Compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture

The organizational structures represent the different level of management along with the responsibilities and positions of the responsible people in an organization (Bateman et al., 2009). Every organization has the organizational structure that describes the flow chart of command and hierarchy of the management and controlling system and different levels of management (Bennis and Warren, 2007).

Departmentalization

Departmentalization structure is the best structure and in this structure the work and duties are assigned to the group of the people and there are different ways of departmentalization which are given below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).

Customer relationship department

The main focus of the organization is to pay focus on the customers and this department based on the different needs, retention and capturing new customers from the market (Hersberger, 2007).

Functional Department

The main focus of the organization depends on the different functions and department divided on the behalf of the different functions (Intagliata, 2002).

Product Department

In this structure the departments are designed on the nature of product, pricing, strategy to develop and design and marketing.

Process Department.

Here in this way the departments are divided in the different departments with different aims and objectives, each department is responsible for the different aims and objectives to achieve (Kotter and John, 2003).

Geographical department.

In this way departments like regional departments and these departments based on the climate, availability of labour, raw material and other conditions (Mech and Terrence, 2003).

Chain of Command.

This is another type of organizational structure and the organizations adopted this structure with the aims and objectives of command like in military (Army, Navy and air force) in these organizations authorities, responsibilities and communications are of most importance. The structure shows the level of people at their ranks with their powers, authorities and their duties and responsibilities (Moore and Audrey, 2004).

Spain of Control

Sometimes there are more than one business partners and one manager is controlling more than one people to carry out the business operations, so the span of control can be tall and narrow, flat and wide. In the tall and narrow the managers control about 6 to 10 people, they supervise the employees and they have effective communication and fast communications (Plunkett and Richard, 2003).

Flat and Wide

In the flat and wide span of control the managers are authorised and responsible to design and develop the strategies and policies and train their employees. In this way the employees have more morality with the high span of control (Pritchard and Steven, 2000).

Centralization and Decentralization

In this organizational structure the main powers of decision making is with the low level of employees they have the authority to make decision as per their nature of work and routine of work. The higher level delegate authority to the lower level employees to make decisions to carry on their daily work independently. In the decentralization the operational issues and strategic directions are always from top to down (Bateman et al., 2009).

Matrix Structure

In this kind of structure the people from the different departments and the products have their specific as according to the nature of their projects. The people involved in the matrix structures face different situations and with their skills they handle the skills and sort out the solutions. In this kind of structure the loyalty among the employees always remained high and the resource allocation always become high due to highly skilled people involvement (Bennis and Warren, 2007).

Organization culture

There are different kinds of the organizational cultures all the cultures have been described in detailed below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).

Power Culture

In this kind of culture the medium and the small size organizations this culture prevails and in the centralized decisions always designed by the small organizations where the power culture prevailed. This is the best culture because the organizations can control the wastage of resources effectively and the management can measure, control and monitor the business operations and workers motivations can be built easily as compared to other cultures (Hersberger, 2007).

Role Culture

Different functions and each division assigned a specific role and similarly there are so many benefits of this culture the each skilled worker or unskilled individual pay focus on achieving its goal and objectives (Intagliata, 2002).

Task Culture

The each person always assigned a task in this culture and in the modern era the organizations are adopting this culture there are so many benefits of this culture. The cost reduces and the wastage of resources are always controlled efficiently in way (Kotter and John, 2003).

Person Culture

In the non profit organizations the personal culture is going to be more popular and prevailing because these people have their specific aims and objectives to meet (Mech and Terrence, 2003).

SWOT & STEEP Analysis (A Case Study of ASDA)

Presentation: Strategic Planning . Strategic Management and Leadership

INTRODUCTION
ASDA was originally formed in the 1920s as Hindell’s Dairies. ASDA was established by a group of Yorkshire farmers who processed and sold meat and milk products through Hindell’s Dairies. In 1949, the company changed its name to Associated Dairies and Farm Stores Ltd. The grocer merged with Queen’s Supermarkets to form ASDA Stores Ltd in 1965 (www.asda.com).

AIMS

ASDA aims to be a value retailer that surpasses the customer’s expectations in terms of product price. To this end, the supermarket chain says that it will provide customers with goods as a lower price than its competitors do. At its more than 300 stores across the United Kingdom, ASDA sells food and groceries, as well as other products for the home (Koch, 2006).

MISSION STATEMENT

A mission statement sets out the long-term direction of the organisation. ASDA’s mission is: ‘to be Britain’s best-value retailer exceeding customer needs always‘ (www.asda.com).

SWOT analysis entails a distillation of the findings of an internal and external audit which draws attention, from a strategic perspective, to the critical organisational strengths and weaknesses and the opportunities and threats facing the organisation. Whereas PESTLE analysis is an audit of an organisation’s environmental influences with the purpose of using this information to guide strategic decision-making. The assumption is that if the organisation is able to audit its current environment and assess potential changes, it will be better placed than its competitors to respond to changes  (Ronald, 2013).

This study will analyse the impact of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors on Asda. It will also identify the key forces that represent both opportunities and threats to its profit. Data is supplemented with details on the company’s history, key executives, business description, locations and subsidiaries as well as a list of products and services and the latest available company statement (Thomas, 2007).

SWOT analysis is the study undertaken by an organization to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as its external opportunities and threats (Julie, 2009).

A tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. Specifically, SWOT is a basic, straightforward model that assesses what an organization can and cannot do as well as its potential opportunities and threats (Albert, 2008). The method of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results (Jean and Glen, 2010)

Strengths 1.Wide range of product offerings and service offerings include financial services 2.Known for its amazing marketing campaigns 3.In constant touch with its customers via social networking, asks feedback, conducts competitions, etc. 4.Socially responsible through CSR initiatives 5.ASDA has over 140,000 employees working at over 500 stores (Menon, 2010).

    Weaknesses

1.  Limited global presence as compared to few other competitors

2. Their ability to sell prices have restricted their entrance is few countries as the country fear a competition with local vendors (Hill & Westbrook, 2007).

Opportunities

1.  Expanding in new areas of pharmacies,    opticians, jewelry and photo department.

2. Venturing into markets that are growing like India, China etc

Threats

1.Price war with other retail chains brands 

2.Pressure of maintaining low prices.

3. Ever changing policies of various central governments

STEEP Analysis

External environment factors such as down turns in the economy, and a lack of investment in innovation can have a significant impact on a firm’s strategic options (Koch, 2006). To obtain a better glance of how these factors will affect the planning process, analysts can utilize the STEEP analysis tool. When used correctly, the tool will furnish decision makers with information which should be used to improve existing strategic plans (Ronald, 2013).

Political Factors

1.Government policy on taxation, Employment laws including wages, rates etc.

2.Political unrest: due to influx of large number of foreign nationals in the country (Thomas, 2007).

3.Unstable Government: due to govt inability to stabilise the economy (Julie, 2009).

4.Government education policy: efforts to encourage more people to stay on high education

Economic Factors

1.Interest Rates 

2.Inflation 

3.Economic growth 

4.Exchange rates 

5.Stage of business cycle 

6.Assisting people entering and re-entering the job market

7. Maximize the contribution of local and regional economies 

8. Disposable income

Social Factors

1.Large influx of EU citizen in the country leading to a high demand for accommodation, welfare, healthcare and education (Jean and Glen, 2010). 

2.Changes in social trends

3.Ageing population could lead to an increase to ASDA’s pension payment for their employees. It could also lead to another source of labour pool for ASDA to tap into.

4.An ageing population could also lead to unwillingness to work and an increase in pension .

5.Lifestyle changes: Longer opening hours in supermarkets means that people are working longer and / or flexible hours  (Albert, 2008).

6.In areas of high concentration of ethnic groups, goods and services are targeted towards that ethnic group e.g. Slough / Southall Lifestyle

7.Charity: benefits to the community

8.Branding 

9.Demographics 

10.Lifestyle changes 

11.Health and welfare 

Technological Factors

1.New ways of shopping: online shopping

2.New product types i.e. mobile phones, MP3 players etc. 3.Improved efficiency in stock control due to bar coding

4.Cost reduction due to introduction of new technology i.e. lower cost of labour

5.Self scanning of products

6.Chip and Pin

Environmental Factors

1.Increased demand could lead to increased

2.Pursuing environmentally friendly strategies i.e. focused on recycling 

3.Packaging Recycling

Change Management, A case study of Tesco Shopping Mall

1.1   Introduction

In this essay the author has described the stakeholders by selecting the retail supermarket “Tesco” and described the stakeholder groups and then explained the different stakeholders of the selected organization. In this essay author has described the importance of stakeholders to the organization and their impact on the business activities and also described the way to identify stakeholder’s expectations, requirements and their interest and to manage them by fulfilling their needs and requirements to make growth and to achieve competitive advantages.

1.1.1        Tesco Background

Tesco was founded by Mr. Jack Cohen in 1919 and gradually it makes growth in retail industry and sustained its growth because of its effective business strategies. Tesco is leader organization in grocery and merchandizing in retail industry in UK and doing its business in global market and sustained its competitive position by offering its financial services and high quality of its products in no food items at lowest prices to its customers. Tesco is the market leader in United Kingdom retail industry and second largest globally in terms of revenue. Tesco has its business operations in USA, Asia and Europe. Tesco has captured the 31% market share from the targeted market. There are about 370,000 employees employed by Tesco in all over the world and it’s more than 80% sales revenue is generated from United Kingdom and only 30% of its business share is spread outside the United Kingdom (Tesco, 2014).

1.1.1    Stakeholders

According to Capron & Glazer, (2010) that stakeholders can be defined as the people, an individual or group of people or an institution that can be affected or have an impact on the business operations of an organization. Kotler & Schlesinger, (2007) stated that stakeholders may be include owner, employees, investors, media, customers and consumers, suppliers, local community, banks, financial institutions, employee union, competitors, government, industry and business partners (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). Tesco stakeholders have their impacts on its business operation in the following way employees have impact on the success of organization if they have no productive attitude and do not agree with organizational objectives. Similarly, the managers have their own impact on the decision making (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) if they do not develop and design effective business strategies (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013) and decision in this way Tesco could not achieve its objectives (Benfield, 2012). If the Tesco suppliers supply the material and furnished products with low quality customers may angry and there will be low sales volume and Tesco could not achieve targeted sales volume (Byars, 2010). Similarly, if the credit terms and conditions changed by the Tesco to the suppliers that may delay in the delivery of raw material and products and in other supplies like electricity and gas. Additionally, ultimately there will be no more sales and Tesco could not achieve its targets. New laws designed by the government (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) have their own impact on the profitability of the organization (Cooper, 2010) for example if the government raise the wage rate and also raise the tax rate in this way Tesco could not achieve its targets Tesco needs to increase the prices and customers may not accept these changes in price and may switched (Byars, 2010) to other retail stores. If the banks, creditors or lenders may raise the interest rate in this way there will be a negative impact on the Tesco business operations (Benfield, 2012).

1.1.2    Customers

According to Locke, (2009) that Tesco customers are the main stakeholders of organization because they want the quality of products at cheap prices to overcome their needs and wants and become satisfy by consuming their products. Being social responsible Tesco is offering products and services at cheap prices and in this way customer’s buying power is increasing and they can buy more products from the Tesco. Tesco is also taking care for the environment and has been offering the products those have low carbon emission in the atmosphere. Customers are more interested in offers, more high quality of products at cheap prices from Tesco. Tesco consider their interests while making its business strategies (Capron & Glazer, 2010).

1.1.3    Suppliers

Tesco suppliers are the stakeholders, because the suppliers are earning profit from Tesco by supplying their products and services and the quality of raw material or furnished products also have an impact on the business of Tesco. Tesco pay them money and they are earning profit from Tesco and paying wages and their expenses by earning from Tesco (Jan, 2011). Gas and electricity providers, telephone and internet providers are also the main suppliers of Tesco and raw material and furnished products are also supplied by the different organizations and Tesco has very good relationship with them. Their main interests with Tesco are including more business, more revenue, better and long term relationship, more revenue, more profit (Cooper, 2010).

1.1.4    Employee

Employees are the human resources for an organization, Tesco believes in that human resource is an asset for it and Tesco is investing large investment in equipping them with good skills and training to them (Thompson, 2010). Tesco work placement environment is friendly and health and safety issues are also always consider while developing business strategies (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). Tesco is offering good wages as according to the labour law of UK government. Tesco is also compensating its employees with paid holidays, holidays, flexible working hours, incentives, extra working hours, medical insurance, pension and special discounts. Tesco has compliance with rules and regulations and there is no discrimination based on religion, race, sex, color and disabilities all employees have equal opportunity rights (Thompson, 2010). Employees are always interested in flexible working hours, handsome salaries, extra working hours, pension, life insurance, medical allowance, job security, equal opportunity rights, career development and incentives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

1.1.5    Government

United Kingdom is the main stakeholder of Tesco. Tesco is the source of revenue for the government in the country where it is operating its business and government is also offering and providing facilities to the Tesco to conduct its business successfully. For example government has established rules and regulations for the business organizations to conduct the business inside the country and also grant the permissions to do business in global market and facilitate them and ensure them as well (Locke, 2009). Government establish policies related with labour wages, working hours, check and balance on the quality of products, facilitate them and enforce suppliers to honor their promises while making an agreement with Tesco. Tesco always compliance with UK government rules and regulation and also honor its promises made by it with the other stakeholders. UK government has the interest to generate more and more revenue from Tesco and Tesco must compliance by all the rules and regulations (Kotler, 2010).   

1.1.6    Media

Media now a day is the main stakeholder of an organization (Thompson, 2010). Media is also generating revenue from the business organizations like Tesco. Tesco launch its marketing and promotion campaign and advertise its products through different media channels including electronic media channel, print media channel and electronic media channel. Media want more advertisement and orders to publish Tesco products in newspapers and broadcast its advertisement on TV and electronic media has interest in domain registration and in offering its services as well to communicate with its stakeholders and generate revenue for its employees in order to meet its expenses to achieve organizational objectives (Putnam, 2010).

1.1.7    Investors

Investors are the main stakeholder of an organization like Tesco because investors are the creditors and they need to earn money by investing their money. They wish to receive more money on their investments (Thompson, 2010). They are always interested in the well reputation and well business operations of the business organizations, more products will be produced by the organization and more sales will be generated and in this way Tesco will make more profit and investors will also receive more dividends on their investments. So investors always interested in true financial information of business organization (Robinson et al., 2000).

1.1.8    Environment

Environment is the major stakeholder of Tesco organization because of business operation it had bad impact on the environment, due to carbon emission, noise, gas emission, heat is produced that have negative impact on the atmosphere and wild life and humans. People also through the wastage and it cause the soil pollution and water pollution. So environment has direct impact because of Tesco business operations. Similarly deforestation is another negative impact on the environment and other communities (Thompson, 2010). Tesco has started to produce product with low carbon emission in the air and also paying its focus on the small packaging as well in order to save the environment from pollution. According to Acemoglu & Jackson, (2013) that environment always needs to be saved by the business organizations and there should be low carbon emission and minimum heat should be produced and business organizations should adopt new technologies to recycle their wastage to avoid air and water pollution. As the mission of the Tesco is to create loyalty and satisfaction among the stakeholders by identifying their expectations and by fulfilling their needs to make and sustain business growth (Tesco, 2014).

As Tesco has adopted the fair trade policy has been designed and implemented and it is generating much revenue from all over the world by focusing the 3rd world countries as well and by creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among its customers and consumers and stakeholders are also happy with the fair trade policy. Tesco is generating more revenue and making good profit and shareholders are also receiving handsome returns on their investments (Byars, 2010). Similarly, Tesco has very good relations and effective communication with its suppliers and put order well before time for the supplies and also as the effective means of transportation to reach the deliveries in its stores. Tesco has very good image and its brand is famous because Tesco is offering excellent quality of products to its customers and in this way its image is good in the mind of customers and consumers and because of all this creditors, lenders and bankers have believe in Tesco policies and they are also happy, Tesco always provide them all necessary true financial information and engage them while making and decision. Tesco share prices are very high in the London stoke exchange and this is also a good chance for the investors to make good money as according to Benfield, (2012) that stakeholders expect more returns on their investments.

1.2   Conflicts and how conflict may help or hinder the attainment of organizational goals

First of all there is conflict between the Tesco and its workers, fuel drivers want job security and increases in their salaries, because of their job plan they will be transferred to another organization from the Wincanton. Because of this conflict there will be a negative impact on the organizational goals and objectives, they will plan and go for strike and the Tesco supplies will be delay and in this way Tesco may face financial problem and customers could not receive products at right time and sales volume will go down. Tesco has another conflict with its shareholders and this is a major conflict, basically Tesco want to bring some changes in the terms and conditions for the fired board members and want to save their jobs at high salaries whereas the share holders are against this change (Capron & Glazer, 2010). In this way there is negative impact on the Tesco operations because investors are sure that in this way they may have no choice to elect as board member and they may want to get back their investments from Tesco, but as because of media pressure that Tesco is growing fast, so investors are not taking back their money. There is a conflict between Tesco and its customers the actual conflict is the Tescopoly that has gone completely against the Tesco. Tesco has been prevailed in all over the market. There are more than 3700 Tesco stores in all over the world and the small retailers are disturbed by its Tescopoly because they could not earn much money because of Tesco price leadership (Tesco, 2014). The customers want that the money should be circulate among the small retailers as well and they can be benefited from this. It has negative impact on the brand image of Tesco and secondly in this way the customers will be unhappy and they will stop to buy more from Tesco and sales revenue will be dropped and Tesco could not achieve its financial targets. Small retailers are trying their best to provide negative image of Tesco to the consumers but Tesco has believe in customer’s loyalty.

There is also another conflict between Tesco and its supplier (a bakery in Manchester), Tesco want to maximize its supplies from the other bakeries and this bakery is going to closed and more than 200 employees will lose their jobs. In this way workers are not happy with the Tesco decision and they are going to be jobless because of Tesco decision and they are unhappy. There is another conflict between the Tesco and local community as around 130 local citizen casted vote against Tesco developments in local community council. Now the Tesco need to have another store in the same area and there will be a huge investment required to open a new store that will take time and money (Capron & Glazer, 2010). Being a social responsible it may have a bad impact on the Tesco policy and people when talked to their friends and family friends about their job story they might tell others and in this way Tesco reputation may be lose and people may switch from Tesco to another superstore (Benfield, 2012) and Tesco may lose its sales revenue (Cooper, 2010).

Part 2

2.     How the leadership style adopted by a manager may either facilitate or hinder change in organisations

2.1         Introduction

According to (Byars, 2010) that there are a variety of leadership styles now a day and no one is perfect to meet employees demand to achieve Tesco aims and objectives by facilitating or hindering the changes in Tesco. In order to fulfill the employee’s desires and Tesco organization the management always find the new ways to achieve organizational objectives. Only the effective leaders or managers are able to change their way of controlling the change circumstances at Tesco through their effective adopted leadership style (Jan, 2011).

2.1.1    Analysis of Classic Leadership Styles

In this way manager at Tesco need to give small directions to its subordinators and allocate them necessary resources to carry out daily tasks (Jan, 2011), this leadership style is only good when the subordinators are highly qualified and highly trained and they have high productivity attitude (Johnson & Scholes, 2010). Whereas the autocratic style of leadership is that where the leaders or managers can exert control over the work and they instruct the workers to carry out their assignments (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). In the participative leadership style stall members are always invited by the managers to share their experience, problems and knowledge to solve a specific problem to achieve organizational objectives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

2.1.2    Analysis of Transformational Leadership Styles

According to Capron & Glazer, (2010) that the theories transformational leaders/ managers always have vision in their mind and they always inspired other through their own work and also inspire their team workers as well. Transformational leaders can do their best work in innovative business organizations (Cooper, 2010) because they possess the qualities and vision and have also the charisma in their personality (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007).

2.1.3    Analysis of Participative Leadership Styles

According to Kotler, (2010) that some managers or leaders always focus on the participation and this is called participative styles the first one is democratic style in this way the manager or leader always use employee’s knowledge, experience and skills and helped them in achieving organizational objective in right direction (Locke, 2009). This leadership style is appropriate when the organization can be possible to go in wrong direction (Putnam, 2010). The second leadership style in participative styles is affiliative style in this way the leader focus on team work rather than group work. In this way the manager increase the moral values of the teamwork and made effective communication strategies  (Robinson et al., 2000) so that team workers can communicate with each other and help each other in solving any problem that they might faced at the work placement and in this way they can collectively achieve the organizational objectives (Kotler, 2010). 

2.2   Reasons for change

With the change in technology and development in societies there is change in demand of new products (Thompson, 2010) and these changes enforce the business organizations to make changes in their procedures, products, operations and activities and competitions always exists. There are following factors of change in Tesco (Locke, 2009).

2.2.1    Competition

Due to new entrants in the market force the Tesco to bring change in its business policies and marketing plans or the competitors some time change their policies (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013) and adopted new ways to do marketing and manufacturing the products to increase their market share (Benfield, 2012) that enforce the organization to adopt the change as according to same strategy that bring changes in the business policies and marketing strategies (Putnam, 2010).

2.2.2    Technology

Tesco sometime enforced by the new innovation in technology to adopt changes in work placement and also leads towards new trainings to the employees (Byars, 2010) as well and to install the new technology in the business operations. For example the new shopping trends adopted by customers were online shopping (Capron & Glazer, 2010) and Tesco has adopted that change and started its website shopping and provided that facility to its customers and trained the employees to book orders and deliver the items at door (Cooper, 2010). Similarly, Tesco has started heat sensors to reduce the long queues (Jan, 2011) and now the customers buy and scan their product at automatic tills and pay by cards and cash. Now there are no long queues on the manual tills (Robinson et al., 2000).

2.2.3    Growth desire

According to (Johnson & Scholes, 2010) Tesco is achieving competitive advantages and want to sustain the competitive advantages and for achieving competitive positions and sustaining its position in market Tesco adopt changes to increase quality of products and to low the cost. So to make growth Tesco need to make changes in its procedures and ways of doing business (Thompson, 2010).

2.2.4    Improve the process

In order to eliminate the waste and to reduce the wastage of resources organizations always improve their procedures that bring value and better in quality of products and reduce the cost as well  (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). For example Tesco has been started to manufacture products those emit low carbon emission because of value chain process that has been improved (Kotler, 2010). So changes in the procedures always have impact on the efficiency of the organizational effectiveness and also force the organization to make changes in the operations (Tesco, 2014).

2.2.5    Government regulations

Sometimes governments announced the changes in regulations and organizations needs to bring changes in their business operations (Locke, 2009), for example government passed a bill to bring new changes in the work placement regarding health and safety of workers than the organizations need to compliance with those regulations and they need to bring some changes (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013).

2.3   Change Management Theories and Models and their advantages and disadvantages

According to Putnam, (2010) that there are main three theories or model of change management

2.3.1    Lewin’s change management Model

The first change management model was given by the Kurt Lewin in 1950s and he recognized three main stages of change in an organization (Benfield, 2012).

2.3.1.1 Unfreeze

In this stage people resist to change to overcome this problem organization must motivate employees towards change, this is called unfreeze stage (Byars, 2010).

2.3.1.2 Transition

Ager unfreeze stage organizations must go in transition stage, here the leaders or management must make it sure that processes for change are in right direction (Capron & Glazer, 2010). 

2.3.1.3 Refreeze

After the transition stage the organizations need to follow the guidelines to get benefit from the change (Cooper, 2010).

2.3.1.4 Advantages and disadvantages of Lewin’s Change Management Theory

Advantages

It is easy and simple to understand and implement (Jan, 2011).

Easy to plan the need of change

Limitations

It is very complex to put change in freezing situation

There is no concept of politics and power in this model

There are no transformational and radical changes

2.3.2    McKinsey 2-S Model

Mr. Richard Pascal, Mr. Robert Waterman and Tom Peter have given the McKinsey 7S model for change. They stated that there are major seven factors called as change agents including shared values, strategy, structure, system, style, staff and skills (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

2.3.2.1 Advantages of McKinsey Model

According to Jan, (2011) that there are following benefits of this model of change

It is effective way to analyze and understand the organization

This model offer proper method of change in organization

Both emotional and rational methods are combined in this model of change

2.3.2.2 Drawbacks of this model

 Dissimilarities have been totally ignored in this method

This is not easy to understand and adopted by organization (due to its complexities)

Failure chances are high (if an organization adopts this model for change)

2.3.3    Kotter’s 8 step change management model

John Kotter professor at Harvard University given this change management model and according to him that leaders should convince the employees towards change and then employees should be hired by the organizations in the change, basically there are 8 steps in this model (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007).

Source: Author

2.3.3.1 Advantages and disadvantages of this Model

According to Johnson & Scholes, (2010) that there are following advantages and disadvantages of this model

Easy and understandable

It pays complete focus on accepting change rather than to actual change in organization

It is easy to convert the changes in this way

2.3.3.2 Disadvantages of this Model

Organizations could not amend or skip any step

It takes maximum time (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

2.4   Impact of politics, conflicts and power on organizational effectiveness

Politics, conflicts and power always play their role in the business efficiency (Robinson et al., 2000), to execute business operations, management make decisions so that employees can communicate with each others at work placement and carried out their routine work effectively (Kotler, 2010). It is up to employees that both they use the power in positive or negative form to influence their colleagues and subordinators politics has the direct impact on the organizational culture and also increase the productivity attitude of employees (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). To achieve organizational objectives employees often face challenges and conflicts produced between employees while achieving challenges to achieve organization’s mission. Employees become frustrated because of conflicts and their productive attitude becomes reduced and it had negative impact on the productivity of an organization (Benfield, 2012). Employees feel stress and they do not perform well as according to their abilities and they feel headache, loose appetite and feel problem with sleep and could not perform well and conflicts also generate violence and people leave the organizations and organizations have to face legal problems as well (Locke, 2009). There are some positive aspects on conflicts in organizations for example it provide a chance to the employees to brainstorm their ideas (Byars, 2010) that bring new ideas and innovations in solving problems, because of conflicts employee pay more attention towards work and achieve organizational objectives, while there are conflicts in the organization (Capron & Glazer, 2010), management find out the real roots and improve its procedures for future and make sure that there will be no conflicts among the employees. According to Cooper, (2010) that If the people in organization use the power positively they increase productivity among employees and built confidence among employees and people achieve their targets effectively that increase organizational performance (Locke, 2009), and if the people use power negatively they discourage the employees and conflicts may arise at work placement (Putnam, 2010). Due to negative use of power organizational employees turnover always become high (Jan, 2011), according to Johnson & Scholes, (2010) that employees those navigate the organizational politics always play their role with productive attitude and achieve their targets. According to Kotler & Schlesinger, (2007) that if employees positively understand the policies of organization can easily find out their answers and they can enable to perform with more productive attitude. And if the people fall in negative politics in an organization they suffer from conflicts (Kotler, 2010) and their productive attitude always decreases and they could not perform well and could not achieve their targets and lose quality of work (Robinson et al., 2000).

2.5   Impact of motivated workforce towards organizational performance

According to Robinson et al., (2000) that motivated workforce always contributed towards the productivity of an organization because motivated workforce means workforce of an organization with more commitment (Thompson, 2010), with more energies, abilities to face challenges and abilities to create new ways to solve problems (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). These all attributes of employees enforce them in achieving organizational objectives positively and tackling unforeseen challenges and obstacles and they easily achieve their targets assigned by higher management (Benfield, 2012). According to Byars, (2010) that workforce with motivation always feel their responsibilities and they perform well as according to their skills and abilities and handle the situation and find out the best solution of the problems (Thompson, 2010).

Teaching, Inclusive Teaching Critical Essay

1.    Teaching Introduction

There are following types of teaching definition, which includes the identifying, finding out the leaner’s abilities, identifying their needs and actual wants and needs and fulfilling their requirements and equipping them with suitable resources to learn them the education as per their requirement and as per their problem solution. Some students may be disabling and they may require special equipment, medical facilities and additional language to learn (Ashman and Conway, 2007).

2.    Inclusive Teaching

Teaching approach must be rational and logical and the teaching methods must be proactive rather than reactive and defensive (Bandura, 2005).

The teaching methods must have the policy and strategies that make sure that the teaching method will deliver the knowledge and education without any discrimination and the method and way will be based on purely on the equivalent basis, all students and learners will be treated on same basis without any race, colour and religion basis (Bandura, 2007).

The instructor/ teacher must teach the students and learners the subjects and provide them the necessary skills and trainings with specific objectives and the institute must be involved in the process of learning and in the process of delivering the knowledge under the specific circumstances (Gibson and Dembo, 2004).

Before the instructor/ teacher start to teach them it is recommended that the student’s and learners requirements must be identified

With the passage of time the methods and the requirements with the change in technology and resources and other circumstances the requirements of the learners will be changed and the instructor/ teacher must change their way of teaching and learning style and methods should be changed.

In the teaching inclusive method is the best way to teach the disable learners and especially when the instructor/ teacher want to describe the figure or diagram to the blind students then at that time the method must be reviewed, the instructor/ teacher will reassess the available material, teaching methods, policies and strategies to deliver the material and knowledge to the students (Brophy, 2008).

It is also instructor/ teacher’s responsibility to provide the suitable environment to the learners according to the resources and according to their needs and requirements where the learning outcomes must be in positive way and at maximum level the positive outcomes must be sure.

The instructor/ teacher or the education or training providers must design and follow the specific strategies and policies for all the learners to tackle the challenges, problems and hindrances in the way of implementation of learning methods.

3.    Advantages of inclusive teaching

As we are living in the assorted culture so the best and effective way of the teaching is the inclusive (Cheung, 2008).

This way is the best way of teaching and learning because the education can be promoted and quality of education and training can be provide through this way.

 With the time passage the disable students have now complete awareness about their rights and they have the chance to get education through inclusive teaching method and such effective environment can be provided only in the inclusive teaching.

4.    Explain how to provide opportunities for learners to practice their literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills

 In order to provide the opportunities to the learners and to provide them the practice the skills and involve them in the learning activities towards literacy, language and numeracy and ICT (information communication technology) skills and these functional skills which includes essential knowledge, skills and learning the communication skills with confidence and effectively so that the learners can be able to spend their lives independently at their daily work and in their personal lives, the government has been spending lot of money and providing all the necessary facilities and equipping the education providers all the resources and other facilities so that the knowledge and essential skills must be provided to the learners effectively (Dellinger et al., 2008). Basically functional skills are those enable the individuals and equip the individuals to stand them in such a position to achieve better future opportunities in their lives and they can perform their job, duties and perform their responsibilities in effective way.  

Basically in the functional skills we include English (writing, speaking and listening), mathematics and information communication technology and these functional skills can be achieved and these kinds of trainings and developments can be achieved at their work place. Actually the instructor/ teacher and the students or learners need specific equipments, technology and confidence, competencies and hands on and skills to teach these skills to the learners effectively to the individuals and enable them to compete in the life either at their home or in their jobs (Fives and Buehl, 2009). In order to move further in their lives the learners need the trainings or professional trainings for further developments in their career path to make more progress. In order to deliver the functional skills to the individuals the instructor/ teacher must use the latest technology like power point slides (for presentation) to make most effective interaction with the learners the instructor/ teacher can arrange areas like online classes or conferences and the material could be uploaded for those individuals (Evertson, 2005).

5.    Opportunities to practice literacy

In order to provide the students the opportunities to practice their literacy the instructor/ teacher must provide them chance to the practice their literacy like writing essays, stories, emails, different articles, reports on different topics which includes daily problems, social problems and involve them in the class activities to polish their abilities and improve their skills and competencies and similarly the instructor/ teacher must take out learners and students to the out of class and provide them the necessary opportunities to encourage their confidence to perform their daily social lives and to fulfil other responsibilities (Gibson and Dembo, 2004). In order to create, develop and increasing the numeracy skills, competencies and abilities within the education and on the training the instructor/ teacher must started with the basic mathematical starter activities and must be finished at the Sudoku and involve the learners in the different basic mathematical activities like multiple equation solution to solve different equations which involves addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (Fives and Buehl, 2009).

6.    Explain ways to engage and motivate learners in an inclusive learning environment

The instructor/ teacher can motivate the students and learners in achieving learning environment (Ashman and Conway, 2007).

In order to engage and motivate the students and learner towards achieving learning objectives through inclusive environment, there are the following ways to engage and motivate learners which includes.

First of all clear the objectives of the learning to the learners.

First develop the initial momentum among the learners.

The instructor/ teacher can motivate the students to describe them the outcomes of the learning purpose

The learning outcomes must be concerned with the learner’s interest, and learner’s interest must be involved in the learning process and in learning outcomes.

The feedback must be given to the learners well in time so that the students can contribute more while learning the outcomes (Dellinger et al., 2008).

All learners must take part in questions and answer session and the learners must be appreciated on their answers and the instructor/ teacher do not allow to make a critic on the learners

The instructor/ teacher or trainers never point out any student for any shamed or lack of concentration and must identify their level of communication then choose the proper words to communicate with them (Evertson, 2005).

7.    Summarise ways to establish ground rules with learners to promote respect for others

The role of learning environment has its positive and negative impact on the learners, while positive impact always put positive changes among the learners and in this way the learners can obtain maximum learners outcomes and the learners can achieve the maximum education (Bandura, 2005). The ground rules are set of code of conduct that allows the learners to develop and maintain the environment in the class room and the instructor/ teacher or trainer can produce well standard of the work and reduce the distraction and in this way the learners can gain more attention of the students. And there are following ways to set the ground rules which includes

Trainers or instructor/ teacher set their own rules

The students or the learners set their own rules

Both of them learners and the instructor/ teacher set their own rules to maintain the environment good by mutual understanding (Bandura, 2007).

Instructors and the learners can work together and can design the code of conduct and the designed code of conduct by mutual sharing and understanding will be acceptable by all of them and in this way the ground rules are most effective and the environment created by this way is most effective for learners and the instructors as well (Brophy, 2008).

The learners can write down their own ground rules and in this way the ground rules can be established (Cheung, 2008).

Postnatal Depression

Introduction

In the United Kingdom, 1 in 10 women experience postnatal depression following childbirth (Lewis, 2004). Postnatal depression has profound effects on quality of life, social functioning and economic productivity (Chisholm et al, 2003). The health consequences could also lead to adverse long-term emotional and physical development of the infant (Miles, 1993; Jones, 1994; Boath et al, 1998). Postnatal depression is also predictive of child cognitive and behavioural disturbances at the age of 3 years (Campbell et al, 1995; Murray et al, 1996). Moreover, failure to identify these women often leads to safeguarding concerns for both mothers and infants (Warrington et al, 2001). Health visitors play a vital role in identifying and supporting women who experience postnatal depression. Their role includes supporting families from birth to five, thus giving opportunity to provide a prolonged period of contact and support to women  affected by the disorder. However, evidence suggests that most vulnerable women including Black Minority Ethnic groups do not always receive this vital care.

What is the current state of play with this issue?

Postnatal depression can affect men too. The birth of a new baby can be stressful for both parents and some fathers feel unable to cope, or feel they are not giving their partner the support she needs. It usually develops in the first four to six weeks after childbirth, although in some cases it may not develop for several months. There are many symptoms of postnatal depression, such as low mood, feeling unable to cope and difficulty sleeping, but many women are not aware they have the condition. It’s common to experience mood changes, irritability and episodes of tearfulness after birth the so called baby blues. These normally clear up within a few weeks. But if a woman experiences persistent symptoms, it could well be the result of postnatal depression. It is important for partners, family and friends to recognise signs of postnatal depression as early as possible and seek professional advice. Postnatal depression can be lonely, distressing and frightening, but there are many treatments available. As long as postnatal depression is recognised and treated, it is a temporary condition you can recover from. It is very important to seek treatment if you think you or your partner have postnatal depression. The condition is unlikely to get better by itself quickly and it could impact on the care of the baby.

Treatment for postnatal depression includes:

Self help advice

Talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy

Antidepressant medication

The cause of postnatal depression

The main causes are not clear, but it’s thought to be the result of several things rather than a single cause.

These may include:

The physical and emotional stress of looking after a newborn baby hormonal changes that occur shortly after pregnancy; it is thought some women may be more sensitive to hormones than others individual social circumstances such as money worries, poor social support or relationship problems.

Women might be more at risk of developing post natal depression if they:

Have a previous history of depression or other mood disorders such as bipolar disorder

Have a previous history of postnatal depression

Experience depression or anxiety during pregnancy

Postnatal depression is more common than many people realise and cases can often go undiagnosed. It is estimated around one in seven women experience some level of depression in the first three months after giving birth. Rates of postnatal depression are highest in teenage mothers and is thought to affect all ethnic groups equally.

Aims and objectives

Depression affects 5-22% of women after childbirth. Some women with postnatal depression will experience a prolonged or relapsing illness that may last until their children enter school. It has adverse effects upon the coping abilities of women, their relationships with their infants, partners and social networks and may adversely affect the educational attainment and behaviour of their children. Since many more women are now active in the workforce, the effects of postnatal depression have obvious economic consequences both for their families and their employers.

The researcher will find out themian causes of postnatal depression among the moothers

The researcher want to know the impact of postnatal depression on the motehrs

The researcher want to know about the treatment of postnatal depression

The researcher is intersted in finding out the main causes of postnatal depression

The researcher will find out the darkside and its bad effects on mother’s health

The researcher will develop the positive suggestions and recommendations for the mothers to

reduce the chances of postnatal depression.

The researcher will find out the risk of postnatal depression associated with human lives

The researcher will find out its percentage and the age in which the people become its victom

Review of literature

The postnatal period is the period following the birth of a baby (Omar & Fattah, 1998) extending up to one year after delivery. For the majority of women this marks a relatively healthy period in their lives. However, it is estimated that a significant number of families areaffected by postnatal depression with 15% of women diagnosed with this disorder (Leverton & Elliott, 2000; Lewis, 2004). Despite the widespread nature of the problem the current process of diagnosis and treatment is not standardised, is often chaotic and may result in inappropriate care and treatment (Clifford et al, 1999). Postnatal depression is defined as an affective mood disorder often occurring in women up to one year after child birth (Gibson et al, 2009). This disorder is often characterised by feelings of loss and sadness and sometimes the loss of self-esteem (Olshansky, 2003). The depressive scale of this disorder and its presentation ranges from mild depression requiring minimal intervention to puerperal psychosis which often requires multi-therapy intervention, hospitalisation and long term support (Williamson & McCutcheon, 2004). Depression accounts for the greatest burden of

disease among all mental health problems, and it is expected to become the secondhighest among all general health problems by 2020 (Murray & Lopez, 1996). Minority ethnic groups represent 29% of the population in Greenwich with an estimated increase to over 33% by 2011 (Whiteman & Guite, 2008).

Evidance

A qualitative study by Amankwaa in 2003 looked at 12 women who have experienced postnatal depression in the past and noted that these African women believed that only white women get postnatal depression. This was considered a sign of weakness that did not represent a legitimate illness (Cox, 1999). In 2004, in a rural area of Ethiopia, Hanlon et al, (2009) conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus groups with purposely-selected participants. The participants included pre-natal women, fathers, grandmother, traditional and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. The aim of the study was to determine societal recognition of problematic distress states in the postnatal period. The problematic distress state was defined to include both spiritual and mental disturbance. Hanlon et al, (2009) study identified salient themes that respondents spontaneously describe as culturally problematic distress occurring in the postnatalperiod, but they did not consider it to be an illness. This bears similarities to the current study where women exhibited symptoms of postnatal depression but did not regard it as an illness. The implication for practice suggests that lack of identification could be a contributory factor in naming the presenting phenomenon of postnatal depression. The overall findings suggest that black Caribbean women often have difficulties conceptualising postnatal depression, due to their tendency to minimise stress and their health seeking behaviour. However, current standardised tools such as the EPDS do not reflect the understanding and perception of women from BME groupsas demonstrated by Clifford et al, (1999). Edge, (2004) focus on ethnic groups offers greater understanding into the efficacy of the use of the EPDS. Although the findings from these studies were from Caribbean women, the overall evidence suggests that using the EPDS alone may not be the most effective method for assessing women from different cultural background. Oates et al, (2004) looked at postnat tal depression across countries and cultures and compared the emerging themes across different centres. This study found morbid unhappiness after child birth comparable to postnatal depression but not all saw this as an illness remediable by medication. This cultural approach also helps to understand why boys, who are most valued in Asian and African societies, in western society are most at risk of insecure attachment, cognitive difficulties and behavioural problems if their mothers had postnatal depression (Sharp et al, 1995). The consequences of this delayed effect of postnatal depression for the subsequent generations could be substantial (Chisholm et al, 2003). However, it is difficult to generalise the validity of the outcome due to lack of clarity in data collection. Moreover, the homogeneity in data collection could not be compared because participants remained in their cultural environment. The findings therefore cannot be directly compared to the present study which looked at African women living in Greenwich, UK, whose thinking and perception might be different in the way they respond to postnatal depression (Cox, 1999). Two anthropological studies, by Clifford et al, (1999), and Oates et al, (2004), in postnatal disorder, confirm the value of cultural education and training to assist with the understanding of the pathways to care and prevention of postnatal depression.

Research methodology

The researcher will use a focus group method to collect data from participants. Focus group

is an in depth, open ended group discussion that enables exploration of specific issues on predefined and limited topics (Krueger, 1988). The purpose of the focus group was to elicit and validate collective testimonies and group resistance narratives. These testimonies and narratives have been used by women and could be used by any subjugated group ‘to unveil specific and little-researched aspects of women’s daily existences, their feelings, attitudes, hopes, and dreams (Madriz, 2000). Focus groups can facilitate the identification of cultural values and they are said to be valuable when researching ethnic minority groups (Wilkins et al 2002). Forthis current study, participants felt very comfortable within the groups knowing they were not alone in the way they felt during and after pregnancy. They were also able to share their experiences with their mother-in-law knowing others have the same experiences.

Despite the positive attributes of using focus groups, I was also aware of the potential influence of dominant group members. This means supporting unassertive participants to articulate their views. I was also aware that not everyone would be open about discussing deeply personal and sensitive issues in a group setting. One of the difficulties centres on recording data during the discussion whilst manipulating recording equipment and being attentive to detailed information. These difficulties were managed with a co-facilitator who assisted with field note-taking, verbatim transcribing as well as voice tape recordings.

Ethical Approval

Ethics approval was obtained from South London Research and Ethics Committee before approaching the women. An application was made through the Integrated Research Application System and a review of the process was made before the panel of the Ethics Committee. The Trust also gave Research and Development approval before commencing the study.

Population and Sample size

Twenty six women of African background aged between 16-45 years old, were purposively selected from the health visitors’ list all of whom were African women who had migrated and are settled in the UK. This age group wasselected as it represents the reproductive and fertile record of a woman’s life. Women under the age of 16 were excluded due to the complex and sensitive nature of the topic. Participants were asked about their marital status and the kind of support network they have at home, as studies have shown that women’s marital status and the kind of support network they have are significant risk factors that may predispose a woman to postnatal depression (Patel et al, 2002). Similarly, their educational background or employment status may also affect their perception and the way they describe postnatal depression. Letters were sent to all the stakeholders such as the health visiting teams, the homeless liaison team, the safeguarding team and the clinical psychologist team, after receiving ethics and R&D approval.

Recruitment

Recruitment of participants was made easy by colleagues who supported the course of the study. Out of the 26 women invited, 22 confirmed attendances but only 17 participated in the study. Eight attended for Group 1 and 9 attended Group 2. The groups were seen on two separate days. An information leaflet outlining the study (see Appendix 3), was sent to all

participants followed by a ‘phone call a week later. Transport was organised to take the participants to and from the focus group meeting. They were all given a gift voucher to thank them for participating in the focus group. Each focus group lasted for two hours with 15 minutes break. Focus groups were held in the Children Centre which is a familiar environment for participants. The benefit of having a co-facilitator meant the researcher was able to facilitate the discussion, while the co-facilitator was free to take notes and assist with the subsequent transcription of the data collected (Krueger, 1988).

Criteria

It was difficult to develop a strict inclusion criterion due to limitation in numbers, but the following were essential to gather useful information for the study:

• Women in the postnatal period who have delivered a baby up to a year ago.

• Must be from African descent and between the ages of 16 and 45 years.

• Must be able to speak and understand the English language.

• Must have a live baby.

Data Gathering

Women were given the consent form to sign to agree to participate in the group. A focus group schedule which focused on how women felt when they became pregnant, was used. The focus of this schedule was asking them to describe their emotional feelings and the concerns they may have had during pregnancy and after having the baby. All participants were given codes, all conversations were tape recorded and stored in a locked cabinet on NHS premises, accessible only to the facilitator. The two transcripts were read several times to understand the data. Initial coding of the transcripts was then performed. Codes will made to capture the descriptive language used by the participants. Once the data will sorted, the facilitator grouped the data into themes, and examined all the cases in the study to make sure that the description of each theme was captured (Pope et al, 2006).  Triangulation will be used to improve the reliability and validity of the data. The key findings will be presented back to the participants through follow-up phone calls. There will general agreement about the information collected. The tape recorded data will also play back to check for clarity and confirmation of their descriptions and compared with the field notes.

Role of a Teacher

Introduction

A teacher is responsible for the organizing culture and values and learning the students about the respect, moral values and social norms and ethics as well, so the teacher is most respected profession in the all over the word (Dahlsrud, 2009). A teacher is a person that pass the knowledge and cultural values and norms to the students and equip them for further higher studies and polish them mentally and physically them in a position to play their role as successive person for making the society more civilized and to maintain the law and order situation and playing their role for the betterment of society (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). This is most responsible profession where the teacher contribute their role in providing education to the students, because in the future the students play their role for the development of the country while playing their vital role in the economical, medical, defense and all other sectors and their roles, skills and other responsibilities depends on their schooling life and it depends on the skills and role of teacher. So the role and responsibilities of teachers is most important (Gay, 2007).

Training Cycle

The training cycle consist of following steps and the roles and responsibilities and boundaries of a teacher are given under as well and have been discussed in details as well (Hastie et al., 2011).

Needs identification:

In the first step the teacher find out the needs of the learners and on the behalf of the learners the teachers prepare the plan to teach them the syllabus.

Planning and Designing

In this step the teacher is responsible to plan and design the requirement and design the environment and enlist the resources and way to deliver the message to the learners.

Facilitate

In this step the teachers are responsible to learn the learners through their skills and behaviour and the teachers involve themselves in the multicultural environment and the teacher also provide the learners all the facilities to develop a culture in which all the learners can understand and learn (Marsden, 2010).

Assessment

In this step the teachers make it sure that the learners have been learned the necessary skills, knowledge and they are able to absorb the knowledge.

Evaluation

In this step the teacher get the feedback from the learners about the effectiveness of method, syllabus, resources and facilitations in order to provide them training or conveying the knowledge and on the behalf of the feedback the teacher make necessary amendments and changes in the whole process to achieve the main objectives of the training cycle. The main responsibilities, role and boundaries of a teacher are given in the following sub sections (Piacentini et al., 2011).

Organizer

While managing students in the class and managing their all other activities and facilitating them towards learning the ethical and moral and cultural norms and values while promoting the importance of academic environment to all the students the teacher play a role as an organizer (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). All the students belonged to different cultural, ethnics and regions and they have different languages, cultures, norms and values, and teachers organized them in a one group and teach them through a learning process while using his or her competencies while understanding the different cultures, norms and values (Pinney, 2009).

Mediators

Teacher must play its role while in the multicultural environment to permit the students to make analysis on the negatives and positives of other cultures to find out the main stream of other cultural ideas (Gay, 2007). The teacher is responsible to create an environment and guide the students in such a way that in the multicultural environment to get positive norm and values to develop a positive culture in and out the classroom. And only the teacher can facilitate the students to acquire the positive multicultural values and norms for developing a positive culture of learning, the teacher must play its role to develop such abilities and competencies among the students so that in the multicultural environment the students always abide by the racism and never involved in discrimination in their professional lives as well (Dahlsrud, 2009).

Common role and responsibilities

Some scholars have been stated that the teacher must be responsible for the learning of referencing system to the students and the importance of references and they must also learn and teach the learners about socio culture and the positive impact of culture on the learning process (Hastie et al., 2011). A teacher can play its role as a police officer, as a medical officer in an emergency, a psychologist and as father or mother in order to understand the learner’s special skills and abilities and competencies to make the society more civilized.

Knowledge transmitter

It is clear that the teacher must have the specific skills and knowledge in order to transmit the knowledge to the learners, so the teacher must have the communication skills and competencies to provide the learners reasonable resources and facilitate them to learn them the attitude and behaviour to become civilised citizens and it is teacher’s responsibility to protect the learners psychologically and come out them from mentally and emotional problems and care them and teach them the school rules and rules and regulations as well. Teacher must watch the learner’s activities them and stop them and allow them to involve in 1activities and understand them the negatives and positive impact of activities (Marsden, 2010).

Boundaries

The teacher must keep himself or herself far away from the learner’s personal lives and could not involve in their personal problems because they may have their political views, religious views and race views entirely different the teacher’s point of view, so in this term the learner abilities may be affected negatively (Piacentini et al., 2011). So the teacher must play its role as friend with learners and remembered that he or she is adult and must not try to be buddies with learners. The teacher must not remain with a leaner in the teaching room or class room and with opposite sex, if the privacy is required then the teacher must use office or cafe. The teacher must know about the teaching method, teaching manners and must follow the role model being a mentor and the teacher can encourage the learners, the teacher must report the learner for sexual harassment either through physically or verbally. Teacher could not abuse any student, physically, sexually or emotionally but improving the emotional and psychologically their courage to achieve their objectives through identification their goals and objectives and learn them knowledge and skills (Pinney, 2009).

Micro Economic Analysis. The Concept of demand, Supply and Price

1.        Choose a topic from Micro economics that matters to you and find a recent news article covering that topic

I have selected the following topic “With costly bananas, apples and grapes, orange becomes favourite fruit this season” was published in The Economic Times on 6th May 2014. The concept of demand and supply and price has been discussed very clearly.

2.        Evaluate the article using Economic concepts

According to the President of Orange association of India has been stated about the increasing demand of Oranges and production of Oranges in Nagpur city of India. He has been discussed the main reason of high demand of Oranges in south part of India that is high prices of grapes and apples. In Kerala due to heavy rain in June and July month the banana’s crop has been affected and due to shortage of banana and due to high demand the prices increased. There is a significant raise in the price which is noted as 20 Rupees per kg. He has been discussed that main sources of Oranges like Nagpur and Amravati and the production of Oranges in both cities fulfil the demand of oranges in Chennai, Kerala and Bangalore. According to the AB vegetable and Fruits owner Mr. Liaqat Ali in Chennai that although due to high supply of Oranges the price should be down, but due to high price in transportation, there will be no lower prices in the orange and it will be available in the market on previous year price that was Rs 35 per kg. He has been stated that the price will be changed (rise) because in the month of January and February there will be more demand of orange and according to supply and demand rule the prices will go up, so it is early to predict the demand and supply. Due to high quality of Kerala oranges in January and February the demand will be increased and it will increase the price up to Rs. 40 per kg and also will increase the supply. Apple quality is not good that’s why traders import the apple due to high demand of quality apple from other countries and the prices will increase. Nazar Muhammad a wholesaler has been stated that as some days ago the orange was available at the price of Rs. 14 to 15 per kg, and due to increase in demand it is now available at Rs. 18 to 22 per kg, the harvesting of orange is in process, in January as the new crop will reach in the market the demand will remain same but the supply will be increased and the prices will go down again. As there is a clear cut picture of demand and supply, and price. With the new crop the supply of orange increase, due to shortage of bananas the prices went up because due to high demand and low supply and shortage of bananas. All the concepts of demand, supply and their affect on price have been covered. Mr. Nazar Muhammad fruit wholesaler of Kalamna market in Maharashtra stated that the wholesale price orange some days ago was round about Rs 14 to 15 per kg, but now there is an increase in the price which is Rs. 18 to 22 per kg in wholesale market. And the prices will again come down due to high supply and low demand in January when new crop will reach in market as harvesting is in process.

Explain how you can present the issue in terms of economic concepts and theories you have learnt in class

According to the article published in “The Economic Times” that the president of Orange Association of India Mr. Amol M. Totey has been stated that the orange production recorded in this year is the double in Nagpur city. And the demand of Oranges in the southern of the country has been increased significantly this year.

Rise in Price Rs. 20/ kg due to high demand of banana.

Due to high supply of Oranges/ commodities the price should be low (High demand high price, high supply lower price). The price of oranges was down due to high supply but due to high transportation charges, Oranges will be available in the market at previous year rate.

There is a direct relationship between demand and supply, more demand always raise the price if the supply is low.

As in January and February there will be an increase in the demand of orange and its prices will be increased that will be Rs. 40 per kg, it means that due to high demand the supply will be increase and there will be increase in the price of orange.

In Kochi per day market gets about 100 tonne. Increase in the demand of quality apple will increase the prices and will increase the supply.

When demand remains same and supply increased due to new crop then the prices come down due to high supply. High supply will lower down the prices due to short demand.

Explain what actions you would recommend to the key players and/or policy holders.

This sudden increase in the Orange demand from south part of India is due to the high pricing of apples and grapes in the southern part of India. People living in Vizag, Kerala, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad has demanded for more Oranges. Due to heavy rain in month of June and July and other climate changes has significant effect on Banana’s crop and damaged the yield of bananas that also cause in raising the banana price due to its shortage. The banana price that was available in the local market at price of Rs. 30 to 40 per kg in the past years are now selling at Rs. 50 to 60 per kg. In the southern markets the Oranges are now available and usually Orange availability in the southern market was started in the start of October till November and remained till summer season. Although the supply of the Oranges is so high this year but it will not lower the price due to high price of diesel and in this way the transportation charges will be high and the Orange will be available in the market as per last year price that was Rs. 35 per kg. In January and February the Orange demand will go up and in this way it will affect the price. There is daily supply is about 150 tonne in the main market of Chennai, and as the production of the Orange is clear evident in Kerala and consequently supply will be increased in coming weeks. Due to high quality of Orange there will be increase in its demand and the price of orange will be increased about Rs. 40 per kg. And the supply will be increased because the production is also increased. Traders import the high quality of apple from other countries and the prices of apple will be doubled due to high demand of high quality apples.

Explain how the above analysis supports your conclusion (1 to 2 paragraphs)

3.        You may provide graphs/charts/diagrams where necessary to enhance your presentation style.

3.1      Supply Curve

Shift in supply curve (Rising Cost)

Source: Author

Supply curve is always upward because according to supply law that high prices, more quantity of commodities is supplied (high price more supply), that’s why the supply curve goes upward. So when the price of orange will be high the supply will be increased and the supply curve will be gone up.

Shift in supply curve (Lower cost)

Source: Author

3.2      Demand Curve

Increase in demand

Source: Author

According to the law of demand that when price of commodities higher that time quantity of demanded product is less, so the curve of demand will be downward sloping curve. Due to high price the demand curve will be downward. And supply will be upward.

Decrease in Demand

Source: Author

3.3      Equilibrium

An increase in the supply S, with constant demand D will be decrease and equilibrium price P* and increase equilibrium quantity Q*.

Similarly decrease in supply S, with constant demand D will increase equilibrium price P* and decrease with constant quantity Q*

Source: Author

When the demand and supply becomes equal that state is called equilibrium point, the point where the demand and supply of commodities meet together. If the price is above the equilibrium point it means that commodities are in surplus and if the real price is below the equilibrium point it means that the shortage of commodities.

3.4      Shifting the supply Curve

Source: Author

With the change in economy there is always a change in supply curve either left or right. A change in price can be occur due to change in supply of commodities such as change in price of oil due to new technology or discovery of new well. Change in supply due to new crop may shift he supply curve.

3.5      Shifting the Demand Curve

Source: Author

The demand curve can be shifted right or left due to change in the income of consumers, for example change in interest rate, more money, decrease in income tax, high wages, more job opportunities can bring change in buying power and thus a change will occur in the demand. Low buying power will decrease the demand and more buying power will increase the demand.

4.        You need to attach a copy of the article with your assignment.

Does Soap and the Water can help to reduce the cross infection among the patients hospitalized?

Introduction

According to the Voss and Widmer, (1997) that it is acknowledged that here are many benefits are related with the hand washing which includes the cost reducing and for the human being there are many other benefits like it also prevent from the infections. Similarly the Newsom, (1993) has been stated that hand washing can play its important role in reducing the mortality predates and the morbidity in minimizing them. He also has been stated that the hands washing also prevents in cross prevention and also prevent the human being from infections.

1.1 Background

The ratio of the infection is always high in the situation where many people live together or they work together closely, in such situation the probability of the infection is so high. As it has been observed that in the care homes the entire resident they live together like family members and they commonly use and share so many facilities like bath rooms and kitchens so there the probability of spreading infection is so high. But the high probability of spreading the infection can be reduced if the precautions and necessary actions taken on time. And in order to reduce the probability of spreading high ratio of cross infection the awareness and the education can play its effective role. In order to prevent the cross infection basic hygiene requirements are need to be implemented. According to the Bradley & Rees, (2003) have been stated that due to different kind of infections can produce different diseases and the information regarding hand washing benefits can also play its important role in prevention of such diseases those can be produced in the result of cross infections.

There are so may kind of infection diseases those can be easily infect the people where some people are living together and they are sharing the baths, toilets, kitchen and also share the utensils’ and other things they share to use. So the ratio of these kind of diseases can be controlled and can be reduced to a significant numbers if the proper precautions could be undertaken by the people and the awareness of hand washing and other hygiene actions and standards can be implemented and people act on the guidelines to prevent themselves from such type of infections and they can avoid themselves to become victim of such infections, because these infections become cause of many illness among them and these kind of diseases can be easily transfer from one person to other person.

Some of the disease can be life threatening and some of the infections can be more dangerous to the human beings. Underlying the medical conditions some kind of infections are dangerous whereas some of them are curable easily, and antibiotics medicines can play their role as a high resistance and the victims can be recovered its health after taking the antibiotics.

1.2 Guidance on the control and prevention of infection

In June 2003 the National Institute for health and clinical excellence has been published the prevention guidelines from the infections in order to control the spreading the infections. These all the guidelines to prevent the people from the cross infection and these all guidelines were based completely on the scientific scholars statement and were also documented, all those conclusions and the positive recommendations were completely based on the HCAI primary principles and on the high standards and all the measures were made and evaluation methods were used and implemented just in order to prevent people from the cross infection to save their lives and to improve their health and life standards. 

According to DOH, (2009) that HCAI can also control and prevent the infection through some kind of technical details and technical audits and by creating awareness among the patients to prevent themselves from the cross infections.

1.3 Aim of the Research

There are the following aims and objectives of this research

The researcher will find out about the role and benefits of soap and water in order to minimize the effect of infection

The researcher will also find out the role of water and soap in reducing the number of infected people from cross infection

The researcher will find out the role of soap and water in improving people health quality

According to the Baker et al., (2009) Basically it is the microbiology clinical application to prevent the people from cross infection, there are so many kinds of infections and disease those can be caused just because of viruses, fungi and bacteria and so many kind of infections like blood infection, respiratory infection, bone infections, skin infection and urinary infections. It has been proved that all kind of the infections are not cross infections.

Research Approach

The research method and the tools and research techniques adopted by the researcher to conduct this research will be discussed here in this section in detail. The researcher will also describes here about the tools like charts and diagrams and about the source of primary and secondary data gathering as well, as sampling techniques and data storing techniques and methods will be describe here.

1.4 Objectives

There are following objectives of this research

  • The researcher will analyse the literatures critically on the topic of infection and its causes and the methods and guidelines to prevent people from this infection.
  • The researcher will also find out the ways and advantages and importance of all methods those can play their role in controlling and preventing the infection in the care homes to improve the quality of health and lives of residents.
  • At the end the researcher will make conclusion and recommendations to improve the weak areas and to improve the strategies.

1.5 Research questions

There are the following research questions those have been designed by the researcher to achieve the above aims and objectives related with this research.

  • Which steps are necessary to taken under considerations by the care homes to make preventions and making control the infection in the care homes in United Kingdom?
  • What are the main hindrances, issues and problems are related while implementing guidelines to prevent the infection in care homes?
  • What are necessary and basic actions important to control and prevent the infections in the care homes?

Literature review

2.1 Significance of infection control programs

Now a day there is a problem worldwide called infection and health care is associated with this worldwide problem, in the hospital everywhere the infection germs are available due to the infections victims and these germs of infections are the main causes of death in the hospitals.

Too much health care resources are required and its cost is so high to offer care services, the cost of health care especially to provide the antibiotic and to provide health care facilities the hospitals need more laboratory studies and medicine supply. According to Rhinehart and Friedman, (2006) that hospitals have acquire the infections germs those can damage the patient’s quality of life. And these germs acquired hospitals need more cost and technology to prevent the patients from the infections that can lead the patients towards the death and hospitals have limited resources to prevent and clean the atmosphere of hospital free from infection germs. With the passage of age the patients suffered from the chronic disease and the major cause of multiple diseases is the infection and due to these chronic diseases the hospitals acquire the infection germs. And one main and major cause of hospital acquired infection is the use of advanced technology and the persistent procedures and due to these causes the old people are suffering from the chronic diseases. The main cause and factors those play their role in acquiring infections in the hospitals include antimicrobial resistant bacteria. And due to these and poor systems and low intentions and unawareness among the people about the use and benefits of hygiene use and overcrowding of patients in the hospitals and due to the shortages of untrained and unskilled employees or staff members those can play their effective role in preventing infections.

2.2 Infection control and promoting factors in care homes

There are some considerations which can be used to provide sufficient care and treatment to the infection victim patients and the hospitals and surgeries and care homes must provide the necessary treatment to the sick people at every cost.

There are following considerations those leads towards reflection

Health care services without infections are always required by the people

While during the treatment the people can be affected through the infection in the hospital or through working or eating or sharing toilets or kitchens stuff with infected people due to cross infection bacteria.

During treatment the people pass through damaged procedures and processes that can cause them infection

According to the Bearman et al., (2004) that health care providers can also transfer into the customers and themselves as well during the investigation and observation process the infectious agents in both ways like indirectly or directly.

There are following some factors those can contribute their important role in spreading the cross transmission and those factors are given as under

In the hospital when there are so many people admitted for their treatment and when there is shortage of staff members to provide necessary treatment

Similarly when there are limited sources to control the infection due to less resources and medicines and it might be because of cost factor

2.3 Different means of infectious disease transmission in homes

In the hospitals there are two kind of main sources of infection and both are discussed in detail below one by one

Exogenous Sources: In this way the infection always spread and the infection bacteria occur just because of the patients those enter the hospitals and come from outside this is called exogenous source of infection bacteria in the hospitals and in this way the others like other patients or staff members they can be affected and the infection can be developed inside them.

Endogenous Source: This is the second way of infection spreading in the hospitals and in this way the bacteria or infection already exist inside the hospital and germs remained inside the part of the hospital and the patients can be affected due to microbes and the patients can be affected seriously.

2.4 Way of infection transmission

2.4.1 Disease transmission cycle

There are some mode of infection transmission inside the human body and the infection can be developed and damage the human body seriously and other people can become victim of infection, so first of all is the main mean of infection transmission is the disease transmission cycle which states that infection can be controlled when all the other necessary elements are clear, means when the infectious agents is identified and the source of the agent has been identified, the susceptible host must be identified those received the agent must be identified and the source from host to agent must be identified then in this way the infection can be controlled successfully. And the basically the relationship among all is called the chain of the infection and some of the scholars stated it as disease or infection transmission cycle (East, 1999). Similarly East, (1999) has been stated that in order to break the transmission of the infection it is necessary to break down the infection transmission chain and then in this way the infection control is possible.

2.4.2 Mechanism of disease transmission cycle

There are the components of the infection transmission cycle those have been discussed below

  1. Agent

Agent is the major component that can cause the disease and that can be one of the between following different agents like parasites, virus, fungi or bacteria, so one of them can be the agent of the infection.

  • Reservoir

 2nd main component of the infection transmission cycle is the reservoir and if there is no reservoir then the infection transmission is not possible, and the agent as discussed above is always resides and its growth is always take place in the reservoir. According to the Ayliffe et al., (2000) have been stated that all the items which includes and take part in the clinical processes and procedures always serve as the infection agent reservoirs and the items like human being, plants, air, soil, animals, solutions and water those can take part in the clinical procedures can serve as reservoir for the infection agents.

  • Exit Place

First of all the infection bacteria called the agent get growth in the reservoir and after infection it leave the reservoir that is called the exit place and the only one way is the skin cut, blood stream, surgical suit, puncture and rash which are known as the exit place for the infection agent.

2.5 Modes of infection Transmission

As the researcher has been discussed above about the mode of transmission of the infection agent and its three ways, agent, survivor and exit way as well, all this movement started from agent to survivor and then exit is called the infection transmission mode and there are total five ways of infection transmission which are discussed below one by one.

  1. Contact:     

This means the direct mean of infection transmission like through sexual inter course or through touching the infected person, it can be through the hospital visit frequently because the infection germs can be transferred into human being through hospital atmosphere or through any clinical procedure or it can be possible through infection acquired instrument or area.

This area has been divided into two major sub sections

(i).     Indirect Transformation:         In this way the infection germs can be transferred through infected (already contained infection germs) through infected needle, any other infected clinical or surgical instrument, gloves or through contaminated dress.

(ii).    Direct Transformation: the second main source of the infection transformation is the direct source like through one body to another body, one surface to another surface, one physical transformation to another like from one person blood to another person blood it can be transferred.

2.       Droplet Transformation:        

This is the second main mode of infection transformation, and in this way the researcher will discuss about the droplet transformation which is always generated by the cough of the already contaminated germs, through the patient (the person who is already contained the infection germs) sneezing, bronchoscope or through his or her talk as well, and the contaminated drops if fallen at some distance (short distance) some scholars have been stated that minimum at one meter distance they can be affected and harmful for the other healthy people. According to the Wilson, (2011), that through air contaminated drops can be transmitted into other people and the infection agent can move easily in the survivor easily and there is no such a way to disturb the air to interrupt this air that contained the agents.

3.       Vector Transmission

This kind of infection can be possible through the mosquitoes and the other animals those are already infected through the infection the infection agent always transferred through them those have already this infection inside their body and become cause of infection agent transformation in other physical bodies for example the yellow fever, malaria, plague and fleas for most common here.

4.       Common Vehicle Transmission

According to the Pratt et al., (2001) that sometimes the infection agent can be transmitted through the specific material that already contained the infection agent for example the blood that already contained hepatitis A Virus, B Virus and C infection virus and HIV and HCV similarly salmonella spp. Food, in the water some the existence of Shigella or Chol era can also become cause of infection transmission and the infection can be transferred from one people to other people.

5.       Airborne Transmission

Some time the droplet nuclei remained in the atmosphere and they might be suspended for a long time in the air and can cause to transfer the infection agents in the other physical human body and especial kind of air ventilators and air handling are required to disturb the droplet transformation of infection from air to healthy body, Measles and M. Tuberculosis are the both kind of infections agents those can easily transmit from air to survivors.

2.6 Infection control practices and its Importance

Infection agent transformation control can be break and the disease spreading can be controlled and can be prevented by creating the awareness among the people regarding the use of water and soap and its role and importance. According to the Wilson, (2001) that the awareness about the disease and infection from the HCV and HIV and from the HCV and the scope of the controlling actions and all other activities those can play their role positively, in order to break the infection transmission spreading cycle or chain it is very important to find out the importance of those steps that can easily play their role in breaking the chain or cycle of the germs transformation. And in order to break the chain first of all the agent transmission methods are very important. Now it is necessary to create the awareness among the people and then it is necessary to pay the attention towards reducing the risk of spreading the infection agents from one body to another body and the main focus must be paid on the cleanliness atmosphere and surroundings and attention must be paid on the cleaning homes and personal cleaning and to the community members as well to prevent the infection and to break the infection agent chain. 

Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This is very important section and in this section the researcher will discuss and will explain about the method those will be adopted to conduct the research which includes the importance of case study selection, research limitations, sample size and sample selection method, research method either quantitative or qualitative, tools and techniques those will be adopted by the researcher to records, making analysis and conclusions will be explained. The researcher will also discuss the source of secondary and primary data and collection techniques and ethical consideration and collected data validity and reliability will be discussed and explained.

3.2 Research Method

According to the Saunders et al., (2009) have been stated that it is the demand and need of the time to choose more than one research methods to conduct the research and to achieve the specific aims and objectives, so researchers must select more than one research methods to obtain valid and reliable results. There are some specific advantages and disadvantages are associated with each research method, the selected research method must be contained the potential to solve the research issue and problem in the available time frame as well as in the limit of resources available to the researcher. In order to achieve the specific aims and objectives of the research, Saunders et al., (2009) have been defined some effective and important steps to achieve the research aims and objectives efficiently and effectively. The researcher will adopt the qualitative research method to conduct this research to achieve the aims and objectives of this research positively because in this way in the available time and other resources the researcher by selecting the case study as tool can achieve the aims and objectives to solve the research problem. According to the Neumann & Lawrence, (2006) that quantitative research method is most suitable for the researchers when they have limited resources as compared to the qualitative research method, but in the medical sciences in the opinion of the doctors and nursing staff there are more advantages for the researchers to adopt the qualitative research methods to collect primary data and through systematic approach the secondary data can be collected with more reliability and validity. Because there are some reasons to adopt the qualitative research methods, and one of the most suitable reason is that qualitative research method is more people centred as compared to quantitative. Through adopting this research method the researcher can easily make the conclusion and can make the positive recommendations.

3.3 Source of data

Here the researcher will use the review of literature as secondary data and the researcher will consult the books, reports, articles and journals, the researcher will also use electronic books, electronic articles and journals as well and websites as well but all the books and articles and press releases and report will be titled on the health care and on the importance of water and soap role in reducing and preventing the people from infections. The researcher will also visit the electronic library as well to download the available material on the topic of infection and its prevention methods and role of water and soap as well in the care homes in the United Kingdom especially. The researcher will also visit the University student portal and physically will visit the University library and will consult the books there and will read out the articles for better understanding and for proper data gathering to avoid biasness and to improve and to increase the validity and reliability of the secondary data.

3.4 Search results

In this research the researcher has been gathered the about 40 research papers and by adopting the criteria of inclusion and the criteria of exclusion the researcher has been rejected the 17 research papers and the remaining 23 papers were selected by the researcher to conduct the research. And after studying the research papers in details the researcher has again rejected the 8 research papers from the 23 research papers and selected the 15 research papers and then those research papers were evaluated by the researcher as per the aims and the objectives of the research.

3.5      Research Limitations

The researcher will discuss all the limitations associated with this research in detail and there are main following limitations are associated with this research

Shortage of time

Limited financial resources

The researcher has no already research experience

3.6      Ethical considerations

In this section the researcher will consider all the ethical considerations for the validity and reliability of the data and for these the researcher will not disclose the results to the co workers, colleagues and to the class fellows and the researcher will not include her own opinion in the primary data collection, the researcher will never allow other people to steel her research work. The researcher will use proper and valid resources, will not include the old references and will not make critics to anybody on the behalf of race, colour, sex, age or religion and disability. The researcher will abide by all kind of discriminations and will not disclose any information of the participants and will not use this research work for another academic purpose.

4.                 Project Planning

4.1      Introduction

The researcher has designed the following steps to carry on the research to conduct the research in a meaningful way to achieve the research aims and objectives.

4.2      Project Resources

As the researcher is conducting this research as a student to fulfil the academic requirement so all the financial cost will be paid by him and all the cost associated with this research will be paid by the researcher which includes the visiting, lunch, high tea, software purchasing, stationary, travelling and printing expense as well.

4.3      Cost of the Project

Serial  Number Description of Resources Cost (£)
1 Printing 50
2 High tea and travelling 150
3 Software cost and printing as well 250
4 Total amount 450

Gantt Chart

Background/ Problem or study X                  
Research question and Objectives X X                
Gathering Literature and Rational X X X              
Making Questionnaires     X X            
Tim Schedule in Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Collecting Primary Data and Making Analysis         X X        
Presenting results and making Conclusion and Recommendations           X X X    
Application of Contingency Plan                 X X

4.4      Contingency Plan

The researcher has 2 consecutive weeks to make necessary changes, to remove errors as per the recommendations of the honourable supervisor.

4.5     Including Criteria

During gathering the data the researcher will not include only the research work means published articles or research papers in between the January 2002 to till December 2012, to maintain the validity and reliability the researcher will not include the old research statement.

4.6     Excluding Criteria

The researcher will not include the data in the secondary data that has been published before the year 2002 because due to old technology and old trends and due to the old clinical procedures and medicines, and will not include the research papers those were published after the date of January 2013.

5.        Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1      Introduction

In this section the researcher will explain the limitations and the strategy will be explained to overcome those limitations and then after that the researcher will discuss the conclusions of the results made by keeping the results compiling and by using the review of literature as a background of the study and by relating both of them as and when necessary.

5.2      Standard Precautions

According to the Clarke, (2003) that standard precautions always are useful in reducing the probability or chance of occurring infection very low and if these precautions can be implemented effectively then the infection can be controlled easily and the cost of the infection prevention can be reduced.   

There are some precautions have been discussed by the researcher

Personal protection from (The staff members must use their own)

Gown

Gloves

Facemasks

Secondly is the use of hand hygiene (the hands must be washed with water and soap)

5.3      Transmission Based precautions

There are three different kinds of precautions

Droplet

Contact

Airborne

The combination of the precautions can be used by the nurses or by the administration as well as per requirement. According to the Cozad & Jones, (2003) that in order to reduce and to prevent people from the infection agent combination of the precautions that is the most suitable and the more effective and efficient way.

5.4      Trainings and educating people

According to the Goldrick, (1999) that following processes and procedures are required to train and creating awareness among the staff members to train them to prevent people from infection.

On Job prevention practices must be instruct to the people and the methods must be informed and the people must be informed as per job nature

Effective selection of PPE

All the staff people including contractors and regular workers must be trained

5.5      Evaluation of competencies

According to the Pratt et al., (2007) that the environment must be neat and clean and the neat and clean environment can prevent the infection agent to transmit and the hand hygiene must be implemented because the hand hygiene can play its role in the prevention of infection agent among the people. So all those people must have awareness about the importance of hand washing with water and soap and the staff members must use their own, shoes, gowns, gloves and face masks in this way the infection agent transmission can be reduced. The surgical instruments must be properly sterilize before use and proper precautions must be implemented in the hospitals and proper cleaning system must be implemented in the hospitals and in the care homes.

5.6      Hand Hygiene

According to the Larson, (1995) that hand washing is so important and the people must wash their hands with the liquid or soap and make it sure that they have cleaned their both hands and all the surface of both hands have been properly cleaned.

The people must wash their hands with water and soap with alcohol hand gels to properly clean the hands, because this is the basically efficient and effective way to prevent and to reduce the infection agent transmission. So this is also necessary for the patients, doctors, nurses and even then all the workers and all the regular, permanent and contractors to implement and act on the hand hygiene precautions and wash their hands.

5.7      Point of care when the hand hygiene is necessary

The hospital staff members of care home staff members must consider the following points because the following situations can be harmful for them so they must use hand wash before the following situations

Touching the patients

Doing wound

Any Task (aseptic)

And after the touching blood, faces, urine, vomits etc.

After touching patients

The staff members must taken into their consideration the following actions

They must wear gloves and must change the gloves after touching one patient

They must put the gloves in the bin after touching patient and do not reuse them

They must wear the gown before the patient checking and after checking they must wear off the gown and put in the dust bin and for second patient they must wear new gown.

5.8      Conclusion

As this is the social and ethical and on job duty of all the members of the hospitals and care home nursing staff to prevent and to break the infection agent cycle for improving the life and health quality of the patients and to keep clean the atmosphere free from infection agents. It is the duty of all the care providers and the hospitals to provide the healthy environment and infection free atmosphere and environment to the patients. It is their social and ethical responsibility to implement the precaution measures at the working place and in the care homes and in the hospitals.

Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco Management

Introduction

The main purpose of this research is to highlight the importance and role of management in the success of business organization. There are so many benefits of business management to the business organization. For example the Apple Company is the most successful business organization in the world because it has the effective business management and effective business strategies. Whereas the Tesco was the successful superstore market chain in the United Kingdom and now a day is losing its business because of ineffective business management and business strategies (Thomas, 2011). Lamming, (2011) has stated that management is always responsible for the designing and developing the mission statement of the organization, objectives are also set by management and to achieve and control the employees management always design the rules, procedures and implement them on the work placement so that through effective communication and controlling organizational objectives could be achieved.

Thesis Statement

Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco management

Basically Apple is the most successful business organization in the world whereas the Tesco is less successful business organization in the world because of management. As above I have mentioned that management functions are associated with executing a business or an organization that involves the functions of management (planning, organizing, monitoring and leading) is called the business management.

Conclusion

Through the above statement I can conclude that business management in an organization is the key to success in an organization. There are different role of management in an organization and their role varies from department to department, for example the manager in sales department will achieve the sales targets by leading and controlling, allocating resources and solving sales force problems and by encouraging them to achieve organizational objectives (Nicoloulaud, 2012). Similarly the human resources manager will recruit the best work force for the organization from the labour market to participate its role in achieving organizational objectives, and financial and accounting managers also play their roles effectively in allocating, producing and generating financial statements, accounting statement and allocating financial resources to the other departments to achieve organizational work smoothly. Manufacturing department manager will also lead, motivate and control the employees in its department and will be responsible to achieve department targets to achieve organizational objectives. According to Freeman, (2012) that “Managers at work placement plan the work, allocate resources to the employees and lead them and encourage them and solve their problems and give them proper feedback about their work so that employees can contribute towards achieving organizational objectives in efficient manners”.

Introduction

Apple is basically multinational American company that has been producing electronics products for its customers and also designing software for its customers to use its products. Apple management has the competent skills and composed of highly skilled workers to manufacture and producing Android and Symbian operating systems for its own manufactured hardware like different series of mobile phones and laptops and tablets (Apple, 2014). Apple is although offering highest price products in the market and successfully doing its business in international market and its products demand is increasing every year because of its effective business management procedures and activities the management team at Apple has all the necessary competencies and skills to compete in the market and achieving its organizational objectives efficiently and effectively. Apple business operations are managed effectively and efficiently because of highly skilled mangers in all the management process those contribute in its management process planning, organizing, controlling and leading. Tesco is the supermarket market chain leader in United Kingdom offering non food items and financial services in the United Kingdom to its customers at low prices but at high quality of products, Tesco is doing its business in global market and suffering from lot of issue because of its ineffective management. Tesco is although the market leader in the United Kingdom but is losing competitive position in global market because of its ineffective management process and activities, Tesco do not have highly skilled workers as compared to the Apple managerial skills (Tesco, 2014).

Effective Management Process

Basically management is the function or is a process used in the business and organizations to achieve their goals and objectives by using the resources like human resources, technological resources, financial resources, infrastructure and procedures and by coordinating the employee’s efforts in efficient way. Basically leaders are the people in the organizations those have specific skills to manage the things in an organization and do right things at right time and allocate right resources to the right people is called a leader whereas the term leadership is always refers to the art to perform leadership role in an organizations effectively (Hutt, 2011). There are different forms of leadership now a day including political leader that has personal interest and cause and has the vision to do for a nation or for a country, secondly it could be the executive member in an organization or institute that establish mission and vision statement for an organization and train and lead the other staff members to achieve specific goals and objectives in specific time period efficiently and effectively by using specific resources. In order to improve the effectiveness of organizations and to lead and to achieve and sustain competitive position the organizations needs to bring quality in their products and services offer them at lower cost to increase market share and to generate sales revenue, and these thing are possible by the effective management (Apple, 2014). Effective management means that resources should be allocated to the right people at right time to the right people to save time and to avoid wastage of resources, so by maximum utilization and output of resources management is necessary. To achieve organizational objectives it is important that managers leads the employees towards achieving organizational objectives, management/ managers are always responsible for the integrating all the resources in a line to achieve common objectives. It is the management that allocates the organizational resources to the employees and assigned the different tasks in different positions to achieve specific tasks to achieve organizational objectives (Byars, 2012).

Management is basically the mixture of science and arts it is not purely science not art, management term has the following activities

Planning

Planning means to plan the aims and objectives of an organization and also defining the targets and tasks for the human resource management. Management at Apple has the effective skills and competencies as compared to Tesco management. At Apple management always focus on the innovation technology and they successfully plan the aims and objectives, whereas at Tesco managers do not have such competencies and skills to establish Tesco aims and objectives as according to the job and market interest. At the Apple management is continuously involved in establishing and refining the aims and objectives of the company and focus on the innovations and new technology to provide best operating system and modern hardware technology, at Apple management always involved in research and development activities to bring innovations in its way of achieving organizational objectives, whereas in the Tesco the management only once establishes the aims and objectives and then they just focus on the established and pre defined procedures to achieve organizational objectives (Bateman, 2011). 

Organizing

Organizing means to allocate the resources to the employees as according to their job nature and according to their skills and experience. Human resource can play their effective role in achieving organizational objectives efficiently and effectively (timely, and without wasting resources). At Apple the CEO has introduced the innovative leadership style to motivate its employees and established the planning board whereas at the Tesco only the management involve in planning phase. At Apple incorporation this organizational structure provide an opportunity to work as team (engineers and programmers and other professional) to establish organizational aims and objectives and procedures to motivate its employees. Tesco only corporate level management is involved in establishing organizational aims and objectives (Asakawa, 2012).

Staffing

Staffing means that recruitment the staff member as according to the job description, and specific criteria is always define to recruit people to play their role in achieving specific tasks in an organization then after recruitment employees are given training and rewarded them as per their performance to retain them with the organization. Apple employees feel more job security and taking high salaries and other benefits as compared to Tesco employees and this is the main reason of high productive attitude of Apple employees. Apple incorporation is using the innovative methods and online methods to provide training to its employees to create efficiency while saving time and cost whereas at Tesco employees do not have opportunity to provide them training online. Apple incorporation management hire the people from all over the world and offer them highly salaries and other benefits and provide them training in different phases as according to their skills and build high competencies among them and reward them with high perks and benefits whereas Tesco has only 30% of its business outside the UK and Tesco concentrate on UK labour market and recruit the labour form only one market and Tesco employees profile is less than the Apple employee’s profile (Tesco, 2014) (Thomas, 2011).

Leading

Managers in an organization always lead their subordinators and lead them by their skills and motivate them in achieving organizational objectives, listen them, their problems and provide them friendly environment at work placement so that they can contribute and share their problems and share their experiences and knowledge with each others to solve the problem. Leading is an important function of management that involves the activities to motivate the employees to achieve their tasks effectively. At Apple incorporation management is successfully motivating the employees in achieving organizational objectives and employees has devoted themselves and contributed more as compared to the Tesco employees because at Apple Incorporation employees feel more job security and they are earning high scale of salaries and other benefits and compensations as compared to Tesco employees. Tesco employee’s salaries are low and their benefits are also less as compared to Apple incorporation. The leadership style at Apple is scientific management and the working environment is friendly and trusty, at Tesco the transformational leadership is implemented and they have created conservative and unfriendly environment at work placement. Employees as team workers in Apple feel trusty and friendly environment and they share their ideas and experience and helped each other that creat quality of work (Lamming, 2011).

Controlling

Controlling means to control the difference resources, organizational management control the resources through their performance and for this purpose managers always collect the information regarding the resources performance and then measured them as per defined standards. At Apple incorporation employees are controlled by their immediate boss and it has the innovative techniques to measure employee’s performance and management at Apple has the more competencies and skills to control the employees and other resources as compared to Tesco Plc (Nicoloulaud, 2012).

Conclusion

Through above data it has been concluded that Apple incorporation is successful organization whereas the Tesco is less successful organization because of management efficiency, the management at Apple is efficient and its function, leadership style and employee’s skills are appropriate as compared to Tesco management. In the organizing function managers at Apple incorporation focus on the organizational structure and they divide the tasks as according to the skills and competencies of the employees to carry out the routine tasks whereas at the Tesco the management is involved in allocating the resources to the employees to achieve their objectives. The efficient way to achieve organizational objectives can be seen at Apple rather than at Tesco. Apple believes in team work whereas at Tesco management believes in group working efficiency. So the success of Apple also depends on the organizing function that is performed by its high qualified team members (Byars, 2012). At Apple management has the main three skills including interpersonal skills, technical skills and conceptual skills and all the managers at all level are fully have these skills to carry out their work. Technical skills are very important for the engineers to carry out special tasks. Technical skills also mean that they must have the ability to train their subordinators and colleagues to motivate them to achieve special tasks. At Tesco the managers have the necessary skills but do not have the technical skills to motivate others and to train their colleagues and subordinators. Conceptual skills are very important for the management because managers must think logically and conceptually to make effective decisions, at Apple incorporation the employees have the conceptual skills to achieve their goals and objectives successfully by making effective decisions. At Tesco managers have the abilities to perform their skills but they need to focus on the corporate level guidelines and managers are not independent to make their own decisions to carry out work (Hutt, 2011). Interpersonal skills are related with the communication efficiency and at Apple incorporation the communication methods are efficient and all the managers and corporate level management remains in touch with each other and share their problems and experience and knowledge. At Tesco managers have the interpersonal skills but they do not have the effective way of communication. Managers at Apple are more motivated and committed as compared to the Tesco managers because of management style and their code of conduct (Freeman, 2012).

Financial Statement Analysis

Financial Statement Analysis

1.        How in your FSA subject do you view the income statements, including cash flow statements and the balance sheet in determining the profitability of a company?                

1.1       Income Statement

Income statement or profit or loss statement is basically a financial statement of an organization for a specific time period that measures the financial performance which shows the revenues and the business expenses through operating and non operating activities (Berends, 2010). This statement also shows the net profit or loss incurred by the company over a specific time period. There are two main portions in an income statement, income portion deals with operating items and this portion is used to analyze by the investors to disclose the information about sales/ revenues and incurred expenses through business operations (Black, 2011).

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Source: Author

                                   Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s equity

The other portion is non-operating that contains the information about revenues and expenses that does not generated by the business to perform business regular operations (Bragg, 2013). This statement is used to assess organizational profitability by deducting the expenses from the generated revenue over a specific time period (Boone, 2013). If net income positive this means profit otherwise is loss.

1.2       Balance Sheet

Balance sheet is the financial statement that summarizes the organizational assets, owner’s equity and its liabilities over a specific time period (Brealey and Stewart, 2011). The main purpose of balance sheet is to have an idea about the financial condition of an organization that shows the own and owes of organization. It helps the businessmen to understand the strengths and capabilities of organization (Brendy, 2012).

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Source: Author

Total Assets = Current assets + Other Assets + fixed Assets

Liabilities = Current Liabilities + Long term Liabilities

Net Worth = Assets – Liabilities – Book Value

Retained Earnings = Earnings retained for business opportunities/ investments

1.3       Cash Flow Statement

Cash flow statement contains about 17 items listed in the specific order they need to appear, cash flow statement is prepared monthly for the first year, quarterly in 2nd year and annually for 3rd year of business (Broadbent and Cullen, 2012). Cash shows the cash in hand, sales shows the income from sale paid for cash receive able means income from collection on cash owed to the business resulting in sales, other incomes means liquidation of asset, income from any investment and loan interest that has been extended (Dayanada, 2012). Total income in cash flow statement shows the total money (sales + receivables + other income). Merchandise or material is raw material used by the company to manufacture products, when raw material comes in, cash goes out. The labour required to manufacture product is called direct labour, expenses required incurred for business operations called overhead (Drury, 2012). Under marketing the expenses, commissions and direct costs related with marketing and sales departments are considered. Research and development are expenses for R & D operations. Some expenses called general and administration expenses incurred during the general administrative operations of business. Information about the paid taxes, except payroll are also treated as expenses in cash flow statement (Dyson, 2013). Capital shows the investment amount need to create income, loan payments are the payments use to reduce long term liabilities, material cost plus direct labour, marketing sales, research and developments, taxes, loan payments, capital and overhead expenses shows the total expenses (Fridson, et al., 2013). Whereas the cumulative cash flow is calculated by subtracting previous cash flow from current cash flow (Gartner, et al., 2013).

2.         Importance and role in determining profitability of a company

The financial statements provide the information to the creditors and investors to evaluate an organizational financial strengths and performance. Manager, creditors and investors need published financial information of an organization to make measurements and making analysis (Berends, 2010). The financial conditions of an organization are of important and major concerns to creditors and investors, as well as financial managers also need this information for making financial decisions and to know financial condition of company. Balance sheet shows the liabilities, assets and owner’s equity, it does not contains the information about business operations and changes occurred during the specific period to run business and final results, so the creditors, investors and financial manager need income statement to know the profit and loss, and cash flow to evaluate the cash flow in and out of company account to carried out business operations (Boone, 2013). Through income statement past and current incomes can be compare that shows the performance of an organization. A retained earning is part of equity is of important for the creditors and investors to understand the strengths and performance of an organization because if there is an increase in retained earning it means that a steady growth in organizational shareholder’s equity (Black, 2011).

3.         Explain 5 ratios clearly

3.1       Profitability ratio

Financial ratios are used to measure the business abilities to generate revenue as compared to it expenses and other costs incurred in a specific time period (Bragg, 2013). Higher values of these ratios as compared to organizational competitors show that organization is doing well business. These ratios assess the ability of organization to earn profit, sales revenue and cash flow (Brealey and Stewart, 2011). The creditors and investors and business owner also need these ratios to make investment decision for future or to understand the business performance in past period.  The most important ratios are return on capital employed (ROCE), gross profit margin, net profit margin and cash return on capital invested (CROCI) (Brendy, 2012). ROCE indicate how well an organization is using capital to generate returns and money for its shareholders is indicated by return on investment. Higher values means organization is executing operations in well manner to earn profit (Broadbent and Cullen, 2012).

3.2       Debt ratio

This is another financial ratio that is used by the creditors, investors and business owner to measure the degree of consumer’s leverage (Drury, 2012). This is ratio of total debt to total assets, and is expressed in percentage. Higher this ratio indicates that the risk associated with this company is high lower value of this ratio indicate low risk (Dayanada, 2012).

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Source: Author

3.3       Liquidity ratio,

Liquidity ratio basically indicates the organizational ability to repay short term to the creditors to reduce short term liabilities (Dyson, 2013). Liquidity ratio can be calculated by following formula

Liquidity Ratio = Liquid Assets / Short term Liabilities

If the value of the liquidity ratio is greater than 1 then it means that fully covered. High ratio indicate low risk of default, low ratio indicates higher risk of default (Fridson, et al., 2013).

3.4       Turnover ratio,

Turnover ratio indicate the number of times (frequency, repetition) of organization inventory replaced during a specific time schedule (Gartner, et al., 2013). Turnover ratio can be calculated as cost of goods/products/ services sold divided by average inventory over a specific time period. High value result indicates that organization is producing and selling products/ services quickly (Berends, 2010).

Inventory Turnover

Source: Author

3.5       Employee ratio

This ratio indicates an important ratio of organization between sales and number of employees (Boone, 2013). Higher value of this ratio means more productivity of organization higher value indicates more revenue generated by an employee (Black, 2011).

Revenue Per Employee

Source: Author