Marketing and Sales Consultancy Services

Executive Summary

This business plan is prepared in conjunction with a new start up business i.e. The company has recently been established to cater the UK market in particular and worldwide in general. The company’s head office will be based in London, UK. The main objective of establishing the business is to tap the prevailing potential in marketing and sales consultancy market, because of an anticipated rise in this field due to recent economic climate in the country. It is expected that companies will need more specialised marketing and sales consultancy to put them again on the right path to grow and prosper. The company will be providing various marketing and sales consultancy services to small and medium sized organizations. These services will include assessing and researching the current marketing activities of the client organisations. Moreover, developing and implementing new marketing and advertisement campaigns to better promote the products and services of the companies. This will ensure more informed and better decision making by the management for developing new businesses in diverse markets. The company will offer a breadth and mix of local and international experience, across marketing, sales and service sector that is pragmatic, practical and cost effective. The company will promote itself in the market as a premier provider of these services. These services will be restricted to the above mentioned fields only.

General Company Description The company will provide high added value to its clients with the ability to create value both for clients and themselves by providing them growth opportunities and reducing their costs of doing business. The increased profitability and cost reduction for the clients will be the ultimate objective and it will be performed by the unique capability of the company. This strategy will ensure long term relations with clients and more profits for the stakeholder organisations.

Products and Services

Company will provide marketing and sales consultancy services to the customers and clients. These services will include,

  • Identifying and planning new marketing strategies
  • Marketing Strategy Development
  • Market Research
  • Planning and delivering Sales force effectiveness  training and development programmes

It is understood that the clients may need these services under very confidential environment, so company will prepare and train its staff to deliver such services swiftly, while maintaining the confidentiality of the clients.

Marketing Plan

The marketing and sales consultancy market is very competitive, but at the same it is very lucrative.  Management has planned a massive marketing and advertising campaign. In the first phase a good website will be launched with personal visits to the potential customers. Initially small and medium sized private companies in herbal and natural medicines, GSL medicines, retail, food and service sector companies will be the main targets for the company.

Management and Personnel Team

The business will be managed by the directors Mr. A, who will act as a Marketing Manager as well. His duties will to discuss the client’s requirements and planning basic and advance research based on surveys. These surveys may include face to face interviews or in the form of written questionnaires. Further Mr. A will record and analyses the reactions of the clients and customers in response to the services offered. He will to be responsible for controlling and recruiting marketing staff as well.

The second director Mr. B will act as a Sales Manager. He will liaise with other staff to determine the range of goods and services to be offered to the clients. He will further examine and analyses the sales figures and prepare proposals for marketing campaigns and promotional activities.

 The directors’ philosophy is to grow in the market by providing highly customised services to the clients with major focus on the UK small and mid-sized business organizations. The directors have anticipated a surge in sales and marketing consultancy market and the companies will be desperate to grow their business after recession. Both the directors have very close relationships with many executives in such companies and hope to get valuable business through their personal relationships and with effective advertisements.

Financial Plan

The services described above are in a great demand in the current time period. The company’s objective is to be profitable from the first year of the business. The money amounting to £50,000 will be available to spend at different variables like fixed costs, variable costs, training and development of employees, marketing and advertising.

The projected profit and loss statement for three consecutive years has been shown in the following table.

Projected Revenues and Profitability
YearRevenuesExpensesGross Profit

Critical Essay on Photography

Table of Contents

Introduction. 2

Aim of Book. 2

Theme. 3

History of Photo Journalism.. 3

Bataille’s Photograph. 3

Krieg dem Krieg. 3

Newspapers. 3

Tabloids. 3

Vietnam.. 3

Concentration Camps. 3

Image Creators. 3

Photography. 3

References and Bibliography. 3


One of the distinguishing features of modern life is that it supplies countless opportunities for regarding at a distance, through the medium of photography horrors taking place throughout the world. Images of atrocities have become, via the little screens of the television and the computer, something of a commonplace (

Aim of Book

Her aim, it seems, is not so much to answer the above questions but to provoke us by her statements, urging us at least to think about what happens when suffering is viewed third hand; because after all, she reminds us, we see only what the photographer wanted us to see. When scenes of violence are as close as our morning papers or TV screens, Sontag’s is an important debate ( This is also a book about how war itself is waged and understood in our time, replete with vivid historical examples and a variety of arguments advanced from some unexpected literary sources. Plato, Leonardo da Vinci, Edmund Burke, Wordsworth, Baudelaire, and Virginia Woolf all figure in this passionate reflection on the modern understanding of violence and atrocity. It includes as well a stinging attack on the provincialism of media pundits who denigrate the reality of war, and a political understanding of conflict, with glib talk about a new, worldwide society of spectacle just as on photography challenged how we understand the very condition of being modern, Regarding the Pain of Others will alter our thinking not only about the uses and meanings of images, but about the nature of war, the limits of sympathy, and the obligations of conscience ( Susan Sontag examines the manner in which war is perceived, taking into account such factors as sex, culture and status. She contends that war imagery is open to both interpretation and manipulation. Sontag rejects the notion that war imagery will necessarily compel a repudiation of war, instead arguing that war is itself perennial. Sontag claims that a photo’s meaning is based on interpretation, perhaps formed of ignorance. Images make events seem real to viewers, even as they seem unreal in their similarity to art. Images, however, have impeccable veracity to the human mind, representing as they do the basis of empirical truth. Sontag reminds the reader, however, that images are first filtered through image takers. Sontag explains that a picture’s meaning is derived through a synthesis of artifice, context and experience (


The author is centrally focused on how people engage the pain and suffering of others. Of particular interest to Sontag, in part due to its particular interest to people in general, is the pain caused by war. Not she being from a war-torn country, Sontag, like many Americans, draws upon secondary sources for her understanding, secondary sources such as art, photography and film. Sontag uses her once-removed experience as an opportunity to examine the manner in which she, and other like herself, understands the world. She realizes that, as an American, she is privileged. Most of the privileged world has little experience with war, and thus are ill equipped to understand the pain it brings. What little they know is gleaned from the newspaper or the nightly news: discrete, disembodied images that fail to convey the harrowing truth beyond (

History of Photo Journalism

She also gives a brief history of photo journalism, from the Crimean and civil wars to the almost instantaneous transmission of images from operation Iraqi freedom. In chapters that sometimes seem to disagree with one another, she plays the devil’s advocate and views the idea of photographs of suffering from all directions. And if a war photo is posed a corpse moved for a better shot or a battle scene restaged to make it more dramatic is the effect enhanced or decreased ( She considers the impact of candid photos versus those technologically manipulated. She discusses how photos, and their impact on us, change when the names of the victims are revealed. Sontag’s statements about photographs of suffering might also help us think about the function of writing and reading about others suffering. When she says “No we should be taken for granted when the subject is looking at other people’s pain” I thought of how differently a patient’s suffering might be written about by a doctor, a nurse, a lover, the patient himself, those of different cultures or beliefs. When Sontag says “The photographs are a means of making real or more real matters that the privileged and the merely safe might prefer to ignore” I thought of how we attempt to use literature to guide the healthy caregiver to a more visceral understanding of suffering. She says that when we look at a photo, we should ask ourselves what atrocities are not being shown ( Compelling and profound, Susan Sontag’s essay deploys her considerable skills of cultural criticism to engage crucial questions that matter to everyone disposed to think, feel, respond, and act in ways that flow out of our sense of humanity a sense, moreover, that can only continue to develop in response to regular reflection upon such questions. This essay exemplifies how the humanities shape and sharpen habits of thought that allow us to discern a sense of purpose in life. Regarding the Pain of Others can be thought of as a continuation of the line of thought that Sontag pursued in on photography ( Consequently, the brilliant observations and rather flawed conclusions that mark that particular work exist here as well. Susan Sontag writes about the moral implications of photography in war and questions our perceptions which impact our actions. It’s a pleasure to read because she writes simply and clearly without jeopardizing on her well thought through arguments. I liked her thoughts on the subject of the photograph that are the photographed, what are their perception of the picture, the impact after the picture is taken, and the pain felt by their families and friends (  

Bataille’s Photograph

Bataille’s photograph is a horrifying picture of a man suffering the “death of a hundred cuts,” as he is flayed and dismembered while still alive.

Krieg dem Krieg

Krieg dem Krieg, or “War against War,” is Ernst Friedrich’s uncompromising photo album covering the destruction of World War I.


Newspapers are the standard of mass media, defining the baseline for taste and decorum. Due to politics and propriety, newspapers seldom print photographs of war casualties.


Tabloids, in accordance with the guideline “If it bleeds, it leads” are more likely to present scenes of death and destruction than their more credible counterparts.


Vietnam was the first nation, and war, to experience the continuous war coverage of modern journalism.

Concentration Camps

Sontag points out that the German concentration camps at the end of World War II were photographed and filmed outside the context of the camps operation, thus failing to capture their heartless efficiency.

Image Creators

Sontag separates image creators into two groups ( The first group, the image makers, is unquestionably subjective. They do not reproduce reality so much as they represent it. Goya’s Disasters of War, for example, does not offer objective proof of the war crimes the artist witnessed. Rather, Goya represents, through images, an experience similar to what he has seen. The made image is filtered entirely through the eyes of its creator. The second type of image creator is the image taker, one who creates images through the use of film. The word take here refers to an image taken directly from life, suggesting that film serves as an objective reproduction of reality. The veracity of a photograph is widely regarded as above reproach, so much so that photographs are admissible as evidence in a court of law (


Sontag is concerned with photography’s prurient intrusiveness, its surreal dislocation of reality it is irrelevant aestheticism. Actual photographs are of less interest to her, and are mentioned, in stern verbal paraphrase, only to be reproved for their untrustworthiness. Her earlier book concluded with a call for “an ecology of images”, censuring and perhaps censoring the visual stimuli with which a consumerist society assaults us. She remembers that resonant, impotent demand in Regarding the Pain of Others, and admits that it will never happen. No “Committee of Guardians” is going to reform news media that enjoy disaster, gloat over horror and operate on the principle that “If it bleeds, it leads”. Those media have trained us only too well, and we now, instinctively transform an intolerable, unintelligible reality into fiction. People who watched the planes slice through the World Trade Centre, or witnessed the collapse of the towers, agreed that the scene was ‘unreal’ and compared it with an action movie; the Pentagon caters to this craving for scenarios that are apocalyptic but ultimately harmless by deciding in advance on blockbusting titles for its wars, such as Operation Desert Storm. Sontag retells the familiar stories about photographs that sanitise or falsify the conflict they are supposed to be documenting. In the Crimea, Roger Fenton represented war as a “dignified all male outing”, avoiding all evidence of carnage: in the valley through which the Light Brigade charged, he supervised the placing of cannonballs on the road. In 1945, the Russian victors hoisting the Red Flag over the Reichstag in Berlin took direction from a Soviet war photographer who dreamt up this iconic moment ( In our “culture of spectatorship”, have we lost the power to be shocked? The pain of others titillates us, so long as it is kept at a safe distance ( The victims of famine and massacre are always, as Neville Chamberlain dismissively said of the Poles, people we do not know; when genocide recurred during the Bosnian war, we were reminded that the Balkans should not be considered part of Europe. The young Afghan refugee photographed by Steve McCurry for National Geographic became, a poster girl for atrocity; we could see her pain but not feel it. Sontag blames the eyes indiscriminate lust, claiming “the appetite for pictures showing bodies in pain is as keen, almost, as the desire for ones that show bodies naked”. Her book, unillustrated, caters to neither hunger though she does tantalisingly describe a photograph that obsessed the perverse philosopher Georges Bataille, in which a Chinese criminal, while being chopped up and slowly flayed by executioners, rolls his eyes heavenwards in transcendent bliss ( Words are Sontag’s antidote to images. Hence her arguments that the war photographs of Robert Capa or David Seymour belong in newspapers, where they are surrounded by words, rather than in magazines, which juxtapose them with glossy advertising images: the explanatory verbiage is a bulwark, and turns the fickle viewer into a reflective, questioning reader. People unconvinced by her contention that images can easily be conscripted as the “totems of causes”, because sentiment is more likely to crystallise around a photograph than around a verbal slogan. At the end of the book, she proposes that ‘photographs with the most solemn or heart-rending subject matter Matthew Brady’s dead soldiers from the Civil War, the walking cadavers at Buchenwald and Dachau photographed by Margaret Bourke White and Lee Miller, perhaps also Nicholas Nixon’s Aids victims should not be exhibited in galleries or museums, where like all wall hung or floor supported art they become incidental to a stroll, displayed as if they were plates on a sushi railway which we can sample or ignore as we please ( The “weight and seriousness” of images like these is more aptly honoured privately in sober silence, she believes, in a book. Regarding the Pain of Others is serious enough, but hardly weighty. It is short, and by rights should be a good deal shorter: it derives from an Amnesty lecture, and labours to amplify and relentlessly repeat its original argument. Readers can find it on the inside back flap of the jacket, and it shows Sontag herself a mater dolorosa whose grieving face is framed by a sleek cascade of time defying jet black hair posed next to a wall beside the Seine near the Ile de la Cite. The photographer is her close friend, Annie Leibovitz, who specialises in the glamorous consecration of celebs for the covers of Rolling Stone and Vanity Fair. In her starchy text, Sontag says that beautifying is one classic operation of the camera, and regrets the vanity of people who are “always disappointed by a photograph that is not flattering”. By including Leibovitz’s portrait, she has exempted herself from her own rule (

References and Bibliography [Accessed on 10th March 2013] [Accessed on 10th March 2013] [Accessed on 7th March 213]

Critical Success Factor in online Marketing

To understand the variables that factor into successful online marketing.

Key objectives are:

(a) To document the various online marketing techniques those have emerged

(b) To examine the critical success factors in online marketing

(c) To contribute to marketing theory with respect to online marketing mix. 


Online marketing is increasingly becoming more powerful, sophisticated and measurable and it is significantly influencing firm performance (Kohler et al. 2011). Many online marketing techniques have emerged, with the key elements being; search term marketing, shopping portals and affiliate marketing (Duffy 2004; 2005). In future, more and more companies are expected to deploy these marketing methods to drive sales and profits while building brands. 
Unlike the previous online activities, the online marketing elements particularly the affiliate marketing appear to have more durable potential and it is likely to become the principle mainstream marketing strategy for e-commerce businesses in the future (Duffy 2005; Malaga 2007). An affiliate is a person or company which sends visitors or customers to a website in exchange for commissions. The affiliate industry is growing rapidly and drives billions of pounds in online sales annually and 46% of all affiliates (up from 34% in 2009) now work full-time (Econsultancy 2011).

Online sales in Europe increased dramatically, from £101 billion in 2008 to £170 billion in 2011 with UK topping and accounting for about a third of the sales. 

The online marketplace represents an opportunity for innovative and entrepreneurial companies to make money, for instance on commissions by promoting products of other companies. Successful business relationships are essential in this context. Kalyanam and McIntyre (2002) identify online marketing functions and provide taxonomy of online marketing tools. They also propose an online marketing mix but this is yet to be empirically tested and developed further. It would be essential to document the new techniques and developments and examine the critical success factors in the online marketing. 


The research will be conducted in the UK. Following a substantial review of literature, exploratory case studies will be selected from online firms. This will constitute both advertisers/merchants and affiliates in order to get views from both sides. Questionnaires will then be developed and a survey conducted. To save time in searching for affiliates’ contacts from internet, a database with company emails will be bought. 


In addition to the M. phil thesis, journal papers will be developed for instance one based on the exploratory case studies and another on survey data. More papers could be produced thereafter. Modern online marketing has unique characteristics and may require a marketing mix that is different from the traditional one. This work will build on the existing marketing mix. The work is relevant to businesses such as those interested in understanding how to turn visitors into buyers (Schlosser et al 2006), as it will inform the design and development of appropriate websites. Policy makers will also find the work useful as they get to understand better this industry which is yet to be taxed in UK.

Importance of Internal Rate of Return

The internal rate of return is basically the cash inflow that comes in the company as a result of company investment (Kenneth and Willinger, 2009). Basically the internal rate of return is the interest rate that occurs when the net amount in cash form related to the investment equal to zero. This is represented as IRR, and companies use this to find out the feasibility of a project while making an investment, this make it easy for the manager to calculate the profitability on their investment (Catherine, 2011). The internal rate of return is basically the cash inflow that comes in the company as a result of company investment (Kenneth and Willinger, 2009). Basically the internal rate of return is the interest rate that occurs when the net amount in cash form related to the investment equal to zero. This is represented as IRR, and companies use this to find out the feasibility of a project while making an investment, this make it easy for the manager to calculate the profitability on their investment (Catherine, 2011). The basic fundamental use of IRR is to understand the financial sense in advance for a company. If the IRR exceeds the cost of company’s cost of capital then the project will be feasible for company otherwise (if IRR is less than the cost of capital) the investment is useless and company may bear lose. The internal rate of return is the interest rate that makes the net present value zero (Agnes, et al., 2010). . If the IRR exceeds the cost of company’s cost of capital then the project will be feasible for company otherwise (if IRR is less than the cost of capital) the investment is useless and company may bear lose. The internal rate of return is the interest rate that makes the net present value zero (Agnes, et al., 2010).

Financial Ratio Analysis

Financial statements are the documents of any company or organisation which gives the clear picture of the historic financial statements (Preve, 2011). The financial document includes all the details and the accurate assets and the liabilities such as income, expense and the cash flow. Financial statement help to communicates with the investor and give them the detail of the company where the company stands and tell them the economic history performance and the future planning and decision making that what decision they can take (Lazaridis, 2011). Financial statement is based on the three main things which are given below

Balance sheet

Income sheet

Cash flow sheet

These are steps which help to make the financial statement and it will in the decision making for the managers.

The source of the business finance is the investor does some investment in the company this is the source of finance to the company (Garcia-Teruel, 2011). There are two kind of finance internal and external finance. When the business is well established and there growth is good and the company capital will also increase by retaining the term of profit that the business earns. This is called internal source of finance. There are external source of finance also in which if the company go for expansion and they don’t have sufficient internal source of finance then they use external source of finance (Gill, 2013).

Ratio Analysis for two Years (Published accounts as Example)

Financial ratio analysis is the selection, interpretation, of financial data along with other pertinent information, to assist in investment and financial decision making (Emery, 2011). It is also used internally to evaluate issues such as employees performance, the efficiency of operation and credit polices and externally to evaluate the potential investment and the credit worthiness of borrowers, among other things. The ratio analysis play very important role the organisation by using the ratio analysis the company know its position and where they stand. Making of financial statement balance sheet plays very important role in the organisation (Bougheas, 2009).

A statement prepared with a view to measure the exact financial position of a business on a certain date. All the assets and the liabilities of the company are clearly shown in the balance sheet. Balance sheet tells us clearly that what are their Capital, Current Assets, Current liabilities, Long term liabilities, short term liabilities, Fixed Assets (Deloof, 2010).

I have chosen the company Tesco for my assignment. Tesco is a giant in the UK super market and it is at the No.1 position. There is two years financial statement of Tesco 2010 and 2011.

There are six aspect of operating performance and financial condition and it can be calculate the financial ration (Bastos, 2012).

Liquidity Analysis Ratio

Liquidity ratio analysis are the short term debt which is rapidly converted into cash. Every organisation has those short term assets which will easily converted into cash and help the company. Here are some formulas to find the liquidity analyses ratio of Tesco (Berry, 2010).

Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current liabilities

= 11392/4250 = 2.68

= 11438/5862 = 1.95

Quick Ratio = Quick Assets/Current liabilities

= 8663/4250 = 2.03

= 8276/5862 = 1.41

Quick Assets = Current Assets-Inventories

= 11392-2729 = £8663M

= 11438-3162 = £8276M

Net working Capital Ratio = Net working Capital/Total Assets

= 7142/14681 = 0.48

= 5576/16623 = 0.33

Net working capital = Current Assets-Current Liabilities

= 11392-4250 = £7142M

=11438-5862 = £5576M

Interpretation of liquidity ratio

In year 2011 the current ratio of Tesco has remarkably fallen down at 1.95 as compare to previous year in 2010 it was 2.68. The main reason for decrease in current ratio is due to increase in current liabilities. If we see the figure in 2010 the current liabilities were £4250 and in 2011 current liabilities are £5862 which is 16 % more. If we breakup the current liabilities the main increase is trade and other payable which increased 10%.

If I analyse the quick ratio I will that quick ratio are decrease by 1.41 in 2011 as compared to year 2010 which was 2.03. There are two main reasons for this decrease in 2011. Quick assets decrease by 3%, the major decrease in cash and cash equivalent which is decrease by 10%. The second reason is current liabilities is increased by the 16%.

To find the net working capital ratio of Tesco in 2011 has fallen down at 0.33 as compare to the year 2010 which was 0.48. There are two effects in this ratio first is decrease in net working capital and the second is increase in total assets. The reason for decrease is increase in current liabilities for the net working capital. The second major reason for the increase in total assets in 2011 it is 19% more

Profitability Analysis Ratio

Profitability ratios also (refers to as profit margin ratio) compare content of income with sales. Profitability ratios give the new ideas to the company to increase their sales. This ratio is used for external Investors, Bankers and borrowers. Profitability ratio for the company can be calculated by these formulas.

Interpretation of profitability Analyses ratio

In year 2011 return of assets was slightly increase 0.057 and in year 2010 it was 0.051. There are two main factors of increase in return of assets in 2011. There is net income which was increase to 3% in 2011. The increase of 3% of net income in 2011 there are two main factors for the increase of net income. Revenue excluding the VAT increase 40% in 2011 and the second major factor cost of sales which increase to 35% in 2011. These are the main changes which make the cause to increase in net income. The average of total assets increase in 2011 about 8%

Return of equity in 2010 is 6.23 and in 2011 there is slightly increase in 6.66. There is 0.0043% increase in return of equity. Net income has increase to 3% of the Tesco. And on the other hand the average stock holder equity has increase to 0.26% in 2011.

Tesco profit margin was 0.041 in 2010 and now it is 0.043 as compared to last year it increase slightly. Net income and sales are increase in 2011 net income was increase to 3% and on the other hand sales which has a major affect on the profit margin and the sales has a sharp rise to 40% in year 2011.

In year 2010 Tesco earns per share 0.29P and now in 2011 there prices for the share has slightly increase 0.33P per share. The number of common share outstanding has 0.61%.

Activity Analysis Ratio

Activity analyses ratio use to measure how well the assets are being used in the organisation. These activity ratio help to put more investment in work for example Equipment and machinery etc. Activity ratio has four important parts.

Interpretation of activity analyses ratio

In year 2010 assets turnover is 1.24 and in 2011 it is increase to 1.30. There are two major factor of increase in ratio sales and average total assets.

If we will compare the sales of 2010 and 2011 there is a major rise of 40% in 2011 and it has a huge impact on the assets turnover. There is another reason average of total assets has been increase 8% and in the average of total assets there is 10% increase in non current assets as compare to previous year.

Tesco accounts receivable turnover in 2010 was 30.87 and there was slightly fall on 29.00 in 2011 and the accounts receivable slightly goes down by 0.0187%. There are two main reason for the accounts receivable turnover ratio one is the cost of sales which has increase of 35.68 and the another reason is.

Capital Structure Analysis Ratios

Personal Development Plan

Step 1: 

Pre-Planning, Supervisor and employee prepare independently for meeting (Freshman and Rubino, 2007). Employee completes all agency required self-assessments. Supervisor reviews performance evaluations, seeks feedback from stakeholders such as employee’s peers, subordinates, upper managers, other agency personnel who interact with the employee, and, where appropriate, external stakeholders [employees of other state and federal agencies, vendors, clients, legislators, etc (Goldberg, 201). Supervisor reviews agency mission and goals and determines which pieces of the employee’s job are critical to meeting the mission and goals.  Supervisor should also review the work unit goals and objectives and determine which parts of the employee’s job are critical to goal and objective success (Gorman, 2008).

Step 2: 

Employee/Supervisor Meeting, Discuss employee strengths, areas for improvement, interests, goals, and organizational requirements (Pollison, 2008).

Step 3: 

Prepare Individual Development Plan, Employee, in consultation with supervisor, completes plan for individual development (Kohn and Corrigan, 2007).

Step 4: 

Supervisor seeks approval of upper management [if required by Workforce Development Committee/Plan and/or organizational policies and procedures] (Sahlman, 2007).

Step 5:  

Implement Plan, Employee pursues training and development identified in plan.

Step 6: 

Evaluate Outcomes, Supervisor/employee evaluate usefulness of training and development experiences (Atkins and Murphy, 2003).

Initiate the plan and review and monitor progress against agreed objectives

Personal development planning helps identify the employee’s development goals and the strategies for achieving them by linking them to the organization’s mission and goals.  Typically, the Personal Development Plan would be developed and reviewed annually but a multi-year plan can be developed. This plan is intended to (Bass and Avolio, 2010):

Encourage the employee to take ownership of his/her organizational development

Provide an administrative mechanism for identifying and tracking development needs and plans to help meet agency critical mission and goals

Assist the agency in planning for its annual training and development requirements (Brunt, 2006).

Individual development planning benefits the organization by aligning employee training and development efforts with the mission, goals, and objectives of the agency (Contino, 2008),   supervisors develop a better understanding of their employees’ professional goals, strengths, and development needs which can result in more realistic staff and development planning.  Employees take personal responsibility and accountability for their development, acquiring or enhancing the skills they need to stay current in required skills. Clarify your manager’s expectations of your work and receive constructive performance feedback Confirm the requirements / priorities of the job for the coming year in the form of objectives (Emden, 2008).

Facilitate pay and career progression

Highlight your achievements and discuss concerns for joint problem solving 

Develop your potential and increase your job satisfaction

Discuss and agree development needs and how these might be met 

Identify and implement areas for service development/improvement

Ensure that your work priorities (Freshman and Rubino, 2007).

It is expected that your manager will have regular one to one meetings with you throughout the year to discuss your work, development and support needed, the development review is an opportunity to think about this in a structured way and as with the one-to one meetings, should be a two way process between you and your manager (Gorman, 2008).  The review is an ongoing cycle of review, planning, development and evaluation for staff against the demands of their posts taking into consideration organizational and individual needs. Employers and staff representatives, acting in partnership, will monitor decisions on pay progression to ensure that there is no discrimination or bias (Goldberg, 201).

Human Resource Plan for a work area

  1. Objective
  2. Strategy
  3. Measure of success

Human resources planning is a process that identifies current and future human resources needs for an organization to achieve its goals. Human resources planning should serve as a link between human resources management and the overall strategic plan of an organization (Goldberg, 201). Right number of people with right skills at right place at right time to implement organizational strategies in order to achieve organizational objectives, in light of the organization’s objectives, corporate and business level strategies, HRP is the process of analyzing an organization’s human resource needs and developing plans, policies, and systems to satisfy those needs,  setting human resource objectives and deciding how to meet them, Ensuring HR resource supply meets human resource demands, interfacing with strategic planning and scanning the environment, taking an inventory of the company’s current human resources, forecasting demand for human resources, forecasting the supply of HR from within the organization and in the external labor market, comparing forecasts of demand and supply, planning the actions needed to deal with anticipated shortage or overages, feeding back such information into the strategic planning process, designed to insure consistency between organization’s strategic planning process and HRP, HR programs are designed around what organizational objectives and strategies require in terms of human resource goals  (Gorman, 2008).

Production workers
Technical staff
Other managers

How many people need to be working and in what jobs to implement organizational strategies and attain organizational objectives, Involves forecasting HR needs based on organizational objectives, involves consideration of alternative ways of organizing jobs (job design, organizational design or staffing jobs), Involves forecasting or predicting effect of various HR programs on employee flowing into, through and out various job classifications, First determine how well existing programs are doing then forecast what additional programs or combination of programs will do, Need to know capabilities of various programs and program combinations (Pollison, 2008).

Assess the abilities and capabilities of staff to meet current and future objectives

Assessing employee skills like Leadership, Negotiation, Oral Communication, Oral Presentation, Performance Assessment, Performance Standards, Personal Motivation, Planning and Organization, Project Coordination, Responsibility, Self-Development Orientation, Setting Priorities, Strategic Direction, Tenacity, Team Building, Team Contribution, Technical Translation, Written Communication. Assessing employee skills can help you determine if your employees are in the roles best suited for them, and if any of them are ready to be promoted, or instead should be transferred to another department or position. Your employees will also benefit from an employee skill assessment, because they can use it as a learning tool to discover more about their strengths, weaknesses and goals (Kohn and Corrigan, 2007). Talk with the candidate at length to assess their ability to communicate. Ask questions and pay attention to how they answer as well as what they say. Give examples of social situations and ask how the person would handle each situation. You want to know how candidates would react in real-life situations that require good people skills (Sahlman, 2007). Ask the person to describe their social skills and describe how they have used them in the past. People with good social skills are usually good speakers and will be able to describe their abilities with ease. Assess present employees by watching them interact with others. Ask co workers to describe each other’s people skills and to criticize constructively Look at the candidates past behavior and previous jobs. People who continuously worked in social settings or as team leaders probably possess people skills. Ask for references and check with previous employers. Develop a questionnaire about people skills. Have the person rate each skill from one to five on a scale. You can tell if a person possesses such skills by their answers. Hand out a self-assessment in which the candidate rates themselves in various areas. Include sections like the following: organizational skills, coaching skills, listening skills and communication skills (Atkins and Murphy, 2003).

Identify those with whom support is required to initiate the personal development plan

Development is a process of expanding, shaping and improving skills, knowledge and interests to improve your abilities and effectiveness. This can involve developing skills and knowledge that will enable you to move ahead to the next stage in your career but also to expand your breadth of skills and knowledge so that you become more expert in your current post or even to develop a new skill outside work e.g. playing a sport (Bass and Avolio, 2010). To address a development need effectively it is necessary to (Contino, 2008): Define what you want to achieve and set yourself a goal(s). Plan the actions you need to undertake to achieve that goal manager should write a personal development plan (PDP) to outline the actions you are going to undertake to achieve your goal. Evaluate your development to assess how close you are to your goal and to examine if further action needs to be taken to achieve your goal (Brunt, 2006).

Managers struggle with three things
1. Time commitments,
2. Training and know how
3. Tools and support
Employees struggle with three things
1. Time commitments,
2. Training and know how
3. Tools and managerial support

With all the process of Personal development plan





Line manager

All are very helpful while in an employee development plan.

Organization provide us all the resources like




Check and balance



It varies situation to situation that who will initiate the PDP. But most time management take initiate and they feel that the performance of that employee is not satisfied, they feel some lack of skills and abilities, that is why they offer the trainings, workshops, etc. and some time employee is looking for next level position and he feel some sort of extra qualification, some sort of skills and trainings for career growth, so he initiate his own personal development plan  (Emden, 2008).

Evaluate criteria required to identify human resources for a work area

There are many types of human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists (Atkins and Murphy, 2003). In a small organization, a human resources generalist may handle all aspects of human resources work, and thus require an extensive range of knowledge. The responsibilities of human resources generalists can vary widely, depending on their employer’s needs (Bass and Avolio, 2010).

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis

Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists administer compensation programs for employers and may specialize in specific areas such as pensions or position classifications (Brunt, 2006). For example, job analysts, occasionally called position classifiers, collect and examine detailed information about job duties in order to prepare job descriptions. These descriptions explain the duties, training, and skills that each job requires.  Familiarity with health benefits is a top priority for employee benefits managers and specialists, because of the rising cost of providing healthcare benefits to employees and retirees. In addition to health insurance and retirement coverage, many firms offer employees life and accidental death and dismemberment insurance, disability insurance, and benefits designed to meet the needs of a changing workforce, such as parental leave, long-term nursing or home care insurance, wellness programs, and flexible benefits plans (Contino, 2008). Benefits managers must keep abreast of changing Federal and State regulations and legislation that may affect employee benefits. Working with employee assistance plan managers or work-life coordinators, many benefits managers work to integrate the growing number of programs that deal with mental and physical health, such as employee assistance, obesity, and smoking cessation, into their health benefits programs (Emden, 2008).

Training and development

Training and development managers and specialists create, procure, and conduct training and development programs for employees. Managers typically supervise specialists and make budget-impacting decisions in exchange for a reduced training portfolio. Increasingly, executives recognize that training offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work, and building worker loyalty (Freshman and Rubino, 2007).

Certification and advancement

Most professional associations that specialize in human resources offer classes intended to enhance the skills of their members. Some organizations offer certification programs, which are signs of competence and credibility and can enhance advancement opportunities (Goldberg, 201). Many human resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists work a standard 40 hour week (Gorman, 2008). However, longer hours might be necessary for some workers for example, labor relations managers and specialists, arbitrators, and mediators when contract agreements or dispute resolutions are being negotiated.

Identify techniques to assess the capabilities of a team to meet objectives

Process of projecting the organization’s future HR needs (demand) and how it will meet those needs (supply) under a given set of assumptions about the organization’s policies and the environmental conditions in which it operates (Kohn and Corrigan, 2007). Assess its collective capabilities and then compare this with what capabilities are required to achieve its objectives. Agreeing real and effective team ground rules, Assessing team culture and required behavior changes, Identifying Critical Team Behavior Changes (Pollison, 2008). Effective team member personal co-operation strategies: Natures most effective co-operation strategy, most team members don’t have a practical technique for what they do when another team member lets them down. ‘Win – win’ is an outcome not an effective collaboration strategy (Sahlman, 2007).

How to run great team meetings

It is said meetings take minutes and waste hours, but it does not have to be like that.

Team decision-making techniques

“The way a team decides to decide is one of the most important decisions it makes”, though fashion occasionally underscores one or another of these approaches, there is no right or wrong way to decide an issue. The important thing is that the team decides in advance, what decision-making method will be used. No surprises. If members are apprised of the process, even autocratic methods acquire the consent and blessing of all (Atkins and Murphy, 2003).

Instant Team or Network

To find if real collaboration opportunities exist within a potential network, Motivate the network Companies to consider collaborative networks, Create new potential channel partners for the companies (Bass and Avolio, 2010). Beliefs are what make the difference between good and “high performance” I suggest the seven hidden beliefs of high performing teams are: Clear and Public Accountability, Trusted Competency, Give and Take, Total Transparency, Shared Glory, Meaningful Mission Value, Outcome Optimism (Brunt, 2006).

How to avoid nasty surprises in supporting virtual teams

Recommender Teams are often part-time; great for reviewing work but can lack a “team engine” for getting detailed work done (Contino, 2008). Managing Teams are often staffed with senior executives who have serious time management challenges and are unlikely to engage with traditional team communication and meeting approaches. Doer teams are great for doing things but their networks may be limited to their own functional areas which can blind them to some innovation and cross-functional opportunities. Instantly discover a person main worry about an upcoming change by how they speak just five words: “We can’t do that here” (Emden, 2008). I confess I never got round to testing it properly but it sounded intriguing so I pass it on – “buyer beware” (Freshman and Rubino, 2007).

Nine factors reshaping marketing and how you can stay ahead of them


Marketing isn’t what it used to be. You’ve got big data. You’ve got artificial intelligence. You’ve got GDPR and agile workflows. All which ladder up to the holy grail of creating an ever better customer experience. If you want to compete in this rapid digital world, you need to make your customers happy.

I will get you started with nine of the most exciting trends developing in the world of marketing in 2019. Improve your business outlook by taking advantage of these transformations today and stay competitive by setting the conversation as the leaders of tomorrow.

Trend 1  Marketer Emergence of the tech savvy martecheter

As reddit founder Alexis Ohanian recently stated: “Programming is modern day literacy.” To go one step further, programming is modern-day career currency, even for marketers. Historically, the greatest advantages for marketers have been budget, tools and talent in that order. However, now that both customer expectations and marketing innovation are rapidly growing, the model is flipped on its head. Leading marketing programs are investing to level up their talent, which is key to maintaining the best customer experiences and marketing technologies. Single-skilled marketers can’t analyze oceans of data created by the widening range of customer touch points while also developing captivating creative, nor can they afford the constant developer resources needed to implement cutting-edge marketing tech stacks. In short, there is a skills gap between corporate and digital-native marketers, and it’s pretty big. In a General Assembly marketing assessment, for example, digital-native marketers outscored corporate marketers by 73 percent. Bottom line? Today, the greatest marketing advantage is technical marketing talent the martecheter. Not only do individuals need to be more skilled, but the traditional team structures also need an upgrade. Award-winning marketing structures are already merging design, data, engineering, product and marketing teams into a variety of new structures, in addition to customer experience and sales teams. It’s this operational nimbleness combined with cross disciplinary marketers that can support a growing ecosystem of purpose-built marketing tools to match the uniqueness of every business model and customer base.

Trend 2   Director of marketing data becomes the hottest new role

Look for smart organizations in 2019 to create a dedicated marketing role, such as director of marketing data, to establish and drive the human and machine or system connections across their company. In addition to working with technology vendors and internal teams on data integration, this new role will create processes, rules and procedures to ensure that critical data is collected and integrated into a customer data platform (CDP).  Since the beginning of direct and database marketing, data has been foundation for successful marketers, enabling advanced customer segmentation, deep personalization and relevant messaging to customers and prospects. The growth of AI-based marketing tools, however, has taken data management and data integration to a level of mission-critical stature for marketing organizations. In fact, 61 percent of company executives surveyed by MemSQL indicated that machine learning and AI are their companies’ most significant data initiative for 2019.

Data integration and marketing data architects will emerge as new and vital roles in marketing organizations as artificial intelligence and machine learning-based marketing tools analyze data and customer behavior, make recommendations and predictions, and get smarter based on the data and information fed into them.  In combination with these new roles, marketers will demand solutions that are open and easy to integrate through APIs and pre-built connectors and that are increasingly delivered as micro services functionality that is decoupled and easy for marketing organizations to plug and play home grown and competing solutions. Those companies where marketing struggles to partner with IT, customer support and e-commerce and to integrate relevant data across channels, functions and systems will essentially be limiting their AI marketing systems from making accurate or reliable decisions and recommendations.

Trend 3   AI and machine learning make hyper personalization a reality

The promise of one to one marketing has been around for two decades, and brands still send consumers an overwhelming amount of marketing messages that are irrelevant, generic or only mildly segmented or personalized. In some respects, the proliferation of data and compartmentalized marketing stacks has made the goal of deep personalization both easier to visualize and more difficult to implement.  The challenges in many cases are the marketers themselves and the limits of human capabilities, time and resources. While 94 percent of companies agree that personalization is critical to their current and future success, almost half say that IT roadblocks (47 percent) and legacy technology (46 percent) are major barriers to their personalization efforts.

Enter AI and machine learning based marketing tools that are changing the nature of how marketers make decisions and deploy campaigns. While humans still are in the driver’s seat with respect to strategy and creative, machines can analyse, process and deliver personalized content at a massive scale.  A common inhibitor to deeper personalization for most marketers is creating multiple versions of content and then determining the right combinations at the right time for thousands or millions of customers. Growing numbers of AI-based systems, however, can process marketers’ specific rules and directions. These systems can then create and deliver individualized content on the fly to each recipient.

This hyper-personalization is increasingly being based on the predicted behaviour of the individual rather than conforming to a statically defined segment. AI-based systems make personalization easier for marketers by learning through each interaction and delivering the right content in the context of the customer’s previous interactions with the brand. What might this look like? A marketer will receive an SMS alert from a marketing automation tool notifying him or her that a sizable number of customers is predicted to not renew their memberships in the next 90 days. The marketer will then produce multichannel content and campaigns that will be personalized by AI-powered tools with specific offers and content those are optimized in real time across each channel the customer engages in.  Finally, look for 2019 to be the year when testing from after-the-fact A/B and multivariate transforms to more predictive-based and combined models with rules that optimize content and offers in real time.

Trend 4   Digital marketing agencies transform into consulgencies

Is the traditional digital marketing agency dead? Not likely in the near term, but there is a train roaring down the tracks driven by the overwhelming amount of technology, data, artificial intelligence and systems integration needs that is transforming traditional agencies into consulgencies. For the first time, four consultancies cracked Ad Age’s 2017 ranking of the 10 largest agency companies in the world. With combined revenue of $13.2 billion, the marketing services units of Accenture, PwC, IBM and Deloitte sit just below WPP, Omnicom, Publicis Groupe, Interpublic and Dentsu. What is common across many of these newer digital agencies is a consulting and solutions mindset often combined with deep focus on technology-based services.

While the traditional, large Madison Avenue agencies and holding companies are clearly feeling some heat from these large consulting-based agencies, the trend is also starting to reshape the landscape for smaller and mid-sized agencies. Brands increasingly look to their marketing agencies to source and build new solutions, optimize utilization of existing marketing technologies and help integrate data and disparate technology systems.  Some agencies may find success through a niche approach doubling down on being deep experts on a channel like email marketing or TV spots but most will instead increasingly build out deep expertise and capabilities in artificial intelligence, data integration, customer experience analytics, mobile apps, custom solution development and more. And beyond being equally adept in creative, strategy and technology, these consulgencies will be measured and compensated based on results, not just time and projects.

Trend 5 GDPR helps marketers tighten up data hygiene and build more customer trust

As GDPR ages past its first year, with potential fines up to $9.3 billion hitting the likes of Google, Facebook and Instagram thus far, the rights of consumers and operating dynamics of businesses have shifted, adding complexity to an already challenging business environment. Furthermore, the introduction of new data privacy regulations in California becoming law in 2020 and other states looking to adopt similar regulation, marketers will need to reassess their marketing strategies and tactics.  The key question is: How will this new regulation which essentially gives consumers greater transparency and control over their data change the way companies market? Contrary to many marketers’ expectations, the effect can help rather than hinder. A recent study from IBM reveals that nearly 60 percent of organizations surveyed see GDPR as an opportunity to improve privacy, security, data management or as a catalyst for new business models, rather than simply a compliance issue or impediment.  With the potential for more states to follow and US federal legislation potentially covering the entire country, marketers will need to leverage this opportunity to establish trust with their target audience, build their brand with authenticity and develop deeper customer loyalty. Moreover, GDPR and other privacy regulations force marketers to focus their attention on improving data hygiene processes, leading to better targeting and higher quality interactions.  To support this point, take a look at IBM’s recent Marketing Benchmark Report, highlighting marketers in countries with stricter privacy legislation outperforming countries with less regulation. For example, marketers in Canada have posted the highest email mean and median open rates for several years after preparing for the strict Canadian anti-spam rules (CASL) regulations that were announced in 2014 and which went into effect in 2017. Canada had significantly outperformed all other geographic regions with a mean of 38.5 percent and top quartile median unique open rate of 59.8 percent.  The end game will be to transcend a business’s day-to-day transactions and transform the relationship between customer and business with an exchange of secured and trusted data that allows for deeper personalization of content from marketers to buyers and vice versa. Companies ignoring this new consumer world and the many benefits that follow will be left behind with cost penalties that will hurt their bottom lines as well as the opportunity to take customer-centric approaches to marketing to the next level.

Trend 6  Agile marketing adoption accelerates, driving marketing outcomes and culture

As digital transformations accelerate and demand for exceptional customer experiences grows, marketers and CX professionals are faced with the new realities of thinking, working and collaboration to support their businesses. More and more marketing teams are adopting agile frameworks as part of their transformations. They must prioritize their work by understanding which problems they’re looking to solve and why, while they define which outcomes need to be achieved and measured within a given sprint.

Scott Brinker writes in his book Hacking Marketing, “Agile marketing, at its heart, is about giving individual marketers and small marketing teams greater ownership of their work and significant latitude in how they achieve their goal. It operates on trust and transparency, more than command and control.” This aligned with AgileSherpas’ first annual state of agile marketing report, claiming that approximately 36.7 percent of marketing teams are practicing agile marketing to allow them to quickly pivot marketing priorities, deliver higher quality work and increase productivity to accelerate delivery to market. Other studies illustrate the same trends in which marketers are looking to implement agile marketing within their team in the next 12 months and even blend hybrid approaches to their business dynamics and environment. Take a look at IBM’s own marketing transformation.  In the end, it’s all about the benefits, and these are some core reasons why agile marketing adoption will continue to accelerate into 2019 and beyond:

1. Greater ability to shift gears and manage changing priorities

2. Tighter business alignment and objectives

3. Increased delivery speed and time to market

4. Improved team morale and team productivity

5. Higher output in the quality of work

Organizations driven by culture change and agile mindsets have a first-mover advantage, especially where AI-powered marketing technology is enabling the right sets of tools to align and measure the proper objectives and metrics. Moreover, with the right mix of agile marketing approaches and the proper Martech platforms, marketers have the power to push and pull the right levers to determine failure or success and how they need to adjust course to propel their business with a common purpose. As they say, iterate and iterate practice makes perfect to do your best work fast.

Trend 7   MarTech + AdTech finally together = the Holy Grail of Marketing

The convergence of MarTech and AdTech has been discussed for many years, yet many brands still fail to achieve it. Technology stack are often too deep enterprise brands use on average more than 90 marketing tools and too costly to integrate or migrate. Data connectivity and the ability to power it with AI to gain a real-time understanding of customers and ad spend optimization will be the driving forces in the need to converge MarTech and AdTech.  AI powered ad bidding, with industry enriched data, will be essential in reducing cost per acquisition across industries. The AI infused bid optimization promises to improve yield in the ad bidding process by not only ingesting vast amounts of data, but also rewriting its model with every bid continuously learning and assigning values in real time, evolving  across campaigns. With more data and signal points, AI enables brands to delight customers with personalized offers across channels where and when it matters most to them.  Having a fully connected and open MarTech and AdTech ecosystem will be the newest must have technology capability of 2019. This agile ecosystem enables markets to continuously examine the impact of their media spend and rate of return achieved. By 2020, advertisers in the US will pro grammatically execute nearly $69 billion on US digital display ads, representing more than 86 percent of all digital display ads served. By integrating MarTech and AdTech technologies today, marketers will be better prepared to lean into the benefits of programmatic ad spend to come.

Trend 8   Customer centricity will drive constant transformation

Customer expectations are at an all-time high. Driven by the changing dynamics and buying behaviors with customers and markets alike, marketing professionals are going through a transformation in how they connect, interact and personalize with their audiences. No longer are marketing professionals just focused on the traditional funnel, which is designed to attract new customers and markets with a single transaction. Marketing organizations are now discovering a longer and deeper customer cycle that centers around the customer experience (CX) and lifetime value by strengthening and retaining existing relationships.  A recent IDC FutureScape study predicts that by 2022, 35 percent of CX-focused organizations will adopt commerce everywhere business models and generate 50 percent of their revenue through contextual discovery experiences. As this trend becomes a realization, marketing teams must rethink their overall customer experience approach, with an integrated and cohesive strategic vision plan to empower their brands rather than two distinct customer and marketing strategies as independent playbooks.

Marketing and CX transformations are risky and involve a considerable amount of time and patience to fully utilize their potential, but the rewards are indisputable. The IDC FutureScape study also predicts that by 2019, the number of tech-centric CMOs with a formal role in company-wide customer experience leadership will have doubled to 12 percent. 

To develop a powerful customer experience, marketing transformation must include AI-powered marketing platforms to:

1. Digest their own customer data silos with other data sets, carefully pull the proper     insights and apply them to their decisions

2. Understand and deep-dive into their customer base to learn which historical and real-time behaviors are relevant

3. Test, pilot and iterate across various marketing platforms, content and programs to differentiate their brand in the market with purpose.

Trend 9 In the emotion economy, purpose creates loyalty, what have you done for others lately?

Today’s marketers are shifting from the attention economy to the emotion economy. It isn’t simply enough to catch the eyes of customers; it’s also important to deliver happiness and win their hearts. Buying is often an emotional decision, and customer experiences have to trigger the right emotions to get them to buy and keep buying. When customers are engaged emotionally, they are much more compelled to take the actions that drive business. If a brand wants to sustain that growth, it must pull these emotional triggers again and again. One of the most telling markers of the emotion economy is the purpose-driven brand. More than ever, consumers care about a holistic relationship with brands and businesses, especially younger consumers. They’re more likely to engage with brands that are authentic, meaning the brand promises a strong point of view and delivers on it. The latest quintessential case is Nike’s partnership with NFL quarterback Colin Kaepernick, the star who knelt during the National Anthem in protest of police brutality. The action spurred thousands of people to film themselves burning Nike apparel. At the same time, by featuring Kaepernick in its ad campaign, Nike appealed to the social justice mindset of a new generation of consumers and ultimately generated around $43 million. While purging its older demographic, Nike has now ignited brand loyalty from consumers under the age of 25.

This isn’t a situation unique to Nike. The new consumers are conscious of a brand’s social impact and policies. How many people were willing to delete Uber during the peak of its fiascos? How much of Tesla’s brand loyalty is influenced by its mission to reduce carbon footprints? And, of course, how has online behaviour changed in the last 12 months during the ongoing Facebook privacy and transparency investigation? Social impact isn’t just a fluffy armchair talking point anymore; it’s a strong purchase consideration value proposition for consumers. To differentiate in 2019 is to deliver a strong social point of view. Even before the latest round of new privacy protection legislation, the younger demographic was already the most competitive and expensive market segment. Now, it’s clear the way to prepare for long term success is to build a purpose-driven brand and develop a world class marketing program.