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The organizational structures represent the different level of management along with the responsibilities and positions of the responsible people in an organization (Bateman et al., 2009). Every organization has the organizational structure that describes the flow chart of command and hierarchy of the management and controlling system and different levels of management (Bennis and Warren, 2007).
Departmentalization structure is the best structure and in this structure the work and duties are assigned to the group of the people and there are different ways of departmentalization which are given below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).
Customer relationship department
The main focus of the organization is to pay focus on the customers and this department based on the different needs, retention and capturing new customers from the market (Hersberger, 2007).
The main focus of the organization depends on the different functions and department divided on the behalf of the different functions (Intagliata, 2002).
In this structure the departments are designed on the nature of product, pricing, strategy to develop and design and marketing.
Here in this way the departments are divided in the different departments with different aims and objectives, each department is responsible for the different aims and objectives to achieve (Kotter and John, 2003).
In this way departments like regional departments and these departments based on the climate, availability of labour, raw material and other conditions (Mech and Terrence, 2003).
Chain of Command.
This is another type of organizational structure and the organizations adopted this structure with the aims and objectives of command like in military (Army, Navy and air force) in these organizations authorities, responsibilities and communications are of most importance. The structure shows the level of people at their ranks with their powers, authorities and their duties and responsibilities (Moore and Audrey, 2004).
Spain of Control
Sometimes there are more than one business partners and one manager is controlling more than one people to carry out the business operations, so the span of control can be tall and narrow, flat and wide. In the tall and narrow the managers control about 6 to 10 people, they supervise the employees and they have effective communication and fast communications (Plunkett and Richard, 2003).
Flat and Wide
In the flat and wide span of control the managers are authorised and responsible to design and develop the strategies and policies and train their employees. In this way the employees have more morality with the high span of control (Pritchard and Steven, 2000).
Centralization and Decentralization
In this organizational structure the main powers of decision making is with the low level of employees they have the authority to make decision as per their nature of work and routine of work. The higher level delegate authority to the lower level employees to make decisions to carry on their daily work independently. In the decentralization the operational issues and strategic directions are always from top to down (Bateman et al., 2009).
In this kind of structure the people from the different departments and the products have their specific as according to the nature of their projects. The people involved in the matrix structures face different situations and with their skills they handle the skills and sort out the solutions. In this kind of structure the loyalty among the employees always remained high and the resource allocation always become high due to highly skilled people involvement (Bennis and Warren, 2007).
There are different kinds of the organizational cultures all the cultures have been described in detailed below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).
In this kind of culture the medium and the small size organizations this culture prevails and in the centralized decisions always designed by the small organizations where the power culture prevailed. This is the best culture because the organizations can control the wastage of resources effectively and the management can measure, control and monitor the business operations and workers motivations can be built easily as compared to other cultures (Hersberger, 2007).
Different functions and each division assigned a specific role and similarly there are so many benefits of this culture the each skilled worker or unskilled individual pay focus on achieving its goal and objectives (Intagliata, 2002).
The each person always assigned a task in this culture and in the modern era the organizations are adopting this culture there are so many benefits of this culture. The cost reduces and the wastage of resources are always controlled efficiently in way (Kotter and John, 2003).
In the non profit organizations the personal culture is going to be more popular and prevailing because these people have their specific aims and objectives to meet (Mech and Terrence, 2003).
Presentation: Strategic Planning . Strategic Management and Leadership
ASDA was originally formed in the 1920s as Hindell’s Dairies. ASDA was
established by a group of Yorkshire farmers who processed and sold meat and
milk products through Hindell’s Dairies. In 1949, the company changed its name
to Associated Dairies and Farm Stores Ltd. The grocer merged with Queen’s
Supermarkets to form ASDA Stores Ltd in 1965 (www.asda.com).
to be a value retailer that surpasses the customer’s expectations in terms of
product price. To this end, the supermarket chain says that it will provide
customers with goods as a lower price than its competitors do. At its more than
300 stores across the United Kingdom, ASDA sells food and groceries, as well as
other products for the home (Koch, 2006).
A mission statement sets out the long-term direction of the organisation. ASDA’s mission is: ‘to be Britain’s best-value retailer exceeding customer needs always‘ (www.asda.com).
SWOT analysis entails a distillation of
the findings of an internal and external audit which draws attention, from a
strategic perspective, to the critical organisational strengths and weaknesses
and the opportunities and threats facing the organisation. Whereas PESTLE
analysis is an audit of an organisation’s environmental influences with the
purpose of using this information to guide strategic decision-making. The
assumption is that if the organisation is able to audit its current environment
and assess potential changes, it will be better placed than its competitors to
respond to changes (Ronald, 2013).
This study will analyse the impact of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors on Asda. It will also identify the key forces that represent both opportunities and threats to its profit. Data is supplemented with details on the company’s history, key executives, business description, locations and subsidiaries as well as a list of products and services and the latest available company statement (Thomas, 2007).
SWOT analysis is the study undertaken
by an organization to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well
as its external opportunities and threats (Julie, 2009).
A tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. Specifically, SWOT is a basic, straightforward model that assesses what an organization can and cannot do as well as its potential opportunities and threats (Albert, 2008). The method of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results (Jean and Glen, 2010)
Strengths 1.Wide range of product offerings and service offerings include financial services 2.Known for its amazing marketing campaigns 3.In constant touch with its customers via social networking, asks feedback, conducts competitions, etc. 4.Socially responsible through CSR initiatives 5.ASDA has over 140,000 employees working at over 500 stores (Menon, 2010).
1. Limited global presence as compared to few
2. Their ability to sell prices have restricted their entrance is few countries as the country fear a competition with local vendors (Hill & Westbrook, 2007).
1. Expanding in new areas of pharmacies, opticians, jewelry and photo department.
2. Venturing into markets that are growing like India, China etc
1.Price war with other retail chains brands
2.Pressure of maintaining low prices.
3. Ever changing policies of various central governments
External environment factors such as down turns in the economy, and a lack of investment in innovation can have a significant impact on a firm’s strategic options (Koch, 2006). To obtain a better glance of how these factors will affect the planning process, analysts can utilize the STEEP analysis tool. When used correctly, the tool will furnish decision makers with information which should be used to improve existing strategic plans (Ronald, 2013).
1.Government policy on taxation, Employment laws including wages, rates etc.
2.Political unrest: due to influx of large number of foreign nationals in the country (Thomas, 2007).
3.Unstable Government: due to govt inability to stabilise the economy (Julie, 2009).
4.Government education policy: efforts to encourage more people to stay on high education
5.Stage of business cycle
6.Assisting people entering and re-entering the job market
7. Maximize the contribution of local and regional economies
8. Disposable income
1.Large influx of EU citizen in the country leading to a high demand for accommodation, welfare, healthcare and education (Jean and Glen, 2010).
2.Changes in social trends
3.Ageing population could lead to an increase to ASDA’s pension payment for their employees. It could also lead to another source of labour pool for ASDA to tap into.
4.An ageing population could also lead to unwillingness to work and an increase in pension .
5.Lifestyle changes: Longer opening hours in supermarkets means that people are working longer and / or flexible hours (Albert, 2008).
6.In areas of high concentration of ethnic groups, goods and services are targeted towards that ethnic group e.g. Slough / Southall Lifestyle
7.Charity: benefits to the community
11.Health and welfare
1.New ways of shopping: online shopping
2.New product types i.e. mobile phones, MP3 players etc. 3.Improved efficiency in stock control due to bar coding
4.Cost reduction due to introduction of new technology i.e. lower cost of labour
5.Self scanning of products
6.Chip and Pin
1.Increased demand could lead to increased
2.Pursuing environmentally friendly strategies i.e. focused on recycling
According to Capron & Glazer, (2010) that stakeholders
can be defined as the people, an individual or group of people or an
institution that can be affected or have an impact on the business operations
of an organization. Kotler &
Schlesinger, (2007) stated that stakeholders may be include
owner, employees, investors, media, customers and consumers, suppliers, local
community, banks, financial institutions, employee union, competitors,
government, industry and business partners (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013).
Tesco stakeholders have their impacts on its business operation in the
following way employees have impact on the success of organization if they have
no productive attitude and do not agree with organizational objectives.
Similarly, the managers have their own impact on the decision making (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) if
they do not develop and design effective business strategies (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013) and
decision in this way Tesco could not achieve its objectives (Benfield, 2012).
If the Tesco suppliers supply the material and furnished products with low
quality customers may angry and there will be low sales volume and Tesco could
not achieve targeted sales volume (Byars, 2010). Similarly, if the credit terms and
conditions changed by the Tesco to the suppliers that may delay in the delivery
of raw material and products and in other supplies like electricity and gas. Additionally,
ultimately there will be no more sales and Tesco could not achieve its targets.
New laws designed by the government (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) have
their own impact on the profitability of the organization (Cooper, 2010)
for example if the government raise the wage rate and also raise the tax rate
in this way Tesco could not achieve its targets Tesco needs to increase the
prices and customers may not accept these changes in price and may switched (Byars, 2010) to
other retail stores. If the banks, creditors or lenders may raise the interest
rate in this way there will be a negative impact on the Tesco business
to Locke, (2009) that Tesco customers are the
main stakeholders of organization because they want the quality of products at
cheap prices to overcome their needs and wants and become satisfy by consuming
their products. Being social responsible Tesco is offering products and
services at cheap prices and in this way customer’s buying power is increasing
and they can buy more products from the Tesco. Tesco is also taking care for
the environment and has been offering the products those have low carbon
emission in the atmosphere. Customers are more interested in offers, more high
quality of products at cheap prices from Tesco. Tesco consider their interests
while making its business strategies (Capron & Glazer, 2010).
are the human resources for an organization, Tesco believes in that human
resource is an asset for it and Tesco is investing large investment in
equipping them with good skills and training to them (Thompson, 2010).
Tesco work placement environment is friendly and health and safety issues are
also always consider while developing business strategies (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). Tesco
is offering good wages as according to the labour law of UK government. Tesco
is also compensating its employees with paid holidays, holidays, flexible
working hours, incentives, extra working hours, medical insurance, pension and
special discounts. Tesco has compliance with rules and regulations and there is
no discrimination based on religion, race, sex, color and disabilities all
employees have equal opportunity rights (Thompson, 2010). Employees
are always interested in flexible working hours, handsome salaries, extra
working hours, pension, life insurance, medical allowance, job security, equal
opportunity rights, career development and incentives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).
now a day is the main stakeholder of an organization (Thompson, 2010). Media
is also generating revenue from the business organizations like Tesco. Tesco
launch its marketing and promotion campaign and advertise its products through
different media channels including electronic media channel, print media
channel and electronic media channel. Media want more advertisement and orders
to publish Tesco products in newspapers and broadcast its advertisement on TV
and electronic media has interest in domain registration and in offering its
services as well to communicate with its stakeholders and generate revenue for
its employees in order to meet its expenses to achieve organizational
objectives (Putnam, 2010).
to (Byars, 2010)
that there are a variety of leadership styles now
a day and no one is perfect to meet employees demand to achieve Tesco aims and
objectives by facilitating or hindering the changes in Tesco. In order to
fulfill the employee’s desires and Tesco organization the management always
find the new ways to achieve organizational objectives. Only the effective
leaders or managers are able to change their way of controlling the change
circumstances at Tesco through their effective adopted leadership style (Jan, 2011).
In this way manager at Tesco need to give
small directions to its subordinators and allocate them necessary resources to
carry out daily tasks (Jan, 2011),
this leadership style is only good when the subordinators are highly qualified
and highly trained and they have high productivity attitude (Johnson & Scholes, 2010). Whereas
the autocratic style of leadership is that where the leaders or managers can
exert control over the work and they instruct the workers to carry out their
assignments (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). In
the participative leadership style stall members are always invited by the
managers to share their experience, problems and knowledge to solve a specific
problem to achieve organizational objectives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).
According to Capron & Glazer, (2010)
that the theories transformational leaders/ managers always have vision in
their mind and they always inspired other through their own work and also
inspire their team workers as well. Transformational leaders can do their best
work in innovative business organizations (Cooper, 2010) because they possess the qualities and
vision and have also the charisma in their personality (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007).
According to Kotler, (2010) that some managers or leaders always focus
on the participation and this is called participative styles the first one is
democratic style in this way the manager or leader always use employee’s
knowledge, experience and skills and helped them in achieving organizational
objective in right direction (Locke, 2009). This
leadership style is appropriate when the organization can be possible to go in
wrong direction (Putnam, 2010). The
second leadership style in participative styles is affiliative style in this
way the leader focus on team work rather than group work. In this way the
manager increase the moral values of the teamwork and made effective
communication strategies (Robinson et
al., 2000) so that team workers can communicate with
each other and help each other in solving any problem that they might faced at the
work placement and in this way they can collectively achieve the organizational
Tesco sometime enforced by the new innovation
in technology to adopt changes in work placement and also leads towards new
trainings to the employees (Byars, 2010) as
well and to install the new technology in the business operations. For example
the new shopping trends adopted by customers were online shopping (Capron & Glazer, 2010) and
Tesco has adopted that change and started its website shopping and provided
that facility to its customers and trained the employees to book orders and
deliver the items at door (Cooper, 2010).
Similarly, Tesco has started heat sensors to reduce the long queues (Jan, 2011) and now the customers buy and scan their
product at automatic tills and pay by cards and cash. Now there are no long
queues on the manual tills (Robinson et al., 2000).
According to (Johnson & Scholes, 2010) Tesco
is achieving competitive advantages and want to sustain the competitive
advantages and for achieving competitive positions and sustaining its position
in market Tesco adopt changes to increase quality of products and to low the
cost. So to make growth Tesco need to make changes in its procedures and ways
of doing business (Thompson,
Politics, conflicts and power always play
their role in the business efficiency (Robinson et al., 2000), to
execute business operations, management make decisions so that employees can communicate
with each others at work placement and carried out their routine work
2010). It is up to employees that both they use
the power in positive or negative form to influence their colleagues and
subordinators politics has the direct impact on the organizational culture and
also increase the productivity attitude of employees (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). To
achieve organizational objectives employees often face challenges and conflicts
produced between employees while achieving challenges to achieve organization’s
mission. Employees become frustrated because of conflicts and their productive
attitude becomes reduced and it had negative impact on the productivity of an
organization (Benfield, 2012).
Employees feel stress and they do not perform well as according to their
abilities and they feel headache, loose appetite and feel problem with sleep
and could not perform well and conflicts also generate violence and people
leave the organizations and organizations have to face legal problems as well (Locke, 2009). There
are some positive aspects on conflicts in organizations for example it provide
a chance to the employees to brainstorm their ideas (Byars, 2010) that bring new ideas and innovations in
because of conflicts employee pay more attention towards
work and achieve organizational objectives, while there are conflicts in the
organization (Capron & Glazer, 2010),
management find out the real roots and improve its procedures for future and
make sure that there will be no conflicts among the employees. According to Cooper, (2010) that If the people in
organization use the power positively they increase productivity among
employees and built confidence among employees and people achieve their targets
effectively that increase organizational performance (Locke, 2009), and if the people use power negatively they
discourage the employees and conflicts may arise at work placement (Putnam, 2010). Due
to negative use of power organizational employees turnover always become high (Jan, 2011), according to Johnson & Scholes, (2010) that
employees those navigate the organizational politics always play their role
with productive attitude and achieve their targets. According to Kotler & Schlesinger, (2007)
that if employees positively understand the policies of organization can easily
find out their answers and they can enable to perform with more productive
attitude. And if the people fall in negative politics in an organization they
suffer from conflicts (Kotler, 2010) and
their productive attitude always decreases and they could not perform well and
could not achieve their targets and lose quality of work (Robinson et al., 2000).
According to Robinson et al., (2000)
that motivated workforce always contributed towards the productivity of an
organization because motivated workforce means workforce of an organization
with more commitment (Thompson, 2010),
with more energies, abilities to face challenges and abilities to create new
ways to solve problems (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013).
These all attributes of employees enforce them in achieving organizational
objectives positively and tackling unforeseen challenges and obstacles and they
easily achieve their targets assigned by higher management (Benfield, 2012). According to Byars, (2010) that workforce with motivation always feel
their responsibilities and they perform well as according to their skills and
abilities and handle the situation and find out the best solution of the
There are following types of teaching
definition, which includes the identifying, finding out the leaner’s abilities,
identifying their needs and actual wants and needs and fulfilling their
requirements and equipping them with suitable resources to learn them the
education as per their requirement and as per their problem solution. Some
students may be disabling and they may require special equipment, medical
facilities and additional language to learn (Ashman and Conway, 2007).
Teaching approach must be rational and
logical and the teaching methods must be proactive rather than reactive and
defensive (Bandura, 2005).
The teaching methods must have the policy
and strategies that make sure that the teaching method will deliver the
knowledge and education without any discrimination and the method and way will
be based on purely on the equivalent basis, all students and learners will be
treated on same basis without any race, colour and religion basis
The instructor/ teacher must teach the
students and learners the subjects and provide them the necessary skills and trainings
with specific objectives and the institute must be involved in the process of
learning and in the process of delivering the knowledge under the specific
circumstances (Gibson and Dembo, 2004).
Before the instructor/ teacher start to
teach them it is recommended that the student’s and learners requirements must
With the passage of time the methods and
the requirements with the change in technology and resources and other
circumstances the requirements of the learners will be changed and the instructor/
teacher must change their way of teaching and learning style and methods should
In the teaching inclusive method is the
best way to teach the disable learners and especially when the instructor/
teacher want to describe the figure or diagram to the blind students then at
that time the method must be reviewed, the instructor/ teacher will reassess
the available material, teaching methods, policies and strategies to deliver
the material and knowledge to the students (Brophy, 2008).
It is also instructor/ teacher’s
responsibility to provide the suitable environment to the learners according to
the resources and according to their needs and requirements where the learning
outcomes must be in positive way and at maximum level the positive outcomes
must be sure.
The instructor/ teacher or the education
or training providers must design and follow the specific strategies and
policies for all the learners to tackle the challenges, problems and hindrances
in the way of implementation of learning methods.
As we are living in the assorted culture
so the best and effective way of the teaching is the inclusive (Cheung,
This way is the best way of teaching and
learning because the education can be promoted and quality of education and
training can be provide through this way.
the time passage the disable students have now complete awareness about their
rights and they have the chance to get education through inclusive teaching
method and such effective environment can be provided only in the inclusive
order to provide the opportunities to the learners and to provide them the
practice the skills and involve them in the learning activities towards
literacy, language and numeracy and ICT (information communication technology)
skills and these functional skills which includes essential knowledge, skills
and learning the communication skills with confidence and effectively so that
the learners can be able to spend their lives independently at their daily work
and in their personal lives, the government has been spending lot of money and
providing all the necessary facilities and equipping the education providers
all the resources and other facilities so that the knowledge and essential
skills must be provided to the learners effectively (Dellinger et al., 2008). Basically functional skills are those enable the
individuals and equip the individuals to stand them in such a position to
achieve better future opportunities in their lives and they can perform their
job, duties and perform their responsibilities in effective way.
Basically in the functional skills we
include English (writing, speaking and listening), mathematics and information
communication technology and these functional skills can be achieved and these
kinds of trainings and developments can be achieved at their work place. Actually
the instructor/ teacher and the students or learners need specific equipments,
technology and confidence, competencies and hands on and skills to teach these
skills to the learners effectively to the individuals and enable them to
compete in the life either at their home or in their jobs (Fives and
Buehl, 2009). In order to move
further in their lives the learners need the trainings or professional trainings
for further developments in their career path to make more progress. In order
to deliver the functional skills to the individuals the instructor/ teacher
must use the latest technology like power point slides (for presentation) to
make most effective interaction with the learners the instructor/ teacher can
arrange areas like online classes or conferences and the material could be
uploaded for those individuals (Evertson, 2005).
In order to provide the students the opportunities
to practice their literacy the instructor/ teacher must provide them chance to
the practice their literacy like writing essays, stories, emails, different
articles, reports on different topics which includes daily problems, social
problems and involve them in the class activities to polish their abilities and
improve their skills and competencies and similarly the instructor/ teacher
must take out learners and students to the out of class and provide them the
necessary opportunities to encourage their confidence to perform their daily
social lives and to fulfil other responsibilities (Gibson and Dembo,
2004). In order to create, develop and
increasing the numeracy skills, competencies and abilities within the education
and on the training the instructor/ teacher must started with the basic
mathematical starter activities and must be finished at the Sudoku and involve
the learners in the different basic mathematical activities like multiple
equation solution to solve different equations which involves addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division (Fives and Buehl, 2009).
The instructor/ teacher
can motivate the students and learners in achieving learning environment (Ashman
and Conway, 2007).
In order to engage and motivate the students and learner
towards achieving learning objectives through inclusive environment, there are
the following ways to engage and motivate learners which includes.
First of all clear the objectives of the learning to the
First develop the initial momentum among the learners.
The instructor/ teacher
can motivate the students to describe them the outcomes of the learning purpose
The learning outcomes must be concerned with the learner’s
interest, and learner’s interest must be involved in the learning process and
in learning outcomes.
The feedback must be given to the learners well in time so
that the students can contribute more while learning the outcomes
(Dellinger et al., 2008).
All learners must take part in questions and answer session
and the learners must be appreciated on their answers and the instructor/ teacher do not allow to make a
critic on the learners
The instructor/ teacher
or trainers never point out any student for any shamed or lack of concentration
and must identify their level of communication then choose the proper words to communicate
with them (Evertson, 2005).
The role of learning
environment has its positive and negative impact on the learners, while
positive impact always put positive changes among the learners and in this way
the learners can obtain maximum learners outcomes and the learners can achieve
the maximum education (Bandura, 2005). The ground rules are set of code of
conduct that allows the learners to develop and maintain the environment in the
class room and the instructor/
teacher or trainer can produce well standard of the work and reduce the
distraction and in this way the learners can gain more attention of the
students. And there are following ways to set the ground rules which includes
Trainers or instructor/ teacher set their own
The students or
the learners set their own rules
Both of them learners
and the instructor/ teacher
set their own rules to maintain the environment good by mutual understanding
the learners can work together and can design the code of conduct and the
designed code of conduct by mutual sharing and understanding will be acceptable
by all of them and in this way the ground rules are most effective and the
environment created by this way is most effective for learners and the
instructors as well (Brophy, 2008).
The learners can
write down their own ground rules and in this way the ground rules can be
established (Cheung, 2008).
In the United Kingdom, 1 in 10 women experience postnatal depression
following childbirth (Lewis, 2004). Postnatal depression has profound effects
on quality of life, social functioning and economic productivity (Chisholm et al, 2003). The health consequences
could also lead to adverse long-term emotional and physical development of the
infant (Miles, 1993; Jones, 1994; Boath et
al, 1998). Postnatal depression is also predictive of child cognitive and behavioural
disturbances at the age of 3 years (Campbell et al, 1995; Murray et al,
1996). Moreover, failure to identify these women often leads to safeguarding
concerns for both mothers and infants (Warrington et al, 2001). Health visitors play a vital role in identifying and
supporting women who experience postnatal depression. Their role includes
supporting families from birth to five, thus giving opportunity to provide a
prolonged period of contact and support to women affected by the disorder. However, evidence
suggests that most vulnerable women including Black Minority Ethnic groups do
not always receive this vital care.
Postnatal depression can affect men too. The birth of a new
baby can be stressful for both parents and some fathers feel unable to cope, or
feel they are not giving their partner the support she needs. It usually
develops in the first four to six weeks after childbirth, although in some
cases it may not develop for several months. There are many symptoms of
postnatal depression, such as low mood, feeling unable to cope and difficulty
sleeping, but many women are not aware they have the condition. It’s common
to experience mood changes, irritability and episodes of tearfulness after
birth the so called baby blues. These normally clear up within a few weeks. But
if a woman experiences persistent symptoms, it could well be the result of
postnatal depression. It is important for partners, family and friends to
recognise signs of postnatal depression as early as possible and seek
professional advice. Postnatal depression can be lonely, distressing and frightening, but there
are many treatments available. As long as postnatal depression is recognised
and treated, it is a temporary condition you can recover from. It is very
important to seek treatment if you think you or your partner have postnatal
depression. The condition is unlikely to get better by itself quickly and it
could impact on the care of the baby.
The main causes are not clear, but it’s thought to be the result of several
things rather than a single cause.
These may include:
The physical and emotional stress of looking after a newborn baby hormonal
changes that occur shortly after pregnancy; it is thought some women may be
more sensitive to hormones than others individual social circumstances such as
money worries, poor social support or relationship problems.
Women might be more
at risk of developing post natal depression if they:
previous history of depression or other mood disorders such as bipolar disorder
previous history of postnatal depression
depression or anxiety during pregnancy
Postnatal depression is more common than many people realise and cases can
often go undiagnosed. It is estimated around one in seven women experience some
level of depression in the first three months after giving birth. Rates of
postnatal depression are highest in teenage mothers and is thought to affect
all ethnic groups equally.
Depression affects 5-22% of women
after childbirth. Some women with postnatal depression will experience a
prolonged or relapsing illness that may last until their children enter school.
It has adverse effects upon the coping abilities of women, their relationships
with their infants, partners and social networks and may adversely affect the
educational attainment and behaviour of their children. Since many more women
are now active in the workforce, the effects of postnatal depression have
obvious economic consequences both for their families and their employers.
The researcher will find out themian causes of postnatal depression among
The researcher want to know the impact of postnatal depression on the
The researcher want to know about the treatment of postnatal depression
The researcher is intersted in finding out the main causes of postnatal
The researcher will find out the darkside and its bad effects on mother’s
The researcher will develop the positive suggestions and recommendations
for the mothers to
reduce the chances of postnatal depression.
The researcher will find out the risk of postnatal depression associated
with human lives
The researcher will find out its percentage and the age in which the people
become its victom
The postnatal period is the period following the birth of a baby (Omar
& Fattah, 1998) extending up to one year after delivery. For the majority
of women this marks a relatively healthy period in their lives. However, it is
estimated that a significant number of families areaffected by postnatal depression
with 15% of women diagnosed with this disorder (Leverton & Elliott, 2000;
Lewis, 2004). Despite the widespread nature of the problem the current process
of diagnosis and treatment is not standardised, is often chaotic and may result
in inappropriate care and treatment (Clifford et al, 1999). Postnatal depression is defined as an affective mood
disorder often occurring in women up to one year after child birth (Gibson et al, 2009). This disorder is often characterised
by feelings of loss and sadness and sometimes the loss of self-esteem
(Olshansky, 2003). The depressive scale of this disorder and its presentation
ranges from mild depression requiring minimal intervention to puerperal
psychosis which often requires multi-therapy intervention, hospitalisation and
long term support (Williamson & McCutcheon, 2004). Depression accounts for
the greatest burden of
disease among all mental health problems, and it is expected to become the
secondhighest among all general health problems by 2020 (Murray & Lopez,
1996). Minority ethnic groups represent 29% of the population in Greenwich with
an estimated increase to over 33% by 2011 (Whiteman & Guite, 2008).
A qualitative study by Amankwaa in 2003 looked at 12 women who have experienced
postnatal depression in the past and noted that these African women believed
that only white women get postnatal depression. This was considered a sign of
weakness that did not represent a legitimate illness (Cox, 1999). In 2004, in a
rural area of Ethiopia, Hanlon et al,
(2009) conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus groups with
purposely-selected participants. The participants included pre-natal women, fathers, grandmother, traditional
and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. The aim of the
study was to determine societal recognition of problematic distress states in
the postnatal period. The problematic distress state was defined to include
both spiritual and mental disturbance. Hanlon et al, (2009) study identified salient themes that respondents
spontaneously describe as culturally problematic distress occurring in the
postnatalperiod, but they did not consider it to be an illness. This bears
similarities to the current study where women exhibited symptoms of postnatal
depression but did not regard it as an illness. The implication for practice
suggests that lack of identification could be a contributory factor in naming
the presenting phenomenon of postnatal depression. The overall findings suggest
that black Caribbean women often have difficulties conceptualising postnatal
depression, due to their tendency to minimise stress and their health seeking
behaviour. However, current standardised tools such as the EPDS do not reflect
the understanding and perception of women from BME groupsas demonstrated by
Clifford et al, (1999). Edge, (2004)
focus on ethnic groups offers greater understanding into the efficacy of the
use of the EPDS. Although the findings from these studies were from Caribbean
women, the overall evidence suggests that using the EPDS alone may not be the
most effective method for assessing women from different cultural background. Oates
et al, (2004) looked at postnat tal depression across countries and
cultures and compared the emerging themes across different centres. This study
found morbid unhappiness after child birth comparable to postnatal depression
but not all saw this as an illness remediable by medication. This cultural
approach also helps to understand why boys, who are most valued in Asian and
African societies, in western society are most at risk of insecure attachment,
cognitive difficulties and behavioural problems if their mothers had postnatal
depression (Sharp et al, 1995). The
consequences of this delayed effect of postnatal depression for the subsequent
generations could be substantial (Chisholm et
al, 2003). However, it is difficult to generalise the validity of the
outcome due to lack of clarity in data collection. Moreover, the homogeneity in
data collection could not be compared because participants remained in their
cultural environment. The findings therefore cannot be directly compared to the
present study which looked at African women living in Greenwich, UK, whose
thinking and perception might be different in the way they respond to postnatal
depression (Cox, 1999). Two anthropological studies, by Clifford et al, (1999), and Oates et al, (2004), in postnatal disorder,
confirm the value of cultural education and training to assist with the
understanding of the pathways to care and prevention of postnatal depression.
The researcher will use a focus group method to collect data from
participants. Focus group
is an in depth, open ended group discussion that enables exploration of
specific issues on predefined and limited topics (Krueger, 1988). The purpose of
the focus group was to elicit and validate collective testimonies and group
resistance narratives. These testimonies and narratives have been used by women
and could be used by any subjugated group ‘to unveil specific and
little-researched aspects of women’s daily existences, their feelings, attitudes,
hopes, and dreams (Madriz, 2000). Focus groups can facilitate the
identification of cultural values and they are said to be valuable when
researching ethnic minority groups (Wilkins et al 2002). Forthis current study,
participants felt very comfortable within the groups knowing they were not
alone in the way they felt during and after pregnancy. They were also able to
share their experiences with their mother-in-law knowing others have the same experiences.
Despite the positive attributes of using focus groups, I was also aware of
the potential influence of dominant group members. This means supporting
unassertive participants to articulate their views. I was also aware that not
everyone would be open about discussing deeply personal and sensitive issues in
a group setting. One of the difficulties centres on recording data during the discussion
whilst manipulating recording equipment and being attentive to detailed information.
These difficulties were managed with a co-facilitator who assisted with field
note-taking, verbatim transcribing as well as voice tape recordings.
Ethics approval was obtained from South London Research and Ethics
Committee before approaching the women. An application was made through the
Integrated Research Application System and a review of the process was made
before the panel of the Ethics Committee. The Trust also gave Research and
Development approval before commencing the study.
Twenty six women of African background aged between 16-45 years old, were
purposively selected from the health visitors’ list all of whom were African
women who had migrated and are settled in the UK. This age group wasselected as
it represents the reproductive and fertile record of a woman’s life. Women
under the age of 16 were excluded due to the complex and sensitive nature of
the topic. Participants were asked about their marital status and the kind of
support network they have at home, as studies have shown that women’s marital
status and the kind of support network they have are significant risk factors
that may predispose a woman to postnatal depression (Patel et al, 2002). Similarly, their educational background or employment
status may also affect their perception and the way they describe postnatal
depression. Letters were sent to all the stakeholders such as the health
visiting teams, the homeless liaison team, the safeguarding team and the
clinical psychologist team, after receiving ethics and R&D approval.
Recruitment of participants was made easy by colleagues who supported the
course of the study. Out of the 26 women invited, 22 confirmed attendances but
only 17 participated in the study. Eight attended for Group 1 and 9 attended
Group 2. The groups were seen on two separate days. An information leaflet
outlining the study (see Appendix 3), was sent to all
participants followed by a ‘phone call a week later. Transport was
organised to take the participants to and from the focus group meeting. They
were all given a gift voucher to thank them for participating in the focus
group. Each focus group lasted for two hours with 15 minutes break. Focus
groups were held in the Children Centre which is a familiar environment for
participants. The benefit of having a co-facilitator meant the researcher was
able to facilitate the discussion, while the co-facilitator was free to take
notes and assist with the subsequent transcription of the data collected
Women were given the consent form to sign to agree to participate in the
group. A focus group schedule which focused on how women felt when they became
pregnant, was used. The focus of this schedule was asking them to describe their
emotional feelings and the concerns they may have had during pregnancy and
after having the baby. All participants were given codes, all conversations were tape recorded and
stored in a locked cabinet on NHS premises, accessible only to the facilitator.
The two transcripts were read several times to understand the data. Initial
coding of the transcripts was then performed. Codes will made to capture the
descriptive language used by the participants. Once the data will sorted, the
facilitator grouped the data into themes, and examined all the cases in the
study to make sure that the description of each theme was captured (Pope et al,
2006). Triangulation will be used to
improve the reliability and validity of the data. The key findings will be presented
back to the participants through follow-up phone calls. There will general
agreement about the information collected. The tape recorded data will also play
back to check for clarity and confirmation of their descriptions and compared
with the field notes.
A teacher is responsible for the organizing culture and values and learning the students about the respect, moral values and social norms and ethics as well, so the teacher is most respected profession in the all over the word (Dahlsrud, 2009). A teacher is a person that pass the knowledge and cultural values and norms to the students and equip them for further higher studies and polish them mentally and physically them in a position to play their role as successive person for making the society more civilized and to maintain the law and order situation and playing their role for the betterment of society (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). This is most responsible profession where the teacher contribute their role in providing education to the students, because in the future the students play their role for the development of the country while playing their vital role in the economical, medical, defense and all other sectors and their roles, skills and other responsibilities depends on their schooling life and it depends on the skills and role of teacher. So the role and responsibilities of teachers is most important (Gay, 2007).
In this step the
teachers are responsible to learn the learners through their skills and
behaviour and the teachers involve themselves in the multicultural environment
and the teacher also provide the learners all the facilities to develop a
culture in which all the learners can understand and learn (Marsden, 2010).
In this step the
teacher get the feedback from the learners about the effectiveness of method,
syllabus, resources and facilitations in order to provide them training or
conveying the knowledge and on the behalf of the feedback the teacher make
necessary amendments and changes in the whole process to achieve the main
objectives of the training cycle. The main
responsibilities, role and boundaries of a teacher are given in the following
sub sections (Piacentini et al.,
While managing students in the
class and managing their all other activities and facilitating them towards
learning the ethical and moral and cultural norms and values while promoting
the importance of academic environment to all the students the teacher play a
role as an organizer (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). All the students
belonged to different cultural, ethnics and regions and they have different
languages, cultures, norms and values, and teachers organized them in a one
group and teach them through a learning process while using his or her
competencies while understanding the different cultures, norms and values (Pinney,
Teacher must play its role while
in the multicultural environment to permit the students to make analysis on the
negatives and positives of other cultures to find out the main stream of other
cultural ideas (Gay, 2007). The teacher is responsible to create an environment and
guide the students in such a way that in the multicultural environment to get
positive norm and values to develop a positive culture in and out the
classroom. And only the teacher can facilitate the students to acquire the
positive multicultural values and norms for developing a positive culture of
learning, the teacher must play its role to develop such abilities and
competencies among the students so that in the multicultural environment the
students always abide by the racism and never involved in discrimination in
their professional lives as well (Dahlsrud, 2009).
Some scholars have been stated
that the teacher must be responsible for the learning of referencing system to
the students and the importance of references and they must also learn and
teach the learners about socio culture and the positive impact of culture on
the learning process (Hastie et al., 2011). A teacher can play its role as a police officer, as a
medical officer in an emergency, a psychologist and as father or mother in
order to understand the learner’s special skills and abilities and competencies
to make the society more civilized.
It is clear that the teacher must
have the specific skills and knowledge in order to transmit the knowledge to
the learners, so the teacher must have the communication skills and
competencies to provide the learners reasonable resources and facilitate them
to learn them the attitude and behaviour to become civilised citizens and it is
teacher’s responsibility to protect the learners psychologically and come out
them from mentally and emotional problems and care them and teach them the
school rules and rules and regulations as well. Teacher must watch the learner’s
activities them and stop them and allow them to involve in 1activities and
understand them the negatives and positive impact of activities (Marsden, 2010).
The teacher must keep himself or herself far away from
the learner’s personal lives and could not involve in their personal problems
because they may have their political views, religious views and race views
entirely different the teacher’s point of view, so in this term the learner
abilities may be affected negatively (Piacentini et al., 2011). So the teacher must play its role as friend with
learners and remembered that he or she is adult and must not try to be buddies
with learners. The teacher must not remain with a leaner in the teaching room
or class room and with opposite sex, if the privacy is required then the
teacher must use office or cafe. The teacher must know about the teaching
method, teaching manners and must follow the role model being a mentor and the
teacher can encourage the learners, the teacher must report the learner for
sexual harassment either through physically or verbally. Teacher could not
abuse any student, physically, sexually or emotionally but improving the
emotional and psychologically their courage to achieve their objectives through
identification their goals and objectives and learn them knowledge and skills (Pinney,
1. Choose a topic from
Micro economics that matters to you and find a recent news article covering
I have selected the
following topic “With costly bananas, apples and grapes, orange becomes
favourite fruit this season” was published in The Economic Times on 6th
May 2014. The concept of demand and supply and price has been discussed very
2. Evaluate the article using Economic concepts
According to the
President of Orange association of India has been stated about the increasing
demand of Oranges and production of Oranges in Nagpur city of India. He has
been discussed the main reason of high demand of Oranges in south part of India
that is high prices of grapes and apples. In Kerala due to heavy rain in June
and July month the banana’s crop has been affected and due to shortage of
banana and due to high demand the prices increased. There is a significant
raise in the price which is noted as 20 Rupees per kg. He has been discussed
that main sources of Oranges like Nagpur and Amravati and the production of
Oranges in both cities fulfil the demand of oranges in Chennai, Kerala and
Bangalore. According to the AB vegetable and Fruits owner Mr. Liaqat Ali in
Chennai that although due to high supply of Oranges the price should be down,
but due to high price in transportation, there will be no lower prices in the
orange and it will be available in the market on previous year price that was
Rs 35 per kg. He has been stated that the price will be changed (rise) because
in the month of January and February there will be more demand of orange and
according to supply and demand rule the prices will go up, so it is early to
predict the demand and supply. Due to high quality of Kerala oranges in January
and February the demand will be increased and it will increase the price up to
Rs. 40 per kg and also will increase the supply. Apple quality is not good
that’s why traders import the apple due to high demand of quality apple from
other countries and the prices will increase. Nazar Muhammad a wholesaler has
been stated that as some days ago the orange was available at the price of Rs.
14 to 15 per kg, and due to increase in demand it is now available at Rs. 18 to
22 per kg, the harvesting of orange is in process, in January as the new crop
will reach in the market the demand will remain same but the supply will be
increased and the prices will go down again. As there is a clear cut picture of
demand and supply, and price. With the new crop the supply of orange increase,
due to shortage of bananas the prices went up because due to high demand and
low supply and shortage of bananas. All the concepts of demand, supply and
their affect on price have been covered. Mr. Nazar Muhammad fruit wholesaler of
Kalamna market in Maharashtra stated that the wholesale price orange some days
ago was round about Rs 14 to 15 per kg, but now there is an increase in the
price which is Rs. 18 to 22 per kg in wholesale market. And the prices will
again come down due to high supply and low demand in January when new crop will
reach in market as harvesting is in process.
Explain how you can present the issue in terms of economic
concepts and theories you have learnt in class
According to the
article published in “The Economic Times” that the president of Orange
Association of India Mr. Amol M. Totey has been stated that the orange
production recorded in this year is the double in Nagpur city. And the demand
of Oranges in the southern of the country has been increased significantly this
Rise in Price Rs. 20/
kg due to high demand of banana.
Due to high supply of
Oranges/ commodities the price should be low (High demand high price, high
supply lower price). The price of oranges was down due to high supply but due
to high transportation charges, Oranges will be available in the market at
previous year rate.
There is a direct
relationship between demand and supply, more demand always raise the price if
the supply is low.
As in January and
February there will be an increase in the demand of orange and its prices will
be increased that will be Rs. 40 per kg, it means that due to high demand the
supply will be increase and there will be increase in the price of orange.
In Kochi per day market
gets about 100 tonne. Increase in the demand of quality apple will increase the
prices and will increase the supply.
When demand remains
same and supply increased due to new crop then the prices come down due to high
supply. High supply will lower down the prices due to short demand.
Explain what actions you would recommend to the key
players and/or policy holders.
This sudden increase in
the Orange demand from south part of India is due to the high pricing of apples
and grapes in the southern part of India. People living in Vizag, Kerala,
Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad has demanded for more Oranges. Due to heavy
rain in month of June and July and other climate changes has significant effect
on Banana’s crop and damaged the yield of bananas that also cause in raising
the banana price due to its shortage. The banana price that was available in
the local market at price of Rs. 30 to 40 per kg in the past years are now
selling at Rs. 50 to 60 per kg. In the southern markets the Oranges are now
available and usually Orange availability in the southern market was started in
the start of October till November and remained till summer season. Although
the supply of the Oranges is so high this year but it will not lower the price
due to high price of diesel and in this way the transportation charges will be
high and the Orange will be available in the market as per last year price that
was Rs. 35 per kg. In January and February the Orange demand will go up and in
this way it will affect the price. There is daily supply is about 150 tonne in
the main market of Chennai, and as the production of the Orange is clear
evident in Kerala and consequently supply will be increased in coming weeks.
Due to high quality of Orange there will be increase in its demand and the
price of orange will be increased about Rs. 40 per kg. And the supply will be
increased because the production is also increased. Traders import the high
quality of apple from other countries and the prices of apple will be doubled
due to high demand of high quality apples.
Explain how the above analysis supports your conclusion (1
to 2 paragraphs)
3. You may provide graphs/charts/diagrams
where necessary to enhance your presentation style.
3.1 Supply Curve
Shift in supply curve
Supply curve is always
upward because according to supply law that high prices, more quantity of
commodities is supplied (high price more supply), that’s why the supply curve
goes upward. So when the price of orange will be high the supply will be
increased and the supply curve will be gone up.
Shift in supply curve
3.2 Demand Curve
Increase in demand
According to the law of
demand that when price of commodities higher that time quantity of demanded
product is less, so the curve of demand will be downward sloping curve. Due to
high price the demand curve will be downward. And supply will be upward.
Decrease in Demand
An increase in the
supply S, with constant demand D will be decrease and equilibrium price P* and
increase equilibrium quantity Q*.
Similarly decrease in
supply S, with constant demand D will increase equilibrium price P* and
decrease with constant quantity Q*
When the demand and
supply becomes equal that state is called equilibrium point, the point where
the demand and supply of commodities meet together. If the price is above the
equilibrium point it means that commodities are in surplus and if the real
price is below the equilibrium point it means that the shortage of commodities.
3.4 Shifting the
With the change in
economy there is always a change in supply curve either left or right. A change
in price can be occur due to change in supply of commodities such as change in
price of oil due to new technology or discovery of new well. Change in supply
due to new crop may shift he supply curve.
3.5 Shifting the
The demand curve can be
shifted right or left due to change in the income of consumers, for example
change in interest rate, more money, decrease in income tax, high wages, more
job opportunities can bring change in buying power and thus a change will occur
in the demand. Low buying power will decrease the demand and more buying power
will increase the demand.
4. You need to
attach a copy of the article with your assignment.
to the Voss and Widmer, (1997) that it is acknowledged that here are many
benefits are related with the hand washing which includes the cost reducing and
for the human being there are many other benefits like it also prevent from the
infections. Similarly the Newsom, (1993) has been stated that hand washing can
play its important role in reducing the mortality predates and the morbidity in
minimizing them. He also has been stated that the hands washing also prevents
in cross prevention and also prevent the human being from infections.
ratio of the infection is always high in the situation where many people live
together or they work together closely, in such situation the probability of
the infection is so high. As it has been observed that in the care homes the
entire resident they live together like family members and they commonly use
and share so many facilities like bath rooms and kitchens so there the probability
of spreading infection is so high. But the high probability of spreading the
infection can be reduced if the precautions and necessary actions taken on
time. And in order to reduce the probability of spreading high ratio of cross
infection the awareness and the education can play its effective role. In order
to prevent the cross infection basic hygiene requirements are need to be
implemented. According to the Bradley & Rees, (2003) have been stated that
due to different kind of infections can produce different diseases and the
information regarding hand washing benefits can also play its important role in
prevention of such diseases those can be produced in the result of cross
are so may kind of infection diseases those can be easily infect the people
where some people are living together and they are sharing the baths, toilets,
kitchen and also share the utensils’ and other things they share to use. So the
ratio of these kind of diseases can be controlled and can be reduced to a
significant numbers if the proper precautions could be undertaken by the people
and the awareness of hand washing and other hygiene actions and standards can
be implemented and people act on the guidelines to prevent themselves from such
type of infections and they can avoid themselves to become victim of such
infections, because these infections become cause of many illness among them
and these kind of diseases can be easily transfer from one person to other
of the disease can be life threatening and some of the infections can be more
dangerous to the human beings. Underlying the medical conditions some kind of
infections are dangerous whereas some of them are curable easily, and
antibiotics medicines can play their role as a high resistance and the victims
can be recovered its health after taking the antibiotics.
June 2003 the National Institute for health and clinical excellence has been
published the prevention guidelines from the infections in order to control the
spreading the infections. These all the guidelines to prevent the people from
the cross infection and these all guidelines were based completely on the
scientific scholars statement and were also documented, all those conclusions
and the positive recommendations were completely based on the HCAI primary
principles and on the high standards and all the measures were made and
evaluation methods were used and implemented just in order to prevent people
from the cross infection to save their lives and to improve their health and
to DOH, (2009) that HCAI can also control and prevent the infection through
some kind of technical details and technical audits and by creating awareness
among the patients to prevent themselves from the cross infections.
There are the following aims and objectives of this
The researcher will find out about the role and
benefits of soap and water in order to minimize the effect of infection
The researcher will also find out the role of water
and soap in reducing the number of infected people from cross infection
The researcher will find out the role of soap and
water in improving people health quality
According to the Baker et al.,
(2009) Basically it is the microbiology clinical application to prevent the
people from cross infection, there are so many kinds of infections and disease
those can be caused just because of viruses, fungi and bacteria and so many
kind of infections like blood infection, respiratory infection, bone
infections, skin infection and urinary infections. It has been proved that all
kind of the infections are not cross infections.
The research method and the tools and research techniques
adopted by the researcher to conduct this research will be discussed here in
this section in detail. The researcher will also describes here about the tools
like charts and diagrams and about the source of primary and secondary data
gathering as well, as sampling techniques and data storing techniques and
methods will be describe here.
researcher will analyse the literatures critically on the topic of infection
and its causes and the methods and guidelines to prevent people from this
researcher will also find out the ways and advantages and importance of all
methods those can play their role in controlling and preventing the infection
in the care homes to improve the quality of health and lives of residents.
the end the researcher will make conclusion and recommendations to improve the
weak areas and to improve the strategies.
There are the following
research questions those have been designed by the researcher to achieve the
above aims and objectives related with this research.
steps are necessary to taken under considerations by the care homes to make
preventions and making control the infection in the care homes in United
are the main hindrances, issues and problems are related while implementing
guidelines to prevent the infection in care homes?
are necessary and basic actions important to control and prevent the infections
in the care homes?
2.1 Significance of infection control programs
a day there is a problem worldwide called infection and health care is
associated with this worldwide problem, in the hospital everywhere the
infection germs are available due to the infections victims and these germs of
infections are the main causes of death in the hospitals.
much health care resources are required and its cost is so high to offer care
services, the cost of health care especially to provide the antibiotic and to provide
health care facilities the hospitals need more laboratory studies and medicine
supply. According to Rhinehart and Friedman, (2006) that hospitals have acquire
the infections germs those can damage the patient’s quality of life. And these
germs acquired hospitals need more cost and technology to prevent the patients
from the infections that can lead the patients towards the death and hospitals
have limited resources to prevent and clean the atmosphere of hospital free
from infection germs. With the passage of age the patients suffered from the
chronic disease and the major cause of multiple diseases is the infection and
due to these chronic diseases the hospitals acquire the infection germs. And
one main and major cause of hospital acquired infection is the use of advanced
technology and the persistent procedures and due to these causes the old people
are suffering from the chronic diseases. The main cause and factors those play
their role in acquiring infections in the hospitals include antimicrobial
resistant bacteria. And due to these and poor systems and low intentions and
unawareness among the people about the use and benefits of hygiene use and
overcrowding of patients in the hospitals and due to the shortages of untrained
and unskilled employees or staff members those can play their effective role in
are some considerations which can be used to provide sufficient care and
treatment to the infection victim patients and the hospitals and surgeries and
care homes must provide the necessary treatment to the sick people at every
are following considerations those leads towards reflection
care services without infections are always required by the people
during the treatment the people can be affected through the infection in the
hospital or through working or eating or sharing toilets or kitchens stuff with
infected people due to cross infection bacteria.
treatment the people pass through damaged procedures and processes that can
cause them infection
to the Bearman et al., (2004) that health
care providers can also transfer into the customers and themselves as well
during the investigation and observation process the infectious agents in both
ways like indirectly or directly.
are following some factors those can contribute their important role in
spreading the cross transmission and those factors are given as under
the hospital when there are so many people admitted for their treatment and
when there is shortage of staff members to provide necessary treatment
when there are limited sources to control the infection due to less resources
and medicines and it might be because of cost factor
the hospitals there are two kind of main sources of infection and both are
discussed in detail below one by one
Sources: In this way the infection always spread and the infection bacteria
occur just because of the patients those enter the hospitals and come from outside
this is called exogenous source of infection bacteria in the hospitals and in
this way the others like other patients or staff members they can be affected
and the infection can be developed inside them.
Source: This is the second way of infection spreading in the hospitals and in
this way the bacteria or infection already exist inside the hospital and germs
remained inside the part of the hospital and the patients can be affected due
to microbes and the patients can be affected seriously.
are some mode of infection transmission inside the human body and the infection
can be developed and damage the human body seriously and other people can
become victim of infection, so first of all is the main mean of infection
transmission is the disease transmission cycle which states that infection can
be controlled when all the other necessary elements are clear, means when the
infectious agents is identified and the source of the agent has been
identified, the susceptible host must be identified those received the agent
must be identified and the source from host to agent must be identified then in
this way the infection can be controlled successfully. And the basically the
relationship among all is called the chain of the infection and some of the
scholars stated it as disease or infection transmission cycle (East, 1999).
Similarly East, (1999) has been stated that in order to break the transmission
of the infection it is necessary to break down the infection transmission chain
and then in this way the infection control is possible.
are the components of the infection transmission cycle those have been
is the major component that can cause the disease and that can be one of the
between following different agents like parasites, virus, fungi or bacteria, so
one of them can be the agent of the infection.
2nd main component of the infection
transmission cycle is the reservoir and if there is no reservoir then the
infection transmission is not possible, and the agent as discussed above is
always resides and its growth is always take place in the reservoir. According
to the Ayliffe et al., (2000) have
been stated that all the items which includes and take part in the clinical
processes and procedures always serve as the infection agent reservoirs and the
items like human being, plants, air, soil, animals, solutions and water those
can take part in the clinical procedures can serve as reservoir for the
of all the infection bacteria called the agent get growth in the reservoir and
after infection it leave the reservoir that is called the exit place and the
only one way is the skin cut, blood stream, surgical suit, puncture and rash
which are known as the exit place for the infection agent.
the researcher has been discussed above about the mode of transmission of the
infection agent and its three ways, agent, survivor and exit way as well, all
this movement started from agent to survivor and then exit is called the
infection transmission mode and there are total five ways of infection
transmission which are discussed below one by one.
means the direct mean of infection transmission like through sexual inter
course or through touching the infected person, it can be through the hospital
visit frequently because the infection germs can be transferred into human
being through hospital atmosphere or through any clinical procedure or it can
be possible through infection acquired instrument or area.
area has been divided into two major sub sections
(i). Indirect Transformation: In this way the infection germs can be
transferred through infected (already contained infection germs) through
infected needle, any other infected clinical or surgical instrument, gloves or
through contaminated dress.
(ii). Direct Transformation: the second main
source of the infection transformation is the direct source like through one
body to another body, one surface to another surface, one physical
transformation to another like from one person blood to another person blood it
can be transferred.
2. Droplet Transformation:
is the second main mode of infection transformation, and in this way the
researcher will discuss about the droplet transformation which is always
generated by the cough of the already contaminated germs, through the patient
(the person who is already contained the infection germs) sneezing,
bronchoscope or through his or her talk as well, and the contaminated drops if
fallen at some distance (short distance) some scholars have been stated that
minimum at one meter distance they can be affected and harmful for the other
healthy people. According to the Wilson, (2011), that through air contaminated
drops can be transmitted into other people and the infection agent can move
easily in the survivor easily and there is no such a way to disturb the air to
interrupt this air that contained the agents.
3. Vector Transmission
kind of infection can be possible through the mosquitoes and the other animals
those are already infected through the infection the infection agent always
transferred through them those have already this infection inside their body
and become cause of infection agent transformation in other physical bodies for
example the yellow fever, malaria, plague and fleas for most common here.
4. Common Vehicle Transmission
to the Pratt et al., (2001) that sometimes
the infection agent can be transmitted through the specific material that
already contained the infection agent for example the blood that already
contained hepatitis A Virus, B Virus and C infection virus and HIV and HCV
similarly salmonella spp. Food, in the water some the existence of Shigella or
Chol era can also become cause of infection transmission and the infection can
be transferred from one people to other people.
5. Airborne Transmission
time the droplet nuclei remained in the atmosphere and they might be suspended
for a long time in the air and can cause to transfer the infection agents in
the other physical human body and especial kind of air ventilators and air
handling are required to disturb the droplet transformation of infection from
air to healthy body, Measles and M. Tuberculosis are the both kind of
infections agents those can easily transmit from air to survivors.
Infection agent transformation control can be break and the
disease spreading can be controlled and can be prevented by creating the
awareness among the people regarding the use of water and soap and its role and
importance. According to the Wilson, (2001) that the awareness
about the disease and infection from the HCV and HIV and from the HCV and the
scope of the controlling actions and all other activities those can play their
role positively, in order to break the infection
transmission spreading cycle or chain it is very important to find out the
importance of those steps that can easily play their role in breaking the chain
or cycle of the germs transformation. And in order to break the chain first of
all the agent transmission methods are very important. Now it is
necessary to create the awareness among the people and then it is necessary to
pay the attention towards reducing the risk of spreading the infection agents
from one body to another body and the main focus must be paid on the
cleanliness atmosphere and surroundings and attention must be paid on the
cleaning homes and personal cleaning and to the community members as well to
prevent the infection and to break the infection agent chain.
This is very important section and in this section the
researcher will discuss and will explain about the method those will be adopted
to conduct the research which includes the importance of case study selection,
research limitations, sample size and sample selection method, research method
either quantitative or qualitative, tools and techniques those will be adopted
by the researcher to records, making analysis and conclusions will be
explained. The researcher will also discuss the source of secondary and primary
data and collection techniques and ethical consideration and collected data
validity and reliability will be discussed and explained.
According to the Saunders et
al., (2009) have been stated that it is the demand and need of the time to
choose more than one research methods to conduct the research and to achieve
the specific aims and objectives, so researchers must select more than one
research methods to obtain valid and reliable results. There are some specific
advantages and disadvantages are associated with each research method, the
selected research method must be contained the potential to solve the research
issue and problem in the available time frame as well as in the limit of
resources available to the researcher. In order to achieve the specific aims
and objectives of the research, Saunders et
al., (2009) have been defined some effective and important steps to achieve
the research aims and objectives efficiently and effectively. The researcher
will adopt the qualitative research method to conduct this research to achieve
the aims and objectives of this research positively because in this way in the
available time and other resources the researcher by selecting the case study
as tool can achieve the aims and objectives to solve the research problem.
According to the Neumann & Lawrence, (2006) that quantitative research
method is most suitable for the researchers when they have limited resources as
compared to the qualitative research method, but in the medical sciences in the
opinion of the doctors and nursing staff there are more advantages for the
researchers to adopt the qualitative research methods to collect primary data
and through systematic approach the secondary data can be collected with more
reliability and validity. Because there are some reasons to adopt the
qualitative research methods, and one of the most suitable reason is that
qualitative research method is more people centred as compared to quantitative.
Through adopting this research method the researcher can easily make the
conclusion and can make the positive recommendations.
Here the researcher will use the review of literature as
secondary data and the researcher will consult the books, reports, articles and
journals, the researcher will also use electronic books, electronic articles
and journals as well and websites as well but all the books and articles and
press releases and report will be titled on the health care and on the
importance of water and soap role in reducing and preventing the people from
infections. The researcher will also visit the electronic library as well to
download the available material on the topic of infection and its prevention
methods and role of water and soap as well in the care homes in the United
Kingdom especially. The researcher will also visit the University student portal
and physically will visit the University library and will consult the books
there and will read out the articles for better understanding and for proper
data gathering to avoid biasness and to improve and to increase the validity
and reliability of the secondary data.
In this research the researcher has been gathered the about
40 research papers and by adopting the criteria of inclusion and the criteria
of exclusion the researcher has been rejected the 17 research papers and the
remaining 23 papers were selected by the researcher to conduct the research. And
after studying the research papers in details the researcher has again rejected
the 8 research papers from the 23 research papers and selected the 15 research
papers and then those research papers were evaluated by the researcher as per
the aims and the objectives of the research.
In this section the researcher will consider all
the ethical considerations for the validity and reliability of the data and for
these the researcher will not disclose the results to the co workers,
colleagues and to the class fellows and the researcher will not include her own
opinion in the primary data collection, the researcher will never allow other people
to steel her research work. The researcher will use proper and valid resources,
will not include the old references and will not make critics to anybody on the
behalf of race, colour, sex, age or religion and disability. The researcher
will abide by all kind of discriminations and will not disclose any information
of the participants and will not use this research work for another academic
The researcher has designed the following steps to carry on
the research to conduct the research in a meaningful way to achieve the
research aims and objectives.
4.2 Project Resources
As the researcher is conducting this research as a
student to fulfil the academic requirement so all the financial cost will be
paid by him and all the cost associated with this research will be paid by the
researcher which includes the visiting, lunch, high tea, software purchasing,
stationary, travelling and printing expense as well.
During gathering the data the researcher will not include
only the research work means published articles or research papers in between
the January 2002 to till December 2012, to maintain the validity and
reliability the researcher will not include the old research statement.
The researcher will not include the data in the secondary
data that has been published before the year 2002 because due to old technology
and old trends and due to the old clinical procedures and medicines, and will
not include the research papers those were published after the date of January
In this section the researcher will explain the limitations
and the strategy will be explained to overcome those limitations and then after
that the researcher will discuss the conclusions of the results made by keeping
the results compiling and by using the review of literature as a background of
the study and by relating both of them as and when necessary.
According to the Clarke, (2003) that standard precautions
always are useful in reducing the probability or chance of occurring infection
very low and if these precautions can be implemented effectively then the
infection can be controlled easily and the cost of the infection prevention can
There are some precautions have been discussed by the
Personal protection from (The staff members must use their
Secondly is the use of hand hygiene (the hands must be washed
with water and soap)
The combination of the
precautions can be used by the nurses or by the administration as well as per
requirement. According to the Cozad & Jones, (2003) that in order to reduce
and to prevent people from the infection agent combination of the precautions
that is the most suitable and the more effective and efficient way.
According to the Pratt et al., (2007) that the environment must
be neat and clean and the neat and clean environment can prevent the infection
agent to transmit and the hand hygiene must be implemented because the hand
hygiene can play its role in the prevention of infection agent among the
people. So all those people must have awareness about the importance of hand
washing with water and soap and the staff members must use their own, shoes,
gowns, gloves and face masks in this way the infection agent transmission can
be reduced. The surgical instruments must be properly sterilize before use and
proper precautions must be implemented in the hospitals and proper cleaning
system must be implemented in the hospitals and in the care homes.
According to the
Larson, (1995) that hand washing is so important and the people must wash their
hands with the liquid or soap and make it sure that they have cleaned their
both hands and all the surface of both hands have been properly cleaned.
The people must wash
their hands with water and soap with alcohol hand gels to properly clean the
hands, because this is the basically efficient and effective way to prevent and
to reduce the infection agent transmission. So this is also necessary for the
patients, doctors, nurses and even then all the workers and all the regular,
permanent and contractors to implement and act on the hand hygiene precautions
and wash their hands.
The hospital staff members of care
home staff members must consider the following points because the following
situations can be harmful for them so they must use hand wash before the
Touching the patients
Any Task (aseptic)
And after the touching blood,
faces, urine, vomits etc.
After touching patients
The staff members must taken into
their consideration the following actions
They must wear gloves and must
change the gloves after touching one patient
They must put the gloves in the bin after touching patient
and do not reuse them
They must wear the gown before the patient checking and after
checking they must wear off the gown and put in the dust bin and for second
patient they must wear new gown.
As this is the social
and ethical and on job duty of all the members of the hospitals and care home
nursing staff to prevent and to break the infection agent cycle for improving
the life and health quality of the patients and to keep clean the atmosphere
free from infection agents. It is the duty of all the care providers and the
hospitals to provide the healthy environment and infection free atmosphere and
environment to the patients. It is their social and ethical responsibility to implement
the precaution measures at the working place and in the care homes and in the
The main purpose of this research is to
highlight the importance and role of management in the success of business organization.
There are so many benefits of business management to the business organization.
For example the Apple Company is the most successful business organization in
the world because it has the effective business management and effective
business strategies. Whereas the Tesco was the successful superstore market
chain in the United Kingdom and now a day is losing its business because of
ineffective business management and business strategies (Thomas, 2011). Lamming, (2011) has stated that management is always
responsible for the designing and developing the mission statement of the
organization, objectives are also set by management and to achieve and control
the employees management always design the rules, procedures and implement them
on the work placement so that through effective communication and controlling
organizational objectives could be achieved.
Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco
Basically Apple is the most successful
business organization in the world whereas the Tesco is less successful
business organization in the world because of management. As above I have
mentioned that management functions are associated with executing a business or
an organization that involves the functions of management (planning,
organizing, monitoring and leading) is called the business management.
Through the above statement I can conclude that business management in an organization is the key to success in an organization. There are different role of management in an organization and their role varies from department to department, for example the manager in sales department will achieve the sales targets by leading and controlling, allocating resources and solving sales force problems and by encouraging them to achieve organizational objectives (Nicoloulaud, 2012). Similarly the human resources manager will recruit the best work force for the organization from the labour market to participate its role in achieving organizational objectives, and financial and accounting managers also play their roles effectively in allocating, producing and generating financial statements, accounting statement and allocating financial resources to the other departments to achieve organizational work smoothly. Manufacturing department manager will also lead, motivate and control the employees in its department and will be responsible to achieve department targets to achieve organizational objectives. According to Freeman, (2012) that “Managers at work placement plan the work, allocate resources to the employees and lead them and encourage them and solve their problems and give them proper feedback about their work so that employees can contribute towards achieving organizational objectives in efficient manners”.
Apple is basically multinational American
company that has been producing electronics products for its customers and also
designing software for its customers to use its products. Apple management has
the competent skills and composed of highly skilled workers to manufacture and
producing Android and Symbian operating systems for its own manufactured
hardware like different series of mobile phones and laptops and tablets (Apple,
2014). Apple is although offering highest price products in the market and successfully
doing its business in international market and its products demand is
increasing every year because of its effective business management procedures
and activities the management team at Apple has all the necessary competencies
and skills to compete in the market and achieving its organizational objectives
efficiently and effectively. Apple business operations are managed effectively
and efficiently because of highly skilled mangers in all the management process
those contribute in its management process planning, organizing, controlling
and leading. Tesco is the supermarket market chain leader in United Kingdom
offering non food items and financial services in the United Kingdom to its
customers at low prices but at high quality of products, Tesco is doing its
business in global market and suffering from lot of issue because of its
ineffective management. Tesco is although the market leader in the United
Kingdom but is losing competitive position in global market because of its
ineffective management process and activities, Tesco do not have highly skilled
workers as compared to the Apple managerial skills (Tesco, 2014).
Basically management is the function or is a
process used in the business and organizations to achieve their goals and
objectives by using the resources like human resources, technological
resources, financial resources, infrastructure and procedures and by
coordinating the employee’s efforts in efficient way. Basically leaders are the
people in the organizations those have specific skills to manage the things in
an organization and do right things at right time and allocate right resources
to the right people is called a leader whereas the term leadership is always
refers to the art to perform leadership role in an organizations effectively (Hutt, 2011). There are different forms of leadership now a day including political
leader that has personal interest and cause and has the vision to do for a
nation or for a country, secondly it could be the executive member in an
organization or institute that establish mission and vision statement for an
organization and train and lead the other staff members to achieve specific
goals and objectives in specific time period efficiently and effectively by
using specific resources. In order to improve the effectiveness of
organizations and to lead and to achieve and sustain competitive position the
organizations needs to bring quality in their products and services offer them
at lower cost to increase market share and to generate sales revenue, and these
thing are possible by the effective management (Apple, 2014). Effective
management means that resources should be allocated to the right people at
right time to the right people to save time and to avoid wastage of resources,
so by maximum utilization and output of resources management is necessary. To
achieve organizational objectives it is important that managers leads the
employees towards achieving organizational objectives, management/ managers are
always responsible for the integrating all the resources in a line to achieve
common objectives. It is the management that allocates the organizational
resources to the employees and assigned the different tasks in different
positions to achieve specific tasks to achieve organizational objectives (Byars,
Management is basically the mixture of
science and arts it is not purely science not art, management term has the following
Planning means to plan the aims and
objectives of an organization and also defining the targets and tasks for the
human resource management. Management at Apple has the effective skills and
competencies as compared to Tesco management. At Apple management always focus
on the innovation technology and they successfully plan the aims and
objectives, whereas at Tesco managers do not have such competencies and skills
to establish Tesco aims and objectives as according to the job and market
interest. At the Apple management is continuously involved in establishing and
refining the aims and objectives of the company and focus on the innovations
and new technology to provide best operating system and modern hardware
technology, at Apple management always involved in research and development
activities to bring innovations in its way of achieving organizational
objectives, whereas in the Tesco the management only once establishes the aims
and objectives and then they just focus on the established and pre defined
procedures to achieve organizational objectives (Bateman, 2011).
Organizing means to allocate the resources to
the employees as according to their job nature and according to their skills
and experience. Human resource can play their effective role in achieving
organizational objectives efficiently and effectively (timely, and without
wasting resources). At Apple the CEO has introduced the innovative leadership
style to motivate its employees and established the planning board whereas at
the Tesco only the management involve in planning phase. At Apple incorporation
this organizational structure provide an opportunity to work as team (engineers
and programmers and other professional) to establish organizational aims and objectives
and procedures to motivate its employees. Tesco only corporate level management
is involved in establishing organizational aims and objectives (Asakawa, 2012).
Staffing means that recruitment the staff
member as according to the job description, and specific criteria is always
define to recruit people to play their role in achieving specific tasks in an
organization then after recruitment employees are given training and rewarded
them as per their performance to retain them with the organization. Apple
employees feel more job security and taking high salaries and other benefits as
compared to Tesco employees and this is the main reason of high productive
attitude of Apple employees. Apple incorporation is using the innovative
methods and online methods to provide training to its employees to create
efficiency while saving time and cost whereas at Tesco employees do not have
opportunity to provide them training online. Apple incorporation management
hire the people from all over the world and offer them highly salaries and
other benefits and provide them training in different phases as according to
their skills and build high competencies among them and reward them with high
perks and benefits whereas Tesco has only 30% of its business outside the UK
and Tesco concentrate on UK labour market and recruit the labour form only one
market and Tesco employees profile is less than the Apple employee’s profile
(Tesco, 2014) (Thomas, 2011).
Managers in an organization always lead their
subordinators and lead them by their skills and motivate them in achieving
organizational objectives, listen them, their problems and provide them
friendly environment at work placement so that they can contribute and share
their problems and share their experiences and knowledge with each others to
solve the problem. Leading is an important function of management that involves
the activities to motivate the employees to achieve their tasks effectively. At
Apple incorporation management is successfully motivating the employees in
achieving organizational objectives and employees has devoted themselves and
contributed more as compared to the Tesco employees because at Apple
Incorporation employees feel more job security and they are earning high scale
of salaries and other benefits and compensations as compared to Tesco
employees. Tesco employee’s salaries are low and their benefits are also less
as compared to Apple incorporation. The leadership style at Apple is scientific
management and the working environment is friendly and trusty, at Tesco the
transformational leadership is implemented and they have created conservative
and unfriendly environment at work placement. Employees as team workers in
Apple feel trusty and friendly environment and they share their ideas and
experience and helped each other that creat quality of work (Lamming, 2011).
Controlling means to control the difference
resources, organizational management control the resources through their
performance and for this purpose managers always collect the information
regarding the resources performance and then measured them as per defined
standards. At Apple incorporation employees are controlled by their immediate
boss and it has the innovative techniques to measure employee’s performance and
management at Apple has the more competencies and skills to control the
employees and other resources as compared to Tesco Plc (Nicoloulaud, 2012).
Through above data it has been concluded that
Apple incorporation is successful organization whereas the Tesco is less
successful organization because of management efficiency, the management at
Apple is efficient and its function, leadership style and employee’s skills are
appropriate as compared to Tesco management. In the organizing function
managers at Apple incorporation focus on the organizational structure and they
divide the tasks as according to the skills and competencies of the employees
to carry out the routine tasks whereas at the Tesco the management is involved
in allocating the resources to the employees to achieve their objectives. The
efficient way to achieve organizational objectives can be seen at Apple rather
than at Tesco. Apple believes in team work whereas at Tesco management believes
in group working efficiency. So the success of Apple also depends on the
organizing function that is performed by its high qualified team members (Byars,
2012). At Apple management has
the main three skills including interpersonal skills, technical skills and
conceptual skills and all the managers at all level are fully have these skills
to carry out their work. Technical skills are very important for the engineers
to carry out special tasks. Technical skills also mean that they must have the
ability to train their subordinators and colleagues to motivate them to achieve
special tasks. At Tesco the managers have the necessary skills but do not have
the technical skills to motivate others and to train their colleagues and
subordinators. Conceptual skills are very important for the management because
managers must think logically and conceptually to make effective decisions, at
Apple incorporation the employees have the conceptual skills to achieve their
goals and objectives successfully by making effective decisions. At Tesco
managers have the abilities to perform their skills but they need to focus on
the corporate level guidelines and managers are not independent to make their
own decisions to carry out work (Hutt, 2011). Interpersonal skills are related
with the communication efficiency and at Apple incorporation the communication
methods are efficient and all the managers and corporate level management
remains in touch with each other and share their problems and experience and
knowledge. At Tesco managers have the interpersonal skills but they do not have
the effective way of communication. Managers at Apple are more motivated and
committed as compared to the Tesco managers because of management style and their
code of conduct (Freeman, 2012).
Income statement or profit or loss statement is basically a financial
statement of an organization for a specific time period that measures the
financial performance which shows the revenues and the business expenses through
operating and non operating activities (Berends, 2010). This
statement also shows the net profit or loss incurred by the company over a
specific time period. There are two main portions in an income statement,
income portion deals with operating items and this portion is used to analyze
by the investors to disclose the information about sales/ revenues and incurred
expenses through business operations (Black, 2011).
Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s equity
The other portion is non-operating that contains the information about
revenues and expenses that does not generated by the business to perform
business regular operations (Bragg, 2013). This
statement is used to assess organizational profitability by deducting the
expenses from the generated revenue over a specific time period (Boone, 2013). If net
income positive this means profit otherwise is loss.
Balance sheet is the financial statement that summarizes the
organizational assets, owner’s equity and its liabilities over a specific time
period (Brealey and Stewart, 2011). The main purpose of balance sheet is to have an idea
about the financial condition of an organization that shows the own and owes of
organization. It helps the businessmen to understand the strengths and
capabilities of organization (Brendy, 2012).
Total Assets = Current assets + Other Assets + fixed Assets
Liabilities = Current Liabilities + Long term Liabilities
Net Worth = Assets – Liabilities – Book Value
Retained Earnings = Earnings retained for business opportunities/
Cash flow statement contains about 17 items listed in the specific order
they need to appear, cash flow statement is prepared monthly for the first
year, quarterly in 2nd year and annually for 3rd year of
business (Broadbent and Cullen, 2012). Cash shows the cash in hand, sales shows the income
from sale paid for cash receive able means income from collection on cash owed
to the business resulting in sales, other incomes means liquidation of asset,
income from any investment and loan interest that has been extended (Dayanada,
2012). Total income in cash flow statement shows the total money (sales +
receivables + other income). Merchandise or material is raw material used by
the company to manufacture products, when raw material comes in, cash goes out.
The labour required to manufacture product is called direct labour, expenses required
incurred for business operations called overhead (Drury, 2012). Under
marketing the expenses, commissions and direct costs related with marketing and
sales departments are considered. Research and development are expenses for R
& D operations. Some expenses called general and administration expenses
incurred during the general administrative operations of business. Information
about the paid taxes, except payroll are also treated as expenses in cash flow
statement (Dyson, 2013). Capital
shows the investment amount need to create income, loan payments are the
payments use to reduce long term liabilities, material cost plus direct labour,
marketing sales, research and developments, taxes, loan payments, capital and
overhead expenses shows the total expenses (Fridson, et al., 2013). Whereas
the cumulative cash flow is calculated by subtracting previous cash flow from
current cash flow (Gartner, et al., 2013).
The financial statements provide the information to the creditors and
investors to evaluate an organizational financial strengths and performance. Manager,
creditors and investors need published financial information of an organization
to make measurements and making analysis (Berends, 2010). The
financial conditions of an organization are of important and major concerns to
creditors and investors, as well as financial managers also need this
information for making financial decisions and to know financial condition of
company. Balance sheet shows the liabilities, assets and owner’s equity, it
does not contains the information about business operations and changes
occurred during the specific period to run business and final results, so the
creditors, investors and financial manager need income statement to know the
profit and loss, and cash flow to evaluate the cash flow in and out of company
account to carried out business operations (Boone, 2013). Through
income statement past and current incomes can be compare that shows the
performance of an organization. A retained earning is part of equity is of
important for the creditors and investors to understand the strengths and performance
of an organization because if there is an increase in retained earning it means
that a steady growth in organizational shareholder’s equity (Black, 2011).
Financial ratios are used to measure the business abilities to generate
revenue as compared to it expenses and other costs incurred in a specific time period (Bragg, 2013). Higher values of these ratios as compared to
organizational competitors show that organization is doing well business. These
ratios assess the ability of organization to earn profit, sales revenue and
cash flow (Brealey and Stewart, 2011). The creditors and investors and business owner also
need these ratios to make investment decision for future or to understand the
business performance in past period. The
most important ratios are return on capital employed (ROCE), gross profit margin,
net profit margin and cash return on capital invested (CROCI) (Brendy, 2012). ROCE
indicate how well an organization is using capital to generate returns and
money for its shareholders is indicated by return on investment. Higher values
means organization is executing operations in well manner to earn profit (Broadbent
and Cullen, 2012).
This is another financial ratio that is used by the creditors, investors
and business owner to measure the degree of consumer’s leverage (Drury, 2012). This is
ratio of total debt to total assets, and is expressed in percentage. Higher
this ratio indicates that the risk associated with this company is high lower
value of this ratio indicate low risk (Dayanada, 2012).
Liquidity ratio basically indicates the organizational ability to repay
short term to the creditors to reduce short term liabilities (Dyson, 2013). Liquidity ratio can be calculated by following
Liquidity Ratio = Liquid Assets / Short term Liabilities
If the value of the liquidity ratio is greater than 1 then it means that
fully covered. High ratio indicate low risk of default, low ratio indicates
higher risk of default (Fridson, et al., 2013).
Turnover ratio indicate the number of times (frequency, repetition) of
organization inventory replaced during a specific time schedule (Gartner, et al., 2013).
Turnover ratio can be calculated as cost of goods/products/ services sold
divided by average inventory over a specific time period. High value result
indicates that organization is producing and selling products/ services quickly (Berends, 2010).
This ratio indicates an important ratio of
organization between sales and number of employees (Boone, 2013). Higher
value of this ratio means more productivity of organization higher value
indicates more revenue generated by an employee (Black, 2011).