantages of customers relationship management departmental and its duties towards organizational objectives.

Then the researcher will disclose the impact and importance of the customer’s expectations and its importance and its role for the success of organization

The researcher will also find out the relationship between the CM departmental connection and relationships between the organizational success and customer’s requirements

All other factors those can play their role in the success of customer’s loyalty and in retaining them by considering them through customer relationship management department and including them in the strategies and implementing at the workplace

The gap will be defined in detail and its negative impacts will be finding out by the researcher and the role of CRM department in reducing this gap will be disclosed by the researcher

The main issues/problems and challenges those are main hindrance in designing and implementing its strategies for the success of organization will be disclosed and their solution will be finding out by the researcher

Finally Conclusions and recommendations will be designed and developed by the researcher as per the outcomes for improving the strategies and policies and practices in reality in the organizations for positive outcomes.

1.7    Research Questions

To achieve the above stated aims and objectives the researcher has designed the basic questions which are given as under

What is the importance of CRM department and its role in achieving organizational objectives?

What is the role of customer’s expectations in organizational success?

Is there any gap exist between client’s requirements and offered products in the selected organization?

What is the link between the customer’s requirements and how the CRM department can play its role in identifying customer’s requirements and reducing gap?

What are the draw backs of this gap and which factors must be taken into consideration by CRM department in reducing and achieving organizations objectives effectively?

What kinds of improvements are required by the CRM department to improve its policies and strategies in order to reduce and in achieving selected organization’s goals?

1.8    Research Limitations

There are following limitations which are associated with this research and researcher will minimize these limitations, these limitations are given as under

Shortage of time

Limited financial resources

The researcher has already no research conducting experience

The researcher will minimize these limitations and will discuss in detail in this section and its solution will also be discussed in this section.

1.9    Study scope

After the completion of this research the researcher may get a job in the superstore and can start his career path, and the selected organization can get maximum benefits by adopting the recommendations at the end of the research for improving its weak areas. The efficiency of the CRM department can be enhanced by implementing the effective strategies and improving the strategies and policies. The organizations in the field of super markets can be more benefited by these strategies and by acting and implementing the effective strategies and considering key and successive factors in the business strategies.

1.10  Ethical Considerations

There are so many ethical considerations are associated and attached with this research work and there are so many considerations are associated with this research those also increase the validity and reliability of the results. So by considering these considerations the researcher will not allow others (colleagues, co workers, friends and class fellows) to steel his work and the researcher will not steel colleagues, class fellow’s work and will not disclose the respondent’s data and will not use this research for another academic purpose. The researcher will not include his personal opinion and the research will be bias free, and the researcher will not use old references and scholar’s statements in the secondary data.

Chapter # 2:      Literature Review

2.1    Introduction

In this section the researcher will discuss the previous researches and the scholar statements in against and in the favour of the researcher research title and research aims and objectives. The researcher will abide by using the old research statement and will not use the unauthenticated resources to gather the review of literature.

2.2    Review of Literature

All the business organizations have their aims and objectives and to achieve those objectives the organizations manage the business activities which include the organization, resource allocation, controlling and marketing (Powell and Single, 2003). According to the Parasuraman et al., (2003) that the business organizations must achieve their sales targets for making progress and growth for its existence and it is very important for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and want and on the base of customer’s requirements the solution must be provided to them for achieving organizational objectives which includes the volume of sales enhancement, more profit and sustainable growth and in this way the organizations can play their role as social responsible for the betterment of organization. Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that customers have needs and requirements and to overcome their specific needs and wants people are always ready to pay and spend amount and in return they need the solution of their needs and wants and solution of their problems. Bhote, (2003) has been stated that there are some factors that can be helpful for an organization to find out the customer’s expectations before designing and making products and before distributing the products, so the organizations must pay their attentions towards those factors rather than to pay its attention at marketing or customer relationship management role in identifying customer’s expectation, Buttle, (2007) has been stated that those factors includes actual problem, quality, price, size, volume, availability, ingredients, promises, feedback, opinion and suggestions these factors are most helpful for the organizations to identify customer’s needs and wants. To achieve organizational objectives it is necessary to create first the loyalty and satisfaction among the customers and the organizations if pay its attention at the research and development department then the customer’s needs and wants can be identified by implementing suitable strategies (Morgan, 2004). Only the research and development department is responsible for the identification of customer’s requirements and then the marketing department is responsible for the designing, pricing, placement and promotional of those products and making it sure that the products are available in the market for buying and consuming and, furthermore the marketing department can play its role in identification and creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among the customers for achieving organizational objectives (Yin, 2004). Customer relationship management always play its important role in identifying organizational opportunities and customer’s expectations and playing its role for achieving organizational objectives (Anderson, 2009). This is not easy to understand and to find out the customer’s expectations with the help or with the strategies of customer relationship management because every day with the change in trends, with the change in technology and with the change in the competitors strategies and planning so it is very hard for the CRM department to find out the expectations (Bennett, 2003). According to Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that customers have their own needs and want and they are always ready to help out the customer in creating satisfaction, happiness and loyalty and ultimately in achieving organizational objectives. There is a direct relationship between the sales and the expected products and services and in this way the organizations can achieve their targets (Bennett, 2003). It is only marketing department responsibility to make it sure and plan all the marketing strategies in such a way that the successful transaction occur in result the sales function occur so that organization can achieve its main objectives (Bejou et al., 2005). It is not important for the organizations to establish the CRM department in the organizations because in this way the organizations needs to spend more money and the results are not as per expected (Bhote, 2003). Similarly the Buttle, (2007) has been stated that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be created by the organizations through high level quality and the low price and the employees can play their role in creating loyalty among the customers and this only can be possible if the organizations consider their welfare into their strategies and pay full attention for high salaries and equipping them high quality of trainings and skills can be developed among them instead of spending high amount on the customer relationship managements and offer high quality of products and services at cheap prices as compared to the competitors effectively and efficiently (Chen & Popovich, 2007). The organizations must put attentions on the welfare of client’s and on the welfare of staff members and offer them handsome salaries for creating productive attitude and creating loyalty among the clients by offering the low price products to the customers by identifying their required items and services (Kitzinger, 2006). It is recommended for the organizations to first create strong and long term relationships with the clients and this only can be possible by the customer relationship management because the only customer relationship management is the department that can design and implement such strategies those can be helpful in achieving organization’s goals and objectives effectively as compared to other suppliers (Anderson and Mittal, 2008). Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that it is customer relationship management responsibility to make strategies for the customers to offer them products at low prices as compared to the other suppliers and the products must be of high quality by identifying their expectations because the expectations can play their role in the sales and in achieving organizational objectives, because Anderson, (2009) has been stated that if the products are available in the market bust those products do not have the features as per customer’s needs and wants than no one will buy, and if someone will buy those products then after using the customer will become angry and there will be no sale. Chen & Popovich, (2007) have stated that the only customer relationship management department can determined the customer’s needs and their wants and can offer them the suitable solution for their problem, and in this way the organizations can be able to manufacture those products those can be as per the customers demand and their needs and the organizations can achieve their objectives. Kitzinger, (2006) has been stated that it is important for the organizations to identify the client’s requirements first and then on the basis of their requirements the products and services must be designed and manufactured and the products must be available to the customers for their buying and consuming, and according to the Saunders, (2012) this is necessary for the organizations and the customer relationship management can also play its role in recognizing the customer’s requirements and needs and these information can be helpful for the manufactures to produce and manufacture products and services as per customer’s requirements for more selling and for creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among them to achieve organizational objectives. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that to achieve organizational objectives it is necessary for the organizations to first of all provide the products as per demand and the loyalty can be created by the organizations for successful business operations and customer relationship management can play its role in achieving organizational objectives successfully, and according to the McDonald, (2008) that once the relationship between the organization and the customer must be based on the loyalty and long term relationship is helpful for the organizations to meet their sales targets and sales volume for the growth of organizations. So in this way the identification of customer’s needs and requirements can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.  

According to the Sugandhi, (2007) that the organizations can achieve the goals only when the customers buy the products and after consuming those products and services they become happy means the products and services must provide them the expected results for which they paid the amount (price) and in this way they will come again and they will refer other people to buy the products and services and they will recommend others and when the sales volume will become high then the organizations can make profit for sustaining growth and to become market leader in the United Kingdom. All the flow of work which is related with the identification of clients which is related and leading the organizations in achieving organizational objectives through customer relationship management and its effective strategies by implementing those strategies for identification of customer’s requirements and creating loyalty, satisfaction and happiness among the clients for achieving organizational objectives.

2.3    Frame of reference (Review Literature)

Market Leader Aims and Objectives (Sales, Profit)   Making Sales Growth Sustain the growth  

 

 

As it has been stated in the above figure that the organizations can achieve its objectives in an effective way, with the help and role of CRM department by identifying customer’s expectations

Chapter #: 3    Research Methodology

3.1    Introduction

According to the Anderson and Mittal, (2008) that researchers must select the research methods to conduct the research because the research methods always lead the researchers towards the successful outcomes and in achieving organizational objectives. In this section the researcher will describe and explain the research methods, research techniques, sampling size, sampling techniques, tools those will be used to present data, and making analysis and making conclusion, and all the other resources to gather primary and secondary data.

3.2    Research Method

Here in this section the researcher will describe the research method that will be selected by the researcher to conduct the research, Anderson, (2009) has been stated that the researcher must select one of the research method from qualitative or quantitative research methods or both of them can be used as research method. Here the researcher will select both of the methods to conduct the research for achieving all the aims and objectives of the research. The researcher will select both of the research methods to collect valid and reliable data and to achieve aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bejou et al., (2005) that the qualitative and quantitative both of the research methods are useful for the inexperienced researcher when they have limited time and limited financial resources. 

3.3    Population

All the customers and the customer relationship management staff members are the population of the research and the researcher will select the sample size among this population and “N” represent the whole number of population and “n” represents the sample size and the researcher will distribute the questionnaires (close ended and open ended questions) among them and semi structured interviews will be conducted by the researcher for achieving the aims and objectives of the research. According to the Bhote, (2003) that the researchers must involve the consumers in research process to gather valid and reliable primary data to make analysis and conclusion, similarly Bennett, (2003) has been stated that the researchers must include the departmental staff and especially the key person in the process of research conducting for achieving effective and valid information and to disclose the real factors and key successive factors. The researcher will select the key person from the customer relationship management because these people are most suitable responded and they have the valid and reliable information about the CRM department and its functionality and they have explain the responsibility and its functions more effectively.

3.4    Sample Size

Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that there are some different methods to select the sample size and all the methods have their advantages and disadvantages and it depends on the researchers to select the appropriate method for sample selection. Random sampling technique is appropriate if the whole population is available, and the stratified sampling technique is most suitable when the demographic or specific group must be taken into consideration, systematic method is always adopted by the researcher when a stream of people (like in a street) are available for research conducting like every 5th person and finally cluster sampling is always referred when the respondents are far away like in some different cities and it is hard to conduct the research (Looy et al., 2007), so as the scholars have been stated that for this research the researcher must select the systematic sampling method to select every 9th customer and will distribute the questionnaire among every 9th customer, because the respondents need time to fill the questionnaires and this activity will take time. There must be about 100 respondents when the researchers planned to distribute questionnaires among them and follow qualitative and quantitative research methods (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher has been decided to choose about 120 customers to distribute questionnaires among them. The researcher will include both the genders without any age, sex, colour and religion and ability discrimination.     

3.5    Source of Secondary Data

Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that the researchers must not include the old literature while gathering secondary data and the researcher must not include own opinion and must use different sources like books, research papers, press releases and printed reports and latest technology must be used like electronic books, electronics journals and reports and websites must be included in secondary data gathering. There are many sources available to gather secondary data and the researcher will use the books with the title of customer relationship management and customer’s expectations identification and importance of customer relationship management, journals, articles, electronic books, electronics journals, different magazines and annual reports on the role and importance of CRM department in the and the selected organization (Sainsbury) website will also be used as a source of secondary data. McDonald, (2008) has been stated that the researchers must include the rational review of literature to prove its title and research question and must avoid including the old research statements because in the old time the technology and culture and trends and needs and wants are not same as today so fresh and latest scholar’s statements must be included in the secondary data.

3.6    Source of Primary Data

According to Yin, (2004) primary data must be valid and most reliable because all the research results based on the primary data quality and on its procedures. Primary data can be gathered by conducting the interviews and by distributing questionnaires among the respondents/ samples. Interviews and the questionnaires are the valid source of primary data (Yin, 2004). Anderson and Mittal, (2008) have been stated that when the researcher could not find out the needed data from the secondary data sources then the researcher conduct the research in the market and collect the primary data about information, knowledge, behaviour, attitude, features, characteristics, awareness, intentions, trends, motivations and problems. According to the Looy et al., (2007) that the researchers have many sources to gather primary data which includes interviews, observations, questionnaires, group discussions etc. The following sources will be used by the researcher to conduct the research.

3.6.1  Case Study

According to (Anderson, 2009) that there are many benefits of case study tool used by the researchers to achieve research objectives, for example when the researcher has shortage of time and less money to spend on the research. Bejou et al., (2005) have been stated that when they have no research conducting past experience then the best option for those researchers is the case study as a tool to conduct the research. The researcher has been discussed the limitations in the first chapter that the researcher has less time and other resource shortage because the researcher has no experience as well. The researcher has been selected the Sainsbury situated in Manchester and has been implemented the CRM strategies as business operations.  

3.6.2  Questionnaires

According to the Chen & Popovich, (2007) have been stated that the researcher can gather primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents and the interviews are also the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have limited time and other financial resources limited. Case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researchers have the limitations like time and the other resources (Sugandhi, 2007). The researcher will select the case study “Sainsbury situated in Manchester United Kingdom” and will distribute the questionnaires among the samples by designing the effective questions and both type open ended and close ended will be included and the researcher will include both of them and the questions will be designed by keeping all the aims and objectives in their minds. According to Parasuraman et al., (2003) that, effective questionnaires include open and close ended questions. The researcher can gather valid and reliable primary data by distributing questionnaires among the respondents (Bejou et al., 2005).

3.6.3  Interviews

To gather primary data with real facts and figures the researchers must conduct the interview from key seat holders (Powell and Single, 2003). When there are some limitations associated with the research then the researcher must conduct the interviews with managers, supervisors (Saunders, 2012). So the researcher will conduct the interview with the manager of CRM department and other staff members to find out the importance, role and responsibilities of this department to achieve the research goals and objectives.

3.7    Reliability and Validity

It must be the most concern of the researcher to make sure the data validity and reliability at each and every step (Bejou et al., 2005). The researcher will consider all the ethical considerations as have been discussed in first chapter about the ethical considerations and in this way the data validity and reliability can be assured. According to Morgan, (2004) that data validity and reliability means the consistency and steadiness are the parameters of data validity and reliability.

Chapter #: 4    Project Planning

4.1    Introduction

In this section the researcher will explain the resources associated with this research and cost associated and time associated with this research will be explained and the data presentation tool and data analysis tools will be discussed.

4.2    Data Presentation and Analysis tools

Looy et al., (2007) have been stated that, to avoid by the duplications the researchers can use tables to records data. Graphical representation is most suitable form to represent data proportions and pictorial form is most suitable form to show data associations among them and making analysis is more suitable and helpful (Kitzinger, 2006). The researcher will record the results in tables form first of all and then the data will be selected in excel sheet and proper diagrams will be used to show the relationships among different factors and their associations will be presented by using pie and bar charts.

4.3    Expected Findings

The researcher has the expected outcomes in the form of that the customer relationship management can identify customer’s expectations like price, quality, size, features, volume, guarantee and warrantee and in this way after identifications these factors the organizations can achieve their main objectives (long and short term) in increasing sales by capturing and retaining old and new clients (market share) making profits and finally making growth and sustaining growth to become market leader.

4.4    Cost and Time Schedule

During this research the following table shoed the cost associated with this research. The first table will showed the associated cost and resources and next will show the time required to complete this research project.

Table 1

S. #ResourcesCost (£)
1Travelling70
2Lunch etc.100
3Stationary, Software300
4Total470

Table 2

Problem/IssueX         
Aims and ObjectivesXX        
Secondary DataXXX       
Questionnaires  XX      
Time Schedule in Weeks12345678910
Data Recording and Analysis    XX    
Making Conclusion and recommendation     XXX  
Contingency Plan        XX

4.5    Contingency Plan

The researcher has 2 weeks time as contingency period to make amendments and removing errors as per requirements

Chapter # 5:    Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1    Conclusion and Recommendations

In this section the researcher will first discuss the limitations and then will discuss the ways that he has been adopted to minimize those limitations for validity and reliability of data. Then the researcher will keep in the mind the aims and objectives of the research and then in the light of results and literature review the researcher will make conclusions. The researcher will relate the theories with the research results and will use the secondary data as a background and will use it as and when necessary to prove the results.

5.2    Recommendations

The researcher will mention the weak areas as per research result and will make necessary recommendations in the light of result and theories to improve the CRM activities more useful so that the organizations can achieve its objectives successfully. 

5.3    Further Research

Here in this research the researcher will disclose the other areas which should be taken into considerations for research those can play their role in achieving organizational objectives.

Chapter # 6:    References and Bibliography

a.   Books and Journals

Anderson, E.W. and Mittal, V. (2008) ‘Strengthening the satisfaction-profit chain’ Journal of

Service Research, 23(18), pp: 123-312

Anderson, E.W. (2009) ‘Cross Strategy variation in customer satisfaction and retention’

Marketing Letters, 33(9), pp: 111-180

Bejou, D., Ennuw, C. and Palmer, A. (2005) ‘Trust, ethics and relationship satisfaction’

Journalof Bank Marketing, 13(9), pp: 234-355

Bennett, R. (2003) ‘Relationship formation and governance in consumer markets: Transactional analysis versus the behaviourist approach’ Journal of Marketing Management, 23(12), pp: 33-156

Bhote, K.R. (2003) Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty. 4th ed. New York: AMA Management Briefing

Buttle, F. (2007) Customer Relationship Management: concepts and tools, 2nd ed. Oxford:

Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann

Chen, I.J. & Popovich, K. (2008) ‘Understanding customer relationship management (CRM): People, process and technology’ Business Process Management Journal, 21(9), pp: 123-234

Engel, J.F., Blackwell, R.D. & Miniard, P.W. (2007) Consumer Behaviour, 2nd ed. London: Dryden Press

Evans, J. R. and Laskin, R. L. (2002) ‘The relationship marketing process: A conceptualization  and application’ Industrial Marketing Management, 22(9), pp: 45-123

Goddard, W. and Melville, S. (2008) Research Methodology: An Introduction, 3rd ed Lansdowne: Juta and Company Ltd

Gummesson, E. (2005) ‘Broadening and Specifying Relationship Marketing’ Asia-Australia

Marketing Journal, 21(13), pp: 123-234

Kitzinger, J. (2006) ‘Introducing focus groups’ British Medical Journal, 22(9), pp: 56-98

Looy, B.V., Gemmel, P. & Dierdonck, A. (2008) Services Management: An integrated Approach, 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education Limited

Morgan, D.L. (2004) Focus groups as qualitative research, 4th ed. London: Sage Publications

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2003) ‘A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research’ Journal of Marketing, 32(21), pp: 45-132

Powell, R.A. and Single, H.M. (2003) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 21(9), pp: 45-167

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2012) Research Methods for Business Students 3rd ed. Essex: Pearson Education

Sugandhi, R.K. (2007) Customer Relationship Management. 4th ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Yin, R. (2004) Case study research: Design and methods.3rd ed. CA: Sage Publishing

a.   Websites

http://www.sainsburys.co.uk/sol/index.jsp [Accessed on 3rd May 2013]

McDonald, L. (2008) Customer Relationship Management – An Overview [online]Available at

<http://www.brillianceweb.com/betterwebdesign/tips_48.aspx&gt; [Accessed on 23rd April 2013]

b.   Bibliography

Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (2001) Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials London: Sage Publications

Ehrenberg, A.S.C. (2002) ‘Repeat Buying: facts, theory and applications’ Journal of Empirical Generalizations in Marketing Science, 11(9), pp: 113-324

Etzel, M.J., Walker, B.J. & Stanton, W.J. (2001) Marketing International Edition. 3rd ed. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.

Gronroos, C. (1990) ‘A service quality model and its marketing implications’ European Journal

of Marketing, 21(9), pp: 56-123

Gronroos, C. (2000) ‘From Marketing Mix to Relationship Marketing: Towards a Paradigm

Shift in Marketing’ Management Decision, 21(9), pp: 112-321

Morgan, R.M. and Shelby D. H. (2004) ‘The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship

Marketing’ Journal of Marketing, 24(9), pp: 123-234

The role of Leadership Style in improving the performance of employees

Abstract

Every business has its own nature, some business offer services, products some businesses offer only services and others offer products and as per their business nature they have clients and for handling clients and achieving organizational objective, management provide trainings and skills to the employees for achieving goals and managers monitor them and facilitate them with appropriate resources as per situation and requirement. In order to reduce the chances of resource wastage and for maximum output from employees, management design and implement short term goals, long term objective and business policies. For maximum output from employees depend on the instructions, guidelines, resources allocation and involvement of managers and clear and agreed objectives. Managers deal the employees and evaluate their performance and give them feedback. Employees have their own interests, needs and want to overcome those needs and wants they offer their services to the organizations. A management style that describes the way and dealing methods for the managers to handle, control, manage, and allocate resources to the employees for specific outcomes. There are many management theories and leadership theories are available that the management follow and implement in their organizations for more productivity by creating and enhancing productive attitude and motivations among its employees. This research is also related with the objectives of effective management style that can motivate its employees for more productive attitude. In this research the researcher has described some motivational theories and leadership theories and found out their affect and found out the implemented management style and its affects.

In different organization according to the requirements of clients and nature of the business, services and product specification, each organization has its own specific business strategies. To control, organize the resources and leading the human resources managers are there. Organization hired the services of employees at all levels to achieve organizational objectives and to run business activities and day to day business transactions effectively. The managers bridge the gap between the higher level management and the low level management and other employees. Employee’s productive attitude can create the loyalty among the customers by handling those clients who have complaints regarding services or products. The employees can play their effective role in capturing more clients from the market and they can contribute to help their colleagues in a well manner. Employees have their own needs and wants and they offer their services to fulfil their needs and wants. Client’s satisfaction depends on the productive attitude of the employees and employee’s attitude depends on the behaviour of the managers. Manager’s attitude and behaviour depends on the organizational policies. In the work place there are many factors that can play their role significantly in enhancing the employee’s productive attitude. These factors includes pay well in time, wages rate, health and safety measures at work place, manager’s behaviour, paid holidays, sick leaves, banking holiday, colleagues support, promotion, career growth, trainings, qualification and personal growth are some factors that can play effective role in creating loyalty among employees. Work place environment can also play an important role in productive attitude of employees. It depends on the managers and policies of organization that in which manners they treat the employees to achieve organizational objectives. If employees are happy then the managerial role is so appropriate. Otherwise they need to consider these above mentioned factors for better outcomes.

Introduction

Good leadership within the workplace motivates employees to accomplish more. The best workplace and organizational leaders can create confidence in the individual workers of organization so that the individual worker completes his tasks more efficiently. Great leaders in the workplace or organizational setting can harmonize company or organizational goals with the goals and interests of the individual employees. Good leaders in a company or organizational workplace will always demonstrate enthusiasm about the work that they do and about their own place in the company or organization as a leader.

Leadership style is known as the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people (Lewin, 1939).

It is considered that a good leader is the one who uses all three approaches in order to obtain his required work. It depends on the environment and followers that which style would be suitable for that situation. There are positive or negative ways in which leaders do approach their employees. Positive ways of leadership is to demonstrate their positivity by offering rewards, bonuses and independence at workplace. Motivating the employees to boost their performance is a positive approach by leaders. At the same time, negative approach is also available which should be used with care only as it can cost on the human spirit. Such as, it is a negative approach to charge penalties for employees. Negative leaders want to push everyone into higher level of productivity. They believe that things can be done by frightening the employees with pay cut, day off, insulting in front of other employees etc. This negative approach always down falls the morale of all the employees if used wrongly and in turn results in lower productivity overall.

There are two types of approaches known as consideration and structure in leadership styles. Consideration is a type of approach where leaders care about their employees, their needs and motivate them to build a team work to achieve the higher level of productivity. Structure approach in leadership style is about the leaders who believe that productivity can be increased in organization if workers are kept highly busy.

1.1 Problem

Service providing has become more important in organizations because customers appreciate it similarly product development and cost optimization has also importance but service quality is become today more importance in organizations.

Marketing strategies has been changed due to competition and due to a range of products and services and more awareness in customers want good quality and services for which they spend the amount. Services providers become de track due to different needs of each customer and each customer has its own needs and they all want satisfaction up to maximum level, and in the market all kind of services and goods are available, all the organizations are trying their best to satisfy their clients by providing good services, by creating loyalty (Chen and Popovich, 2003). According to Sugandhi, (2002) customers have too many options these days, he has a lot of options based on customers need and want, and customer purchases what suits him/her. Distances has been reduced, there is no distance from selling to marketing strategy and vice versa, due to improvements in the product designing and due to advancements in the technology and pricing strategies and due to good service customers admire the goods or services and purchase the goods. Today companies are trying to establish relationship with their customers to create customer loyalty in order to achieve organizational objectives (Chen and Popovich, 2003).

Any business starts and ends with customers (Sugandhi, 2002).Due to this cause service providing companies now a days are trying to pay their attention towards effective customer relationship practices by having effective customer relationship management in order to understand the needs and expectations of customers and to fulfill their needs and fulfillment of promises for long term relationships with customers and retaining them for earning more profit. Relationships have significant effects on profitability and customer retention.

So it is clear that people need good services and satisfaction and they pay for it to good satisfaction, so there is a relation among quality and expectation to the service providing and quality providing, similarly long term relationship based on quality of services in order to retain customers and earning profit.

Parasuraman et al. (1985) described that there is a gap between customer perception and expectation due to following gaps, first of all management perception gap, this gap is due to wrong perception of service quality by management, service quality gap, service delivery gap, lack of marketing communication gap and perceived quality gap (Parasuraman et al. 1985). In this research the researcher will find out the gap between customer expectation and customer perceived service quality in order to fill this gap through customer relationship management to retain the customers for a long time to earn profit and to create loyalty. And find out the drawbacks of customer relation practices and give proper recommendations to the selected hotel to improve them for retaining clients, and to reduce the gap. This research will help the hotel management a lot to know that what their customers actually expect from them regarding quality of service.

1.2       Research Objectives

The main objective of the researcher is to find out the impact of effective leadership style practices in the hotel industry and the influence of effective leadership style on the growth of organization.

What are the factors of effective leadership style that can effectively contribute in the growth of an organization by implementing them in real situation?

What are the main drawbacks of leadership style in the selected hotel?

The researcher is interested in finding those factors and challenges those are the main hindrance in implementing effective leadership style.

The researcher will make necessary recommendations and suggestions for the hotel industry and for the selected hotel to implement and consider factors and changes in current leadership style to achieve organizational objectives. 

To obtain above objectives the researcher will make a link between leadership style influence on the behaviour and productive attitude of employees to offer best quality of services to the clients for customer satisfaction and customer retaining to build a long relationship with customers. Because the researcher had find out through review literature that how the service providers can improve their services at best level to satisfy their customers and how the leadership style can affect their employees in order to bring productive attitude and their work that among customers to create more loyalty, to have a long term relationship with them to generate more income by providing quality of services and satisfying their client at maximum level. This quality service provide to the customers by the selected hotel will improve the satisfaction of customers, because there may be a gap between the expectations of customers and perceived quality of service, and hence if that gap is there than there is lack of satisfaction among customers regarding quality of services, so management should improve their policies and tried their best to improve their practices and provide them the quality at the best level as the customer are expecting their feelings and thoughts, and to gauge their level of expectation and their will to remain in a long or short term with service providers, because market is full of services providers now days and as each customers has its own needs and expectations and level of satisfaction, so as many service providers are there in the market, so customers buy the services whatever they like the best one for them. By keeping all that in the mind the researcher has following objectives to conduct that research.

1.3 Organization Background

Botanic hotel is well known company that is running its business in United Kingdom since 1973 and serving the nation with its better quality of services in hotel industry. The researcher has selected Glasgow branch for research purpose. This branch is situated in the east of Glasgow United Kingdom. There are about 200 rooms available for the rent and all rooms are well equipped with latest furniture, and latest technology like lighting system, television, telephone, electronic beds, matching bed sheets, curtains and furniture colour.

This hotel is situated in the heart of city near the Botanic garden and daily in the morning it served breakfast to its customers. The staff is well educated and trained that served the clients according to their needs and expectations. All the bed rooms are well decorated. The hotel management tried at their best level first of all to provide best quality of services to its clients on the demand.  The hotel is situated near the train station and bus stop and hotel has its own free car parking (http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=botanic-glasgow-wyii8cHS4_eBFTS9IOIJjgS11998803420;ws=&gclid=CJ-fie2XzK4CFcYntAodp1OA0A).

The Botanic hotel uses latest technology like computerized system for advance booking and even then from all over the world the clients can book the hotel by depositing 20% in advance. The hotel keep all the record of its clients and their priorities/expected services and their needs and wants individually and in computerized system each client has been allotted a unique client code and handover client card to each client.

Chapter: 2

Literature Review

2.1       Introduction

A literature review has been conducted initially for the research proposal. Books and Journals and internet websites have been researched and selected contents are included in this research proposal. The researcher will provide here the review literature about customer relationship management and about the services quality and communication, comfort, privacy and all other factors which are necessary for this research.

2.2       Customer’s Loyalty

Customers’ loyalty to the creation is very important to the accomplishment of any organisation because it is not an job to hold clients devotion, according to Bhote, (2006) that client’s closeness and happiness always force the increase of organization, more accuracy, more happiness and more completion forever participate a helpful role wherever as low authenticity play unhelpful role and the buyer may end to buy manufactured goods in prospect. Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) recommended that the business must give the notice and assign the assets in identify the actual wants and requirements of customers and then carry gladness in the middle of them by fulfilling them. They encompass discuss the significance of humanizing the employees and as long as them good information all the way through some teaching to treat the clients in best way by suitable and useful infrastructure skills, and administrations must put in order them and calculate their presentation frequently.  Zeithamlet al. (2000) said that low quality of services provided to the clients always lead to generate complaints, and skills and appropriate trainings are required to handle those complaints registered by the clients. Employees need skills and knowledge to handle clients and specific authority to handle clients in affective way, effective way means that to solve their problems and creating satisfaction among them. Similarly Schneider and Bowen, (2009) stated that effective way of communication can play effective role in creating loyalty and satisfaction, because communication is a tools that can be used effectively in identifying their needs and requirements and employee’s can provide better solution by understanding their requirements. According to Helgesen, (2006) that companies can earn more revenue and can grow rapidly by creating the loyalty and satisfaction level among its employees and loyalty and happiness and satisfaction can be created among employees by offering better quality of services through appropriate skills of communication. Client’s loyalty is more important for the organizations because the repurchasing of services and products is directly related with the loyalty and satisfaction. Client’s loyalty becomes the cause of repurchasing. Creating loyalty among clients through offering quality of services and products depends on the behavior and style of employees and employees are motivated towards offering/ providing best quality of services to the clients depends on the leadership style of managers. When the employees are happy with the policies and organization pay its full attentions towards needs and wants of employees then the employees will pay their attentions towards creating client’s loyalty.

2.3       Quality of service offered by the employees

The researcher is interested in the employee’s services level of quality that they provide to the clients because when employees are happy then the qualities of services offered to the clients create more level of satisfaction that is trigger in repurchasing more services and telling other peoples to buy services and products from this organization. Quality of services included communication skills to handle client in short time, fast response, well identifying their requirements and prompt reply to clients to solve their problems in order to creating loyalty and happiness among them for more revenue and reference. According to the Antony and Antony, (2004) stated that quality of services means that very quick response to the customers, quick response to their contacts in order to supply them best solution of their problems, needs and wants. Better quality of services means that there is no any gap in between the offered quality of services and the expected quality of services and products.

Zeithaml et al. (2001) stated that good quality of services and employee’s attitude are more important factors that are very helpful in generating more revenue for an organization through satisfying to its customers. Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) they both have described the attributes of better quality of services to the clients, which included quick response and best solution to their problems. They both also stated that the organizations must provide best services on regular basis and check the performance of employees and managers must arrange workshops and courses for employees to improve their skills and competencies to handle the clients. The respond must be very quick and employees must have authority to provide solution for creating loyalty. The researcher found out that client need quality of services, and the quality of services or products depends on the trainings and skills of employees. Ultimately when there is no difference between client’s expectations and offered services quality then the clients will be happy and repurchase frequency will increase.

2.4       Managers Attitude, Behaviour

This is the main objective of research is to find out the positive affect and impact of manager’s attitude (leadership style) on the sales and growth of organization. Leadership style is actually the behaviour of managers and the style of managers that how the managers deals with the employees at work place and how they treat with the employees, how they allocate the resources, how managers create friendly and trusty environment or strictly environment at work place, the consequences affect the sales and growth in all kind of industries. To handle the old clients and their complaints is very important for the organizations. It is the manager’s attitude that brings happiness and satisfaction among the employees. Manager’s attitude and behaviour is more important in creating more productive attitude among the all employees. There are many factors like wages rates, over time and over time rate according to the law and legislation. Safety issues, paid salaries, career growth, promotion, benefits and more factors can play their role in creating productive attitude among employees (Reichheld and Kenny, 2001).  Parasuraman et al. (2001) has been described that customer’s complaints can be handled more effectively by satisfying the employees of organizations. When the employees will be happy and will be benefited by the facilities and will be happy with the manager’s attitudes then the employees will provide better quality of services by identifying the needs and wants of clients in effective way. According to Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) clients can be deal effectively by offering them best services and good values of products as per client’s need and wants and by recognizing their problems. They also said that there are many factors that can play their role in clients handling and satisfaction them. Parasuramanet al. (2001) supported by saying that clients become discourage up to 19% just due to low level of services to the customers. When there is no any gap between the client’s expectation and the needs and wants of customers and the services offered by the organization then the client become happy and the employees can offer the best services to the clients when they are fully supported physically and morally supported by the managers and well equipped with specific trainings and skills then the organizational objectives can be achieved effectively.

According to Dimitriades, (2006) there are some variations exists between the expectations and the offered quality of services to the client’s this is mainly due to poor communication between the clients and the employee and the service providing department. When the employees have communication skills then this variation can be minimized even then can be removed and employee can recognize the actual needs and wants of clients, there is another difference between the best quality (expected) and the offered quality of services or product.

2.5       Organizational sale and growth

According to Yeung et al. (2002) more revenue can be generated through more sales and growth of organization depends on the volume of sale. Client’s loyalty and level of its satisfaction are two main factors that play their vital role in enhancing sales. Better quality of services that skilled workers and managers have implemented such policies to make sure the best quality of services also enhance the satisfaction level of clients first by recognizing their expectations. Employees are always motivated by the managers. Their activities are always influenced through the activities and through the policies of organization that are implemented by the managers and the work place environment that motivate and bring happiness among employees by satisfying them as per their needs and wants.

Homburg, (2007) has been supported this statement and said that there is a deep link between the organizational growth and the level of satisfaction of the employees and client’s level of satisfaction. There is a logic that when the employees are benefited by the organization then they will fully devoted themselves towards achieving organizational objectives and will tried their best to satisfy the clients at their best level. The employee’s happiness and their level of satisfaction are directly related with the managerial behaviour. Managers can play their role and behaviour can more motivate the employees towards the productive attitude of employees.

Dimitriades, (2006) has stated that when the employees are satisfied by the managerial behaviour then the probability of client’s satisfaction also increases at highest level and become cause of organizational growth. When the employees have best environment of working and are satisfied with their benefits then the level of devotion towards achieving organizational growth also become high. Some factors influence the contentment of consumers which includes the attitudes of workers and the way of services delivering, so when the clients received quality of services. The organizational growth is related with the repurchasing (frequency of sales). And frequency of sales is related with the client’s loyalty, client’s loyalty is related with client’s satisfaction and client’s satisfaction depends on the previous experience of clients after consuming the products or services. The offered services depend on the performance of skilled and well trained qualified employees. Skills, trainings and quality of services offered by the employee are related with the motivation level of employees. Employee’s motivation, productive attitude depends on the attitude of managers. This attitude comes from the leadership style of those managers according to the business policies implemented in the work place.

2.6       Customer’s satisfaction, customer’s holding and Sales Skills of Employees

According to the Giese and Cote, (2000) stated that employees can handle the clients effectively if they have very good skills as per needed and as per situation they have the proper authority to handle the client, and this is manager’s duty to assign such authorities to the employees to handle the situation and providing the better solution to the clients. It is very important to create the trust worthy environment at the work place among the employees and all the employees should help each other and share the knowledge and experience to find out the solution of problem, in such a way the client can be handle more effectively and satisfaction level will increase. Employees must give the priority and quick response to the clients when they are looking for some help. As Giese and Cote, (2000) stated that that employees through good skills of communication can handle the clients. So the managers must pay full attentions on the communications skills and must provide chance of trainings on regular intervals to improve their skills to satisfy the clients at maximum level. And satisfied clients become cause of increase in sales. Similarly Gonzalez et al. (2007) described that employees must pay their full attention towards the quality of services through its skills. It is the quality of services that can play its important role in satisfaction of customers well in time on priority basis. The clients feel that the company take care their clients in their first priority. These clients then become reference groups for other people and in this way the organization have a chance to capture more clients from the market. McQuitty et al. (2000) has been stated that organizations must play their role in holding the old clients because old clients do purchasing repeatedly and contribute their role in achieving organizational objectives in maximizing the sales volume and ultimately organization can earn more revenue. The employees of organization can retain old clients through their interpersonal skills. Management can measure the qualities and characteristics of its employees through implementing and having standards in organizations. And the managers must provide proper feedback to the concerned employees and as per need they must arrange training sessions and workshops to improve the skills and competencies of low performance employees. According to Wang et al. (2007) that there is a relationship exist between the satisfaction of customers and the employee’s skills to handle the complaints of clients. Skilled and well trained employees can handle the client’s complaints and in this way they can create more loyalty among the clients through effective communication skills and the communication skills depends on the training and qualification that managers arrange to teach the employees.

2.7       Workplace environment role in creating productive attitude among employees

According to Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) have described that managers are responsible in the organizations to make it sure that the organizational policies that are implemented in the work place are appropriate for the employees and employees are satisfied with them. And as per requirement the managers must take significant action to provide necessary facilities and allocate proper resources to the employees so that organizational objectives can be achieved without wastage of time and resources. And it is the responsibility of employees to devote their energies to achieve organizational objectives by participating in the team work. They should help each other openly and should show trust on each others. The managers must provide all the basic facilities to the employees at work place and make it sure regularly that all the health and safety measures are properly installed at work place. 

Williams et al. (2001) has supported to the above statement by saying that managers must take the necessary steps towards the employee’s betterment, and must consider their promotions, recognizing their efforts, prizes, increments in salaries and other facilities like medical allowance to enhance the motivation among the employee to achieve company goals.

Antony and Antony, (2004) stated that administration must check the safety measures and all other necessary measures like machines and the proper checking and changing spare parts of machines and check the cleaning and neatness to make it sure that workers are safe while working. They must ensure that all the employees are insured and insurance must be the fundamental part of legal requirement. Some of the scholars have been argued in this favour that employees of company must be ready to take necessary actions to make satisfaction to the customers. Employees of the organizations must be well educated that how to deal the customers, they must be well aware about presentations of administration’s message and policy while dealing with a client and in the result of this the customer feels that he or she is important for the company, similarly the employees know that how to play role in a team while considering themselves as team member, the supervisors and administration of the customer care staff essentially educate the staff and gave them authority to their staff member to help out the customer at maximum and possible level (Schlesinger and Heskett, 2001). Similarly Bolton and Drew, (2001) stated that identifying the employees problems and providing them best solution because employees are the main assets that contribute in the growth of organization if they are properly motivated. Similarly Buttle, (2005) has focused on the employee’s benefits that at the workplace if employees are happy and their needs are being under considerations with the passage of time and all rules and regulations are implemented for the betterment of employees then the motivational level will be enhanced.

Looy et al. (2003) has stated that for the best quality of services provided b y the employees it is essential that the environment at the work place must be friendly rather than strictly. Organizations must invest money for the betterment of its employees. The employees in the organizations can handle the client’s complaints well in manner if they are equipped with the authorities to provide suitable solution of their problem.

It is concluded that there is a deep link between the work place environment and the employee’s motivation.

2.8 Leadership style

According to the Adeniyi, (2007) the effective leadership style can bring the change in the organization. According to the Gill (2006) there is a deep relationship between the code of conduct and the leadership style in an organization. Winkler (2010) has stated that leadership style must be implemented as per the era and must be in practice fully for certain outcomes.

Bush (2003) stated that effective leadership style can play its important role in creating and enhancing the motivation in the organization in the employees for specific outcomes. Cooper (2011) has stated that leadership style should be result oriented and effectual. Leadership styles are actually the part of business strategies used for the betterment of employees and for the appropriate flow of work to prevent wastage of resources and making it sure that the appropriate resource allocation in the organization. Kippenberger (2002) the manager must have multicultural attitude and behaviour at work place for significant outcomes. He also argued that the leadership style must be designed by considering nature of business and the objectives of business organization and status of organization into origin. Managers have impact on business transactions. Managers are the main core of business. Managers are responsible for day to day task achievements. Managers play their role as organizer, controller, resource allocator, problem solver and leader. Managers are also responsible for the change and satisfaction of employees. There are many factors that can play their role at work place in creating productive attitude among the employees effectively like pay in time, and pay rates as per rules and regulations, work place safety issues, paid holidays, family problems and counselling career, personal growth.

Employee’s Productive attitude [Employee’s training, Skills, Competencies]  

2.9       Conceptual Framework for Literature Review

 

The researcher came to know through the review literature that there is significant affect of leadership style on the organizational growth through creating productive attitude among the employees. There is only one way to increase the sales, and generating more revenue and earning more profit if there are more sales. Frequency of sales can be enhanced if the clients are satisfied and there is no any difference between the client’s expectations and the offered services then this is possible. The client will again come for hiring services or to purchase the product. Every organization has one objective to make more profit. The profit can be generated if there is more sale, and sales volume depends on the previous experience of the client when he or she has buy the product and the product has fulfilled client’s needs and wants. In the hotel industry service quality is more important as compared to other industries. So in hotel industry employees need trainings and special skills to treat in well manners with client to offer them best quality of services and products. If employees are happy with the environment and all those factors that are related with their needs and demands can play role in creating and enhancing the productive attitude among employees. Managers are responsible for leading, controlling, resource allocation and making it ensure that the employees are happy with the work environment and they are happy with the pay package and other incentives and they are offering all those benefits and facilities as per rules and regulations like paid holidays, sick leaves, manager’s attitude, work place safety measures, equal treatment with all employees. Organizations designed the policies to achieve its goals and objectives. Managers follow the policies which are basically the instructions to do business in effective way. Employees play their role in achieving daily transactions and daily tasks to achieve organizational long term and short term goals. Managers are responsible for their behaviour, resource allocation, performance measurement, providing all those resources well in time. Managers are responsible for controlling, problem solving, leading and organizing all the resources in an organization. Employees are the resources for an organization. Employees are the main assets for an organization.

To carry on the business day to day transactions organizations have policies that are actually set of rules, regulations and code of conduct. Managers follow these rules and regulations to do daily business operations and employees are controlled, lead and organized by the managers. Employees handle and offer the services to the managers. Clients need better quality of services and products to fulfil their needs and wants. When clients are happy and customers are satisfied by consuming those services and products they will come again to repurchase and ultimately sales and revenue will be generated and this will become the factor of growth for an organization. The researcher comes to know after review of literature that there is a deep link between the leadership style and organizational growth.

Chapter: 3

Research Method

3.1       Research Methodology

The researcher has described the research method in detail in this chapter. The researcher has selected the case study to collect the primary data because the researcher is a student and has limited time and budget. According to Soderlund, (2008) the research methodology provides the road map for conducting the research according to the main objectives of the research.

3.2       Objectives of the research

The main objective of the researcher is to find out the impact of effective leadership style practices in the hotel industry and the influence of effective leadership style on the growth of organization.

What are the factors of effective leadership style that can effectively contribute in the growth of an organization by implementing them in real situation?

What are the main drawbacks of leadership style in the selected hotel?

The researcher is interested in finding those factors and challenges those are the main hindrance in implementing effective leadership style.

The researcher will make necessary recommendations and suggestions for the hotel industry and for the selected hotel to implement and consider factors and changes in current leadership style to achieve organizational objectives. 

3.3       Research method

The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct the research.

According to Soderlund, (2008) research method actually guide the researcher that how to conduct the research according to the aims and objectives of the research.

The research method contains in detailed about the data, sources of data, objectives of research, material and population and sample size.

In this research the researcher has used the questionnaires to the employees of selected hotel and conducted the interview of manager and asked a set of questions. The main purpose of interview and questionnaire was to collect the primary data.

According to Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) journals, e books, websites, articles are best sources to gather secondary data for conducting the research.

3.4       Case study selection

The researcher has selected the case study to conduct the research. For conducting qualitative research case study is the best one solution to achieve qualitative research results (Feagin et al. 2001). Stakes, (2005) has been stated that when there are short time and limited resources then the best way is to select case study to conduct quantitative research. In this way the researcher can conduct interviews and can complete surveys in limited time and can achieve specific goals and objectives of the research. In order to achieve reliable and valid results the researcher should adopt quantitative research by making questionnaires and conducting interviews or interview with the key person in an organization by selecting as case study even then in short period of time (Stakes, 2005).

According to Powel and Single, (2006) case study is the best option for the researcher to carry on the research with specific and significant objectives in limited time and with limited resources by asking a set of question from authorities and the other staff members.

The researcher has distributed the questionnaires among the staff members of Botanic hotel and the main objective of questions was to asked about the relationship among the leadership style, employee’s productive attitude and organizational objectives.

3.5       Primary and Secondary Data sources

The researcher has been used website of Botanic hotel, many journals, electronic journals, articles, libraries, books on the topic of clients loyalty, employee’s loyalty and leadership style and its outcomes and some other hotels website to gather secondary data to support the topic and the researcher believed that secondary data is helpful in gathering primary data for this research.

The researcher has designed the questionnaires that contained fifteen questions and the researcher has distributed these questionnaires among the employees and asked about the relationship between the manager’s behaviour and work placement environment and some other factors that can influence the productive attitude of employees. The researcher has conducted the interviews of manager and asked some questions regarding their role in the organization and related with leadership style.

3.6       Population and sample size

The researcher has selected fifty (50) employees and distributed all the questionnaires among the employees in order to gather primary data. The sample size was 50. Total number of employees is 250 at the hotel, but due to limited time spam the researcher has selected every 5th person (systematic and randomly) for asking questions. The researcher has selected both male and female genders and age range was 19 years old to 50 years old.

3.7       Data reliability and validity

The researcher has recorded all the primary data in the table form so that to avoid from data duplication and minimizing error chance. The researcher has avoided taking data from Wikipedia and did not steel data from class fellow or colleague works and did not disclose its own results to any one for misuse of data. After data gathering and recording data into table form the researcher designed the bar and pie chart to show the percentage. The researcher has designed all the questions on the topic of managerial attitude and workplace issues.

Powel and Single, (2006) stated that data gathered through conducting research must be valid and reliable.

According to Powell et al. (2006) the researcher must ask the different questions from the respondents and multiple questions from respondents and record the results in a sequence and in well manners in order to make sure the data reliability and data consistency.

3.8       Questionnaires

The researcher has designed the questionnaires and focus on the objectives and main aims of the research. The researcher has used both closed ended and open ended questions in the questionnaires. The researcher was interested in the impact of effective leadership style on the sales and growth of organization. The researcher main aim was to know about the importance of effective leadership style and the researcher want to know that which factors can affect the leadership style. The researcher main aim was to know that what should be the managerial role in creating productive attitude among the employees and which factors can play the role in creating productive attitude among the employees to enhance the sales volume of organization. The researcher has used easy language while designing questions and tried his best to cover all the areas. The researcher has included all the questions in the appendices.

Q:        Are you happy with the manager’s attitude?

Q:        Are you happy with the work environment in the hotel?

Q:        Which kind of environment would you like at work place?

Q:        Have you ever shared your knowledge and experience with your colleagues at work place?

Q:        Are you happy with the company policies regarding respect, honour, salary in time, workplace safety, holidays?

Q:        Do you feel that there should be some changes are necessary at work place that can bring change in the productive attitude of employees?

Q:        Do you believe that

Q:        Select one or more than one from below that in which area the change is necessary?

Q:        Are you agreed with the company’s objective to achieve them?

Q:        Do you have proper skills and resources allocated by the manager to accomplish daily task?

Q:        Does the company check your performance and give you feedback regarding your performance (appraisal or notice regarding lacking skills or capabilities)?

Q:        Is there any link between manager’s behaviour and productive attitude?

Q:        Do you believe that there is a link between work place environment and employee’s loyalty?

Q:        Do you believe that there is a link between manager’s/ Supervisor attitudes and behaviour on your productive attitude?

Q:        Do you believe that managers can play their role in enhancing employee’s productive attitude?

Q:        Which factors can play their role in increasing employee’s loyalty?

            Select one or more from the given below list.

3.9       Interviews

The researcher arranged a meeting with the managers at Botanic hotel to ask some questions about the leadership style with the manager. Interviews are the best techniques to gather primary data on a specific topic or issue. There two people involved in the interview. Basically in the interview there are always two parties involved. There are many advantages of interview. The data gathered through using interview provide full range and valid and reliable data to the interviewer (Soderlund, 2008).

The researcher has used semi structured technique to conduct the interview because there are many advantages of using semi structured interviews. The information gathered through semi structured interview always provides exact data as per the aims and objectives of the research. The researcher can obtain the information free of discrimination while using semi structured interview. The researcher selects the interviewee as per his own choice so there is always no chance of inappropriate person that can deliver inappropriate information. The researcher has the chance to convey the aims and objective to the respondents regarding each question and in response appropriate and according to the situation and according to the specific problem he or she can gather information.

Q: How would you explain your leadership qualities?

Q: What are your role and responsibilities?

Q: What are the ethics and values of a leader?

Data Analysis and Presentation

During primary data gathering the researcher has designed these following questions and recorded all the answers carefully to avoid from duplication.

Male=    25

Female= 25

Question No.1:            Are you happy with the manager’s attitude?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male20525
Female22325
Total42850

The researcher has designed this question to know about the attitude of manager in the organization because attitude has affected on the productive attitude of employees. There were total 50 respondents and majority replied that yes the attitude of manager is good with them the main purpose of this question was that at work place the attitude of immediate boss has an effect on the productive attitude of employees. The above chart shows that 42 respondents among 50 are satisfied with the manager’s attitude and only a minimum number of respondents are not happy with the manager’s attitude.

Majority of the respondents replied that yes at the hotel they are happy with the manager’s attitude. 84% replied that they are happy with the manager, where as only 16% are not happy with the manager, they may be due to unseen event and may be due to their more expectations from manager they are not happy with the manager’s attitude. According to survey 84% of total are happy with good behaviour and attitude of manager because of his ethics and paying respect. But the rest of 16% and not happy because the behaviour of manage change at work pressure.

Question No.2:            Are you happy with the work environment in the hotel?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male23225
Female24125
Total47350

Here in this question the researcher has tried to asks and want to confirm the work environment because there is a link between the work environment and the productive attitude, 45 respondents has replied that they are satisfied and happy with the work environment at the hotel and only 5 people are not happy may be due to stress, unwillingness or any other problem. The respondents are mix males and female because in this hotel males and female are working together. The researcher has found that majority is happy with the work environment that include safety measurements, managerial orally support and policies and working system and working as a team member.

Almost people are happy because the environments and usually depends on staff behaviour and in that hotel the staff is especially trained for that purpose and are accompanied with all comfortable essential. The rest of some people are not fully happy due to the demanding improvement of some policies.

Question No.3:            Which kind of environment would you like at work place?

Answer:

                                    Friendly/ Trusty:

Strict:

RespondentsFriendlyStrictTotal
Male25 25
Female25 25
Total50050

The researcher has designed this question in order to know about the work environment in the hotel and the preference of work environment either it is friendly or strict. In the friendly environment employees are actually feel free and more confidence in them and they work with more heartedly to achieve organizational objectives and they will offer better quality of services to the clients. Friendly environment is such an environment that each employee support other as per his or her experience and morally and physically, brain storming is also essential, in friendly environment leaders /manager’s have trust in their employees to accomplish task and they dedicated authorities to the employees and in rewards the employee feels happy and they feel proud and they remain happy while work and dedicate their selves more heartedly and productivity increases and in hotel industry the employees offer better quality of services to their clients. 100% respondents respond that they like friendly environment because in friendly environment they can perform more quality of work rather than they remain in stress whole day.

This demanding point is fully voted in friendly work place because the only in friendly condition we can share our problems and ideas in hierarchy of upper and down. The employees need trusty/ friendly environment at work place. The productivity increases due to friendly environment because in stress situation it is not possible, employees will remain happy and they will put their energies to achieve organizational objectives by devoting himself/ herself with whole heartedly.

Question No.4:            Have you ever shared your knowledge and experience with your     colleagues at work place?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Serial No.YesNoTotal
Male18725
Female151025
Total331750

The researcher has designed this question because there is a deep link between the morally, ethically and physically support to the colleagues because when employee is working as a team member then it is essential for every team member to participate equally and support each other to achieve win situation, being team worker the goals and objectives remain same. 33 respondents out of 50 respond that they support their colleagues but 27 among 50 they do not support their colleagues at the work place. This is very dangerous situation because in a team it is important to support each other and this may be due to the policy or due to the manager’s instructions. The manager must think and high level management must think and change their policy and make it sure that all employees must work as team member rather than in a group. 27 out of 50 is significant figure which is not negligible. 

Many of us do the sharing of experience, Knowledge and ideas with senior and colleagues for the improvements. The rest is wishing to do so but due to personal behaviour and attitude of employs they are unable to do so. In some situations colleagues can play their role in creating clients satisfaction. Similarly as in hotel industry service quality is most important as compared to other factors, client’s complaints handling and satisfying them as per their needs and wants. Client’s satisfaction is possible when there is no difference between client’s expectations and perceived quality of products and services.

Question No.5:            Are you happy with the company policies regarding respect, honour, salary in time, workplace safety, holidays?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

RespondentsMaleFemale
Salary2224
Respect2025
Work Place Safety2322
Holidays2525
Promotion2324
Trainings2423
Feed back2521
Morally Support2222
Other1213

The researcher has designed this kind of question because the researcher wants to know about the factors that can influence on the productive attitude of employees. Leadership style can increase or decrease the employee’s attitude. And manager’s style of doing work is depends on the company policy and the above triggers are those triggers that can play their role in the productive attitude to offer better quality of services and clients handling and all those employees like account/ finance department, chefs, kitchen department, delivery department, laundry department, store, cleaning department, booking, customer services all are integrated with each other and they are performing their jobs like a system, the mistake of a single person or department can become a hindrance in the way of delivering best quality of services to the clients and loose one client. There are many factors that can play their effective role in increasing the productive attitude among the employees, majority of the employees can be motivated through handsome salary on time, extra time payments, respect at work place they feel proud to be a team member, work safety, properly safety measures like proper fire exits, safety cautions, proper training regarding how to operate machines, equipments, tools, paid holidays, sick leave, maternity leaves, proper promotion in time promotion, seniority system, regular pay, career growth, personal growth, proper performance based feedback and necessary trainings to improve skills in order to achieve organizational objectives by offering better quality of services. All the responses are shown in charts and in table form which is easy to understand.

Almost are happy but other complain that they should receive in cash and demand some advance salary. This is not possible according to company policies. 92% are happy with the company policies those are implemented in the organization. But 8% respondents are not happy with company policies due to some reasons like holidays, work place safety, pay, over time and trust etc. 

Similarly respect at work place is much important, because this factor play its vital role in creating loyalty among employees for more productive attitude towards achieving organizational objectives. Majority of the respondents 84% responded that respect is an important factor in creating loyalty at work place among employees. 16% are not agree, may be they consider other factors important as compared to respect. They may prefer other factors.

Here 90 % majority significant volume showing that safety measures are very important and majority believes in the safety measure that can play its role in creating loyalty and loyalty can play its role in creating productive attitude and hence the clients work to create loyalty among clients to satisfy them and ultimately achieving organizational objectives.

Every employee has the right for career growth. Career growth depends on the performance of an employee. Every organization has its own policy for employee’s performance measurements and promotional criteria. With the promotion employees get more benefits like power, authority, increments in salary and other benefits as per the policy and nature of business. 94% responded that career growth also play an important role in creating employee’s loyalty.

As promotion is depends on the performance, if the performance is poor then it is organizational responsibility to check the week areas, and necessary skills and qualifications to improve employee’s skills and competencies to achieve organizational objectives. 94% respondents replied that trainings and courses can play their role in creating loyalty among employees. Providing trainings to the appropriate employees is also manager’s responsibility.

Feedback providing is also responsibility of manager’s to provide to the employee when they need it. And to create trust, friendly, pay in time etc are also responsibilities and characteristics of good managers and good leadership style included leadership, controllers and organizer qualities in managers. Managers are depending on the organizational policies, but with the passage of time, improvements in processes, change in technology affect the policies and clients needs and wants also have affect on the policies and procedures of organizations. When there are expectations of clients and they spend money to satisfy themselves their wants and needs. Similarly employees offer their services to employers. Employers pay them salaries and incentives and other benefits on the behalf of employee’s performance. Different companies have different policies implemented in their organizations.

Question No.6:            Do you feel that there should be some changes are necessary at work place that can bring change in the productive attitude of employees?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male20525
Female22325
Total42850

The researcher has designed this question to know about the improvements/ changes that are required to increase productive attitude among the employees, the majority responds that yes there is need of change to increase the attitude of employees towards the productivity. Only 8 people among 50 are not agree with this statement and may be they are happy with all the circumstances and may be they do not have such a knowledge that some changes can improve the productive attitude.

Question number 5 and question number 6 are related with each others. All those factors that can affect the productive attitude of employees, all those factors are discussed in the chapter number five. 84% respondents believe in that salary well in time, over time, work place safety, respect etc. Only 16% are not agree they think that actually instead of leadership style there should be no link between other employees with each other and they are more conservative people, they just come to their jobs and they ate not interested in their career growth. But they are only interested in manager’s attitude and in organizational policies. This question was designed by the researcher in order to know that the organizational policies can change the productive attitude of employees or not. But after gathering primary data the researcher come to know that yes the policies of organization can play in motivating employees to achieve organizational objectives which are ultimately to earn more profit and as in secondary data it is clear that if the services are high, and the quality of the services are better and are according to the expectations of the employee then it is easy to generate more revenue, because when there is no difference in the expectations and the perceived quality of services then it is easy to achieve organizational objectives. The majority of the respondents replied that yes leadership style that define that how to motivate people and how to enforce employees to do job in the organization to achieve organizational objective have deeply link with productive attitudes.

Question No.7:            Select one or more than one from below that in which area the change is necessary?

Answer:

Behaviour:

Pay:

Communication:

Work condition:

Fringe benefits:

Supervision:

Promotion:

Decision making Employee’s involvement:

Support (Morally, Physically):

Knowledge Sharing:

AreaMaleFemaleTotalPercentage (%)
Behaviour25714
Pay33612
Communication42612
Work Condition3148
Trainings23510
Fringe benefits1236
Supervision23510
Decision Making Involvement32510
Morally Support43714
Physically Support32510
Experience sharing23510

The researcher has designed this question to now that in which area change is necessary in order to enhance the productive attitude among employees. The researcher has asked to respondents because all those areas are in the best interest of employees. All employees have their own needs and want, and they also want to fulfil their requirements. They prefer their own needs and when their needs are overcome then they will devote their selves with whole heartedly towards achieving organizational objectives. All these areas are necessary and important to consider because these are important and can play role in creating loyalty and productive attitude among employees.

Question No. 8:           Are you agreed with the company’s objective to achieve them?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

Actually the researcher wants to know about the clarity that the employees may know about the objective for which the company is striving for. When all the employees are well known about the organizational objectives and are agreed to achieve them. If they are agreed to achieve them then they can perform in well manners. Because they also know all the operational activities and ideas that which resources are required to accomplish the task and it is the manager’s responsibility to let them know the employees about the objectives of organization and in regular meetings he or she must make it sure that the proper resources are allocated at right time and make it sure that all employees have required skills and competencies and knowledge to get output.

Question No. 9:           Do you have proper skills and resources allocated by the manager to accomplish daily task?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Serial No.YesNoTotal
Male19625
Female21425
Total401050

The researcher actually want to know about the manager’s attitude that how much the manager is responsible regarding his/ her own responsibilities, 40 out of 50 respondents replied that yes the manager allocated them required resources at right time. Proper resource allocation to the right person at right time always leads employees towards more productivity. 80% majority respond that resources are allocated well in time where as 20% respond that resources were not allocated at proper time. So this shows that there is lacking in leadership style. When the manager is not allocating proper resources to all employees then it is not possible to achieve organizational objectives well in time effectively.

Question No. 11:         Does the company check your performance and give you feedback regarding your performance (appraisal or notice regarding lacking skills or capabilities)?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male121325
Female091625
Total212950

The researcher has asked this question to know that the performance of employees is being regularly checked and necessary training to improve employees are also being organized by the company or not. So after gathering data from employees in fact the researcher com to know that majority responds that there is no properly check up regarding performance checkups and there is no so good appraisal and recognitions for the hardworking employees at this hotel. 

Question No. 12:         Is there any link between manager’s behaviour and productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

The researcher has asked about the link between the managerial roles in productive attitude in achieving organizational objectives through creating productive attitude among employees. The entire employee’s are agreed and they believe in managerial role that managers through their attitude and policies they can create productive attitude among employees.

Question No. 13:         Do you believe that there is a link between work place environment and employee’s loyalty?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

The researcher has designed this question to know the relationship between employee’s loyalty and the workplace environment. 100% despondent replied that there is a strong relationship between loyalty and work place. This relationship exists because of employee’s self satisfaction. Work place environment includes safety, behaviour, attitude, co workers attitude, organizational policies for the welfare of employees.

Question No. 14:         Do you believe that there is a link between manager’s/ Supervisor attitudes and behaviour on your productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male24125
Female23225
Total47350

The researcher has designed this question to know about the link between productive attitude of employees and the behaviour and attitude of immediate boss or manager or supervisor. The majority of the respondents replied that yes there the link exist between productive attitude and the behaviour. This is because of the self satisfaction and respect of employees at job. Only three respondents have replied that there is no such an affect of immediate boss attitude and behaviour on the employee’s productive attitude. 

Question No. 15:         Do you believe that managers can play their role in enhancing employee’s productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

RespondentsYesNoTotal
Male25025
Female25025
Total50050

The researcher has found out that managers can play their role in creating and enhancing productive attitude among the employees through designing and effective policies and implementing policies in the organization. Managers being a leader, controller and organizer can play its effective role in creating and enhancing productive attitude among employees. All the respondents replied that managers can play their effective role in creating productive attitude.

Question No. 16:         Which factors can play their role in increasing employee’s loyalty?

                                    Select one or more from the given below list.

Answer?

                                    Pay in time

                                    Trust on Employees

                                    Proper feedback

                                    Training and courses

                                    Fulfilling promises and priority to the feedback

                                    Equal Treatment with all employees (No Discrimination basis on age, race, sex, colour, education, region etc)

                                    Trustworthy Environment

                                    Look after of employees

                                    Proper training regarding how to use new technology, proper courses coaching

                                    Leading then and controlling the employees and again necessary training

FactorsMaleFemaleTotal
Pay252247
Trust252449
Feedback252247
Trainings222345
Promises242549
Equality242549
Leading and guiding222345
Other benefits222547
    

The researcher tried his best to know that which factors can play best role in creating employee’s loyalty. After gathering data regarding this question the researcher come to know that trust, pay, promises, and other benefits can play their role and these factors must be considered by the managers while designing policy and while implementing business strategies at work place with priority. Employees have their own benefits and they have to overcome their own liabilities they need money to do shopping, and overcome other necessities of life. So in time pay, bonuses, incentives, overtime, promotions, values, trust environment are of priority issues that can play important and effective role in creating and enhancing loyalty among employees.

Question: How would you want to explain your leadership qualities?

Answer:

I have following leadership qualities

Integrity, dedication, humility, openness, magnanimity, creativity, fairness, assertiveness and I have sense of humour.

Question: What are the ethics and values of a leader?

Answer:

Values and ethics are likely to be the theoretical and confusing. You should visualize that what is going around you. As there is no pet definition of ethics but the manager as a leader is always responsible for implementation of social responsibilities in the organization and play its role for the welfare of employees for achieving organizational objectives, the manager must consider the skills and competencies of employees and educate the employees by trainings and courses arrangements. The manager must have eye on the future prospects like what is expected in the future like resource requirements, budget requirement, sales and business strategies to be implemented in the future to achieve organizational objectives. The managers must have very good attitude with the employees and should organize trust worthy environment on the work place the manager should pass on authorities to the employees to develop trust and friendly environment. The manager must be realistic and play managerial role as empathic rather than sympathise. The manager must view the performance of each employee and give feedback to the employee and according to the performance the manager must arrange training session to improve employee’s skills and competencies to achieve organizational objectives. It is the manager that agrees all the employees on organizational objectives.   

Question: What are your role and responsibilities?

Answer:

Concentrate efforts

Focus on the productive work

Motivate employees towards work

Coordination with employees and higher management to align the work

Support the employees and properly allocation of resources to the employees on right time to achieve organizational objectives and help out them in difficult situations.

Creating trusty and friendship environment

Arrangements of trainings sessions to improve their skills and knowledge for positive out comes

Chapter: 5

Conclusion and recommendations

In this chapter the researcher has described the limitations, conclusion, recommendations and future study in detail.

5.1       Conclusion and limitations

The researcher being the student has two limitations time and budget, to avoid the impact of these two limitations the researcher has selected case study tool for conducting this research. And make it sure that the data is valid and reliable. The researcher has conducted this research to fulfil the academic requirement of MBA degree. The researcher being student has bear all the expenditures from his own pocket. The researcher came to know that effective leadership style has direct relationship on the performance of employees and ultimately there is a link between the sales and growth of organization. These days many leadership style theories are in the practice in different organizations that are designed by the higher management according to the business nature and according to the objectives of organization. The researcher has concluded that there is a great relationship among the leadership style and the organizational growth. Every organization has its own specific goals and objectives. The human resource “employees” are now days are the main assets for an organization. The leadership style describes the full code of conduct that shows the behaviour of managers that they act, control, lead and organize all the resources to achieve organizational objectives. To achieve organizational objectives in the hotel industry the main focus of organization is offering the best quality of services to its clients. Because the organizational growth depends on the volume of sales and volume of sales depends on the frequency of sales and it is only due to when the clients are happy by using the products and services. When the clients perceived better quality of services they will become happy and this happiness creates the loyalty among the clients. The client’s loyalty always motivated clients to repurchase the services and also become reference groups for other clients. The loyalty depends on the quality of services and this quality of services depends on the employees. When the employees are loyal with the organization and they are well skilled especially in communication and dealing with clients then they can play their vital role in creating customer’s loyalty. Leadership style consist of rules and regulation implemented by the organizations to do business to organize, control, allocate the resources to the right people at right time to obtain organizational objectives. The behaviour of manager and the attitude and the environment created by the managers have a significant effect on the productive attitude of employees. The work place environment plays an important role in creating productive attitude among employees. So there is a link between the leadership style and organizational sale and growth by retaining old clients, capturing new clients from the market (more market share) and by handling their complaints and offering them appropriate better quality of services to bring satisfaction among clients.

The researcher has found that the employees are very happy with the manager’s behaviour and his attitude. The majority of the employees are happy with manager’s attitude only small numbers of employees are not happy with the manager’s attitude. Majority of the employees are satisfied by the work place environment like safety measures and there is no need to change the health and safety measures. Majority of the employees are well trained and skilled in dealing the clients and handling difficult situation because the supervisors helped out them. But the employees did not have sufficient authorities to solve the client’s problem at spot, and they need authority from the managers. The clients are not happy with the strict environment. So the managers can create more productive attitude by creating friendly and trusty environment at the work place. And organizational objectives can be achieved in efficient way if the employee’s have friendly environment. Trusty and friendly environment is suitable when all the workers are working like team members they should help out each other and managers must delegate authorities to the employees and managers must invite the employees to take participate in problem solving situation. There are so many benefits of friendly environment, the main benefit is that it will motivate all the employees to work hard (productivity level) in achieving organizational objectives. A significant number of respondents replied that there is no physically or morally support by their colleagues to support each other on work place. This shows that there are many gaps and the leadership style is not effective because there are so many problems that the employees are facing at the work place. The researcher has came to know that there are so many factors that organization must consider and review them periodically to make it sure that employees are happy with the policies of organization. These factors are playing an important role in creating productive attitude among the employees and this productive attitude leads them in achieving organizational objectives efficiently. When the employees are happy with the policies/ managerial behaviour then the employees will do more for the organization to achieve organizational objective by handling clients and offering better services to the clients. About 8-14% of the employees are not happy the policies regarding pay, respect, holidays, work safety, paid leaves, sick leaves, promotion, training chances, personal development, decision making involvement and morally support by the managers. As the primary research proved that these above discussed factors are playing important role in creating productive attitude among employees so the administration must take notice of these factors and they must change those policies and change leadership style in practice in order to maximize the productive attitude of employees. One thing is important that the employee’s performance is not regularly being checked by the managers and there is such a good system to gauge the performance. This factor can demoralize the hard workers and it may have bad affects on the business. All the employees are agreed to achieve organizational objectives. The objectives are very clear to all employees and all the employees know their responsibilities and tasks and they are trying their best to achieve daily task. Majority of the employees are agreed that managerial role is very important in the productive attitude at work place and can also play its role in enhancing the performance of employees. Majority and significant majority believed that there is a deep link between the productive attitude of employees and the manager’s behaviour. At the work place majority of the employees are happy but few of them are not happy with manager’s attitude. After conducting the interview with the manager, the researcher has came to know that manager is responsible for resource allocation, for forecasting of sales and forecasting of market share and growth. Manager play multi role in the organization like organizing the employees and other resources. The manager is responsible for the performance measurement manager is responsible for developing strategies. Managers play their role in controlling staff members and leading them. Managers are responsible for the proper and appropriate resource allocation at right time to the right person to achieve organizational objectives.

5.2       Recommendations

Managers must see that why the employees are not happy because each employee plays its role in obtaining organizational objectives.

 The organization must develop such policies that managers can delegate authorities to their employees to handle critical situations to create loyalty among clients.

The working environment must be friendly all the employees must share their knowledge and experience and help each other.

The organization must change their policies regarding colleague support it should be essential that colleagues must share their knowledge and support other colleagues in achieving their daily tasks. And such employees must be appreciated by the managers so that other colleagues can be encouraged by these kinds of activities.

 The organization must review the policies of salary, health and safety issues, all the other benefits of the employees and even then wage rates and paid leaves as well. These factors are very important in creating productive attitude.

The organization must review its policies related with employees and all those factors that are directly related with the employee’s benefits to change those policies because a significant figure showed that the change is essential at work place.

 The organization must check all those factors that are directly related with the promotion, career growth and personal development of an employee. The organization must change the policy for positive outcomes. The managers must play their role as empathy not sympathy. Because being sympathy the managers can only identify the problem but while being empathy behaviour the managers can provide solution as well.

5.3       Further Study

The researcher has found that there are many areas like employee’s communication skills, customer’s loyalty, complaints handling and identification of customer’s needs and wants are those areas that in future any person can take one of them into consideration then he or she will find out its impact on the revenue and growth of organization. In the future research can be conducted in customer relationship management and its effects on the sales and growth of organization can be conducted.

Chapter: 6

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Schneider, B. and Bowen, D.E. (2009) ‘Understanding customer delight and outrage’ Sloan Management Review, 1, (41) pp. 35-47

Schlesinger, L. and Heskett, J. (2001) ‘The Service-Driven Service Company’ Harvard Business Review, 69, (5) pp. 71-81

Sheth, J.N. and Parvatiyar, A. (2000) Handbook of relationship marketing: Jagdish N. Sheth, Atul Parvatiyar, editors. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Sosik, J.J. (2006) Leading with character: stories of valor and virtue and the principles they teach, 1st ed. USA: Information Age Publishing Inc.

Stake, R. E. (2005) The Art of Case Study Research 1st ed. London: Sage Publications

Sugandhi, R.K. (2002) Customer Relationship Management. 1st ed. New Delhi: New age

International Publishers

Zeithaml, A., Pasuraman, A. & Berry, L. (2003) Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. 2nd ed. New York: The Free Press Division of Macmillan

  • Websites

http://www.hotelscombined.co.uk/Hotel/Botanic_Hotel_Glasgow.htm

http://www.laterooms.com/en/p1301/pv1943r/k16289408_glasgow-hotels.

http://www.botanichotel.co.uk/botanic/

http://www.laterooms.com/en/hotel-reservations/250989_botanic-hotel-glasgow.aspx

http://www.gnws.co.uk/html/botanic.htm

http://www.sunshine.co.uk/hotels/Botanic_Hotel-12367.html

http://www.botanichotel.co.uk/botanic/tariff.html

http://www.botanichotel.co.uk/botanic/contact-us.html

http://www.travelstay.com/pages/BotanicHotel.htm

http://www.easytobook.com/en/united-kingdom/glasgow/glasgow/botanic-hotel/

http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=slbp_botanic-glasgow

http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=slca_botanic-glasgow

http://www.booking.com/hotel/gb/botanic-glasgow.en.html?aid=311076;label=slhp_botanic-glasgow

  • Bibliography

Chi, C.G.Q. and Qu, H. (2008) ‘Examining the structural relationship of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach’ Tourism Management,

29, pp.624-636

Choi, T.Y. and Chu, R. (2001) ‘Determinants of hotel guest’s satisfaction and repeat patronage in the Hong Kong hotel industry’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 20 pp.277-297

Everett, M. (2005) ‘A Higher Calling’ Sales & Marketing Management, 110, (2) pp.25-45 

Gefen, D. (2002) ‘Customer loyalty in e-commerce’ Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 1(3) pp 27-60

Getty, J.M. and Thompson, K.N. (1994) ‘The relationship between quality, satisfaction, and recommending behaviour in lodging decision’ Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 2, (3) pp. 3-22

Helgesen, O. (2006) Are Loyal Customers profitable? Customer satisfaction, customer action loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level’ Journal of Marketing Management, 22, pp.245-266

Knutson, B. (2000) ‘Frequent travelers: making them happy and bringing them back’ The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 29, (1) pp.83-87

Olorunniwo, F., Hsu, M.K. and Udo, G.J. (2006) ‘Service quality, customer satisfaction and behavioural intensions in the service factory’ Journal of Services Marketing, 20, (1) pp.59-72

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (2007) ‘SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumers perceptions of service quality’ Journal of Retailing, 55, (2) pp. 74-82

Powell R.A. & Single H.M. (2006) ‘Focus groups’ International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 8, (5) pp. 499-504

Powell R.A., Single H.M. & Lloyd K.R. (2006) ‘Focus groups in mental health research: enhancing the validity of user and provider questionnaires’ International Journal of Social Psychology, 42, (3) pp. 193-206.

Richins, M. (2000) ‘Negative Word-of-mouth by dissatisfied customers: a pilot study’ Journal of Marketing, 68, (1) pp. 105-111

Su, A.Y.L. (2004) ‘Customer satisfaction measurement practice in Taiwan hotels’ International Journal of Hospitality Management, 22, (1) pp.397-408

Swartz, T.A. and Lacobucci, D. (2009), Handbook in Services Marketing and Management, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Appendices

Questionnaire Designed

 

Muhammad Asif Student ID ST 20016691

(Cardiff Metropolitan University)

United Kingdom

Note: Tick the appropriate answer

Total Staff Members Selected for Survey at Botanic Hotel Glass (Case Study) = 50

Male=    25

Female= 25

Question No.1:            Are you happy with the manager’s attitude?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

Question No.2:            Are you happy with the work environment in the hotel?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

Question No.3:            Which kind of environment would you like at work place?

Answer:

                                    Friendly/ Trusty:

Strict:

Question No.4:            Have you ever shared your knowledge and experience with your colleagues at work place?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No.5:            Are you happy with the company policies regarding respect, honour, salary in time, workplace safety, holidays?

Answer:

Yes:

No:

Question No.6:            Do you feel that there should be some changes are necessary at work place that can bring change in the productive attitude of employees?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

No:

Question No. 8:           Do you believe that

Question No.7:            Select one or more than one from below that in which area the change is necessary?

Answer:

Behaviour:

Pay:

Communication:

Work condition:

Fringe benefits:

Supervision:

Promotion:

Decision making Employee’s involvement:

Support (Morally, Physically):

Knowledge Sharing:

Question No.8:            Are you agreed with the company’s objective to achieve them?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No.9:            Do you have proper skills and resources allocated by the manager to accomplish daily task?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No.10:          Does the company check your performance and give you feedback regarding your performance (appraisal or notice regarding lacking skills or capabilities)?

Answer:

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 11:         Is there any link between manager’s behaviour and productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 12:         Do you believe that there is a link between work place environment and employee’s loyalty?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 13:         Do you believe that there is a link between manager’s/ Supervisor attitudes and behaviour on your productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 14:         Do you believe that managers can play their role in enhancing employee’s productive attitude?

Answer?

                                    Yes:

                                    No:

Question No. 15:         Which factors can play their role in increasing employee’s loyalty?

                                    Select one or more from the given below list.

Answer?

                                    Pay in time

                                    Trust on Employees

                                    Proper feedback

                                    Training and courses

                                    Fulfilling promises and priority to the feedback

                                    Equal Treatment with all employees (No Discrimination basis on age, race, sex, colour, education, region etc)

                                    Trustworthy Environment

                                    Look after of employees

                                    Proper training regarding how to use new technology, proper courses coaching

                                    Leading then and controlling the employees and again necessary training

Does effective websites with particular characteristics affect customer loyalty to retain them

  1. History

Today internet marketing is a new technology which is used in all over the world by large and small organizations to sell, buy their products, and services hiring and offering services by using new technology. Actually internet marketing now has become very popular mean of communication, even then by operating business in a country you can sell, product or services through internet on the other corner of the world if buyer or seller is there with no wastage of time and money, when wastage of time and money are there then it is meant that businessman has saved the amount in other terms. Similarly there are many features of internet marketing on a business. GlaxoSmithKline is well known multinational pharmaceutical company that is striving for life of quality for its patients and it is doing business in about 100 countries and has 96000 employees in all over the world. Pharmaceutical company making perception medicine, vaccines, and other health care medicine products, in which most famous diseases like asthma, virus control, infections, mental health, diabetes and digestive, now it has been producing cancer preventing medicines as well. Company has open relationships with NHS in all UK, company is striving for human life quality to improve and patients to feel better, and that’s why company is developing innovative products. The company is almost capturing new share of market every year 24% among worldwide which is a major portion that’s why it is leader pharmaceutical company. Round about 13000 researchers are employed by this company for research and development purpose, among them about 1300 belonged to United Kingdom, in 2009 they spent about $11 million in United Kingdom Universities to support about 260 PhD students (http://www.gsk.com/uk/about/index.htm#uk-r-and-d).

  1. Problem

Customers are everywhere in the world, now people are time saving, they want to buy and pay from their homes, sometimes they do not have time to go for shopping for shopping, for purchasing food, and many more stuff, so they require services. Internet provides this facility to visit online shopping and pay from internet, and even then this kind of marketing is more suitable for buyer and seller, company and customer. Fast communication, fast tracking, fast feedback, complaint handling this all provide companies data to make fast decisions and retain customers and capture more and more, it depends on the quality of services and quality of communication. By using computer from home, office, on way, during journey, business man can make contact with supplier, management, and distributions, similarly seller, middleman, buyer also can make contact through online facility, just by going on the web site of relevant company and choose the product or service and go through all process. In this way both customer and organization can save time and money.

Easy access

Business in all over the world

More chances to capture new customers and retaining old clients

Fast, time saving, cheaper, money saving

Research objectives

What are the characteristics of effective website?

In this objective the researcher wants to find out the characteristics of websites, the main purpose of this objective is to clear understanding about those characteristics that can play their role in the growth of organization and in achieving organizational objectives, and these characteristics are very important.

What is the impact of website creating customer loyalty?

This objective has an importance for the researcher because the researcher want to know about the influence that how the characteristics of a website can create the satisfaction and loyalty among the customer because the loyalty is helpful in achieving organizational objectives.

Which characteristics have greater influence to attract customers and create more loyalty?

There will be many characteristics that have some influence in achieving organizational objectives but the main and effective characteristics that have mostly their impact in achieving goals and objectives.

  1. Research Question

Does effective websites with particular characteristics affect customer loyalty to retain them?

  1. Review of Literature

Using internet facility attaining organizational objectives is called internet marketing (Smith & Chaffy, 2005). According to Strauss and Frost, (2005) organizations achieve their goals of marketing by using internet and other activities of marketing processes which includes all the activities of marketing, product designing, setting prices, quality, placement and promotional activities through internet. Organizations can achieve objectives like generate more revenue, attaining of competitive advantages over their competitors in the market, relations with distributors, new ideas generation of doing business in well manner, client retaining and capturing more client in the market to gain more market share by using performance of marketing (Adam et al. 2002). Researcher will use more literature review like different marketing journals, books on marketing and internet, different thesis and marketing articles on marketing performance. Researcher will readout different areas which are liken and connected to internet marketing like internet use, internet marketing, different companies that are providing internet facility of buying and purchasing and selling product to support his research (Bharadwaj, 2000). Researcher is interested in this research because internet marketing effects on sales need still more work and need positive suggestions for companies. Researcher will describe the different aspects of website on the loyalty of customers. The researcher will find out the effects of website to create more and enhancing more loyalty in customers. As two scholars have described the impact of internet services in the field of electronic commerce and especially in transactions and regarding marketing and international trade Teo and Tan, (2002) said that organizations are going to pay their focus on e-commerce related issues. Internet has a significant effect in business (Darby et al. 2003). Customers use computer to make transactions (Fillis et al. 2004). There are so many advantages of computer science in every field of life specially its importance and advantages in the field of trade have great importance and Porter, (2001) said that internet is actually a big support to business. Internet is playing big role in business transactions to carry out them (Gatticker et al. 2000). To manage customer in an effective way by creating relationship with them for long time to make profit is new idea (Goldsmith and Lafferty, 2002). Customer relationship management can be used to retain the old loyal customers for the more income and revenue to earn handsome profit and for the growth of organization and expansion of product line and range. (Samiee, 1998) described that Customer relationship management strategy is used to create loyalty in customers. This statement was also supported by the (Getty and Thompson, 1994) by saying that customer relationship management is used to create loyalty. Customer relationship management is for creating loyalty in customer the main cause of its importance is that loyalty has great influence on organization (Gefen, 2002). The researcher will first create influence of loyalty on business and then website. Each new technology whereas has its more advantages there are many disadvantages of new technology and with the passage of time those limitations can be easily removed through some amendments and alterations Siddiqui, (2003) said in the support that there are many problems related with usage on internet. But some of the scholars were agree on the effectiveness of the website design and they said that there is significantly affect of website on customer loyalty (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). With the usage of internet and launching of website mean more loyalty of customers. According to above literature it is clear that through using and launching of website, any organization has the opportunity to use effectively its customer relationship management strategies and activities in effective way and good manners, when there is effective customer relationship management strategies implemented through website then there are many opportunities to create loyalty in customers and loyalty in customer means retention and more market share capturing from market and more revenue generation and more profit. Through usage of internet company can sell products and services beyond the boundaries of country.  CRM is strategy that how to retain already customers and how to make more customers through creating loyalty, and other activities (Sheth and Sharma, 2005). Some companies have record of their clients (Morgan and Shelly, 1994). Through creating loyalty companies can retain customers (Powell and Single, 1996). Customer relationship management is only for clients, no client no customer relationship management. Companies retain, capture clients make relations with other companies (Parasuraman et al. 1988). For business success, customer’s complaints handling is important (Oliver, 1980). Companies should recognize customer’s needs, wants and their level of satisfactions and provide them those products to overcome their needs and wants up to a certain level of satisfaction (Oliver, 1997). Companies should recognize what customers wants, and create thus more loyalty (Olorunniwo et al. 2006). Employees recognize client’s issues and should help those (Caruana et al. 2000). It is very easy to deal customers at regular basis when one organization only designs a product or offers a service for one client this concept is called personalization which means special product or service for a client (Chen and Popovich, 2003). Loyalty is the trigger towards company benefits that’s why loyalty s important (Chi and Qu, 2008). Loyal customers select the organization and remained to buy products (Choi and Chu, 2001). Loyalty will consider by the researcher as important factor in this research.  Loyalty is indicating occurrence (Cronin and Taylor, 1992). To advertize products website is best tool (Dimitriades, 2006). Website develops trust on client and supplier (Faullent et al, 2008 Feagin et al. 1991). Through internet which is costly means to bring or capture customer but effective way to create loyalty (Chatterjee et al., 2002). Through website attracting new client is very costly (Feagin et al. 1991). To capture more clients, company can develop website and launch the website to attract clients and can create loyalty for purchasing and repurchasing products or services for earning profit (Flyvbjerg, 2006).

  1. Research methodology

Researcher will use conceptual model, researcher will measure characteristics of a website and exploratory research will conduct to find out the impact of website on customer loyalty. Customer will choose a case study of GlaxoSmithKline’s website to make it sure that what is the impact of website on customers loyalty? Researcher will conduct interviews to different customers and to the management and employees of company to achieve the results.

Research Instruments

Researcher will describe some features on the basis of those features researcher will be able to find out the data and after analysis and interpreting them, conclusion will possible. These features will be for the website that if these features are used during the construction or in other words if websites offer these features to customers to create loyalty then what is impact of website on customer loyalty.

Researcher will use tables and graphs for statistical analysis.

Researcher has found out those features from review of literature.

Researcher will construct table for test.

Population

Interviews will be conducted of managers, customer services officers and customers. And questionnaires will be used in the research about 150 respondents will be surveyed. 150 respondents are enough because the researcher has limited time to conduct this research. The researcher will select suitable and frequent customers. The researcher will ask first about usage of internet and online shopping. The person using online shopping will be the most suitable sample. Both of the gender male and female will be included in the sampling and ages range will be from 20 to onward till 50 years.

Sampling

The researcher will select customers randomly from all the population.

Source of Data

The researcher will visit more than 10 websites of different companies to collect data, interviews and meetings with management of pharmaceutical company and to its other employees and with customer services officers and information technology like web developer interviews will be conducted. Moreover for research purpose literature will be reviewed, books, articles, statistical reports and news papers and IT magazines will readout.

Primary and Secondary Data

Primary data will be collected through visiting websites of different companies, annual reports, meeting with manager, and employees of above said company will be arranged in order to get reliable and valid data. Questionnaires will be used as a tool, and during interviews data will be recorded will honest and secondary data will be collected through books, reading journals, e books, e journals, different statistical reports, IT journals, IT magazines etc.

Research Limitations

Researcher has time limits and funding limitations.

Actually there are two main limitations with this research project time is so limited and the budget. Being student the researcher will do all the expenses by her own pocket. And the other limitations are that due to time constraint the researcher was unable to conduct this research on a large volume of population and sample size, so the researcher decided to concentrate on only one case study. the respondent knowledge about information technology and his/her background knowledge about it and his/her experience about using of websites for purchasing.

  1. Data Presenting

The researcher will record the data with honestly in tabular form by using Microsoft excel sheet in order to make it sure that there is no any duplication chances and not data missing after recording data into tables form the researcher will use bar charts to make comparisons necessary for the interpretation and making necessary analysis and recommendations on them whereas during the analysis the researcher will use pie charts to make analysis.

Expected Findings

On the basis of research objectives researcher will find out the expected result.

Which includes some characteristics of effective website, impact of website to create customer loyalty, and which characteristic or combination of characteristics have greater affects to create and retain customers.

  1. Planning of Project

This chapter will contains the information regarding each step by step that how to research will conducted by keeping time and budget constraints by the researcher. Here in this section the researcher will describe the flow of steps involved in the research conduction that how the research was conducted by the researcher.

Cost and Resources

This project is not funded by any organization, as this research will conducted through student, so all resources will be arranged by student, student will bear all the expenditures for example, purchasing of costly statistical software and other related cost like to go here and there for collecting primary and secondary data. The researcher has made a rough idea about the cost of the project. The below table is describing the cost associated with the headings of activities, the next table will shows the time frame required to conduct the research.

Serial NumberDescriptionCost (£)
1Travelling expense150
2Data Collection Cost100
3High Tea150
4Documentation Cost100
5Miscellaneous100
 Total600

Timeframe

Gantt chart is here in this section that will completely help out to conduct the research and which is best milestone regarding time.

HistoryX       
Review LiteratureX       
Supervisor callX       
Research Methods X      
Week12345678
Design of research X      
Interviews XX     
Visits XX     
Surveys XXX    
Data Analysis   X    
Hypothesis   XX   
Supervisor call   X    
Findings   X    
Conclusion   XX   
Submitting    XX  
Supervisor call    XX  
Contingency Plan      XX

Contingency Plan

In the end of research, after presenting results and conclusion, there are two weeks to remove errors. If there are any errors and mistakes then the researcher will use these two weeks to correct the errors with the help of supervisor as this is shown in the above table.

  1. Conclusion

The impact of website on customer loyalty will be discussed, some suggestions will give after conduction research and interpreting results that how much is the impact of websites on increasing customer loyalty, and which are main features of website that trigger the customer to create loyalty and how loyalty is beneficial for company

In this section the researcher will also describes the limitations of this research project and as well as the conclusion, here in this section the researcher will also make recommendations for the organization and will suggest to the administration about the characteristics of the website designing and if the researcher will find out some errors and poor designing then the researcher will also through light on the poor sections and suggestions to the web developer that how to remove the weaknesses and how to design it in effective way. Researcher will identify customer relationship management factors which will play vital role in constructing effective and attractive website in order to create more loyalty and retaining clients and attracting more clients and creating loyalty for repurchasing.

As researcher has described some features according to review of literature that these features are very helpful to create loyalty in customers through website, so researcher will make conclusion that which one or more than one features are important to create loyalty through website.