Role of Customer Relationship Management in Hotel Industry in the United Kingdom (A case study of The Marriott Hotel London UK)


Today,service organizations are shifting their focus from “transactional exchange” to “relational exchange” for developing mutually satisfying relationship with customers. Extended relationships are reported to have a significant impact on transaction cost and profitability, and customer lifetime value. Serving the customers, in true sense, is the need of the hour as the customer was, is and will remain the central focus of all organizational activities. The hotel industry, especially the luxury segment hotels needs to be purely customer-centric and focus on the customer needs and duly fulfill them.

Customers will not blindly accept poor service quality from a luxury hotel. They expect high quality of service in return for the money, they spend in luxury hotels. This paper is an attempt to explain the dark side of CRM in the luxury segment of the hotel industry with the help of the ‘Gap Model’ referred to in literature which suggests that gaps in service occur at various instances. The author explains that the gap CRM is a useful tool to explain the dark side partly. There is more to the dark side like privacy issues, unwillingness of customers to build a relationship with the service provider, changing tastes and preferences of the customer. Hotel Company has been chosen as a single case study and the research questions have been devised, addresses the industry at large, using a classic example of superior service quality to the customers. Some simple measures to reduce the dark side have been mentioned, which addresses the third and last research question.

The project would contribute as a useful guide for luxury hotels, provide them some valuable information on what the customer expectations are and if they are duly met then service gaps shall not occur. This research shall provide scope for luxury hotels to improve their overall service quality and strengthen their position in the industry. The relevant existing theory has been reviewed and the subject has been explored, using the ‘Gap CRM’ (Parasuraman et al 1998) mainly. Based on the research findings and analysis, recommendation has been given to reduce the dark side at this hotel and luxury hotels in general.

  1. Introduction
  1. Problem

Customer relationship management is responsible to design and implement effective business strategies in a business to create and maintain profitable and long term relationships with its clients by retaining and capturing some new clients from the target market to offer them better quality of services (Sugandhi, 2002). With the passage of time there is a change in technology and due to change in technology there is significant change in the client’s needs and wants. There is a significant  competition in the market now days. In the market many service providers and products manufacturers are providing same products and services to the clients. With latest technology and education now clients have awareness about the features, advantages and benefits. Clients need high quality at reasonable price with more advantages.

According to Gronroos, (2001) customer relationship management must consider all those factors that can create effective CRM strategies to achieve organizational objective. Those factors may include employee’s communicational skills, honour the promises made with customer at the time of offering, employee’s attitude, and better quality of services to the customers and trusty environment.

According to Sugandhi, (2002) stated that better quality of services are always appreciated by the clients and better quality of services has main importance with the client’s point of view. There is a deep link between the customer’s retention and services provided to the clients.

According to Chen and Popovich, (2003) has been stated that every client has different problems and need satisfaction according to their problem solution, service providers do not trying to understand the situation and importance of client’s expectations. They can bring satisfaction through service quality. Services providers must give priority to recognize the client’s expectations then it will easy for them to offer best and excellent services at cheap prices. The service relationship management department can create the loyalty among the clients through effective business strategies. Clients are very important for all the businesses because when there are no clients then there is no business. Wilson, (1991) stated that clients become angry when the customers can not offered best quality of services, and when the clients are not happy with the offered services then there is no loyalty and satisfaction among the clients. But the companies have the way and an option to bring happiness among its clients by handling their complaints properly with proper solution through skilled employees.

Buttle, (2005) suggested that lack of communication skills among employees is a major cause of clients loosing whereas the strong communicational expertise can hold the clients with the organization and can increase the percentage of market share. Looy et al. (2003) stated that customer relationship management can recognize the peer quality of services through some measures and can improve the quality of services through effective measures and procedures.

There is a significant difference between the client’s expectations and the perceived features of the products and services and there is more than one difference and these differences can be reduced significantly by having effective business policies designed by the CRM department and implemented effectively (Parasuraman et al. 1985).

The researcher has found out all those drawbacks of CRM and those factors that can reduce those factors to offer best quality of services to the clients for creating loyalty and satisfaction among the clients. According to Chen and Popovich, (2003) business organizations are trying to maintain the long term relationship with their client through offering them better quality of services. The researcher came to know that CRM can design and implement those effective strategies that can bring loyalty through satisfaction among the clients so that a profitable and long term relationship established between the clients and organization to earn more revenue for the growth of organization. The researcher has selected Marriot Hotel as case study that is already offering better quality of services to its clients and have proper CRM department in operation. The researcher knows that there is a link between the customer loyalty and the satisfaction and this becomes the cause of organizational growth. The customer relationship management can create the loyalty and satisfaction among the clients to achieve organizational objectives efficiently and effectively.

  1. Objectives

The researcher has following objectives of this research conducting. Actually the researcher has many objectives to conduct this research to find out the influence of effective CRM strategies in hotel industry. Customer relationship management is actually responsible in every organization to integrate all the business operational activities and all other departments like marketing department, research and development department, manufacturing and services departments. The main focus of CRM is to identify the actual needs of clients ‘Expectations’ through proper way and then delivering the services in such a way to satisfy them as per their expectations in order to achieve organizational objectives. In this research the researcher is interested to know the influence/ role of CRM and its effective strategies in achieving organizational objectives efficiently.

Is there any difference between the expectations and offered quality of services to the clients?

The researcher had this objective to know about the factors that creates the differences between the client expectation about the quality and the quality the offered by the employees when they offered these services. The researcher was also interested in this objective to know that how the employees can identify the expectations of clients. And the employees must have some kind of skills to handle the complaints of clients. Here the researcher is interested to know all those factors that can minimize the differences that are main hindrance in the way of client’s satisfaction. The researcher wants to know the skills and necessary trainings that are helpful for an employee in recognising their needs and wants and after identifying these expectations they must provide the quality of services as per their needs and requirements in order to create loyalty to achieve organizational objectives.

What are the main causes of these differences?

The researcher was interested in this objective because the researcher wants to find out the main factors that play their role in creating these differences, and how the CRM department can minimize these causes by considering them in designing new policies to minimize these differences. The researcher is interested in identifying those factors that can be helpful in identifying the expectations because the differences creates due to improper knowledge in identifying the actual needs and wants and improper identifying the actual nature of client’s problem.

Is there any disadvantage of CRM in hotel industry?

Here the researcher want to know the disadvantages of CRM department and the researcher want to know the main causes of these disadvantages and their affects on the organization. The researcher was interested that if there are some disadvantages then how to remove because the main advantages of CRM are to maintain the relationship between the clients and the organization to maximize the profit to expand the business. The researcher want to know how these disadvantages will be removed by improving the policies and taking remedial measures in recent strategies. These disadvantages may be due to input data of other departments like research and development reports either lack of proper marketing strategies.

How these differences and disadvantages can be removed?

The researcher was interested to reduce the disadvantages and differences to create the loyalty and satisfaction level among the clients. The researcher will make necessary and positive suggestions and necessary recommendations for the effectively implementation of improved policies to create long term relationship among clients for earning profit. The research is also interested in reducing those gaps that are the main hindrance in the way of identifying the expectations of the clients and gap created due to improper communication channels from one department to other department. All other departments are interconnected with each other in delivering excellent services to the clients from recognizing to delivering.  

How the effective strategies can be implemented by CRM in hotel Industry?

The researcher was interested in this objective to implement the improved business policies by the CRM in hotel industry. The researcher was interested to know about the improvements in the current policies to obtain organizational objectives.

1.3  Introduction of the Organization

Marriott hotel is the subsidiary of world renounced company ‘Marriot International’ that has been started its first hotel business in USA in 1926, this company has about 3500 properties in round about 80 countries of the world ( There are different brand names of this company and all these brands are world famous like ‘The Ritz Carlton’ the company is providing world best quality of privacy and services to its clients and more than 80 hotels are in operation successfully, the staff is well educated and well equipped to handle clients and offering them dinning, and room services at their best efforts to create loyalty to satisfying them according to their needs and wants ( Same Services Company is providing at ‘JW Marriott’ hotel but more luxury facilities by considering client’s privacy as their first priorities. Similarly ‘Autograph collections’ ‘AC Hotels’ ‘Country Yard Marriot’ ‘Spring Hill Marriot’ ‘Marriot Vacation Club’ and ‘Grand Residences Marriot’ these are kind of businesses are owned by the ‘Marriot International’ ( The company has owned the responsibility to provide high level of services to its valuable clients. The company has equipped itself with latest technological facilities like electronic bookings and payment option from all over the world. The company has been using prompt and latest technologies to deliver latest information regarding booking, discounts, pricing, features, values, benefits and advantages to its potential clients in the market. The company has already CRM department in operation in order to retain its old clients by offering then excellent and value added services and in order to capture new clients from target market ( The company is social responsible for the welfare of citizens by providing equitable services to protect the surroundings and its stake holders. The company believes in providing the appropriate services to its clients as per their priorities and expectations to bring happiness among the clients. Customer relationship management department at Marriot Hotel is responsible to design and implement effective business strategies to build long term relationship with its clients to generate more revenue by creating loyalty among the clients. The Marriot hotel is well famous hotel in United Kingdom which is situated in the London city near Park Lane London. The hotel is offering its best services to the clients. There are many branches of this hotel are working in the United Kingdom. All the rooms are decorated very well with bedrooms, lighting, side table, curtains, chairs, Television, telephone and all other facilities are also available. At Marriot hotel the staff is well trained and skilled having good manners and well attitude and behaviour to serve the travellers. The staff is offering best quality of services to the customers to create loyalty among clients. This hotel is providing excellent services in the market to capture new and retaining old clients as well. The staff always welcomed warmly to the clients in the friendly and neat and clean environment. This branch of hotel is situated near the tube station and bus station and free car parking is also available to the clients where they can park their cars, jeeps free of cost. As the researcher has already mentioned that the hotel has equipped itself with new and latest technologies to facilitate its clients with electronic booking system and telephonic booking without the advance charges. The hotel has offered different discount packages to the tourists, students and family packages are also the part of marketing strategies. The hotel staff always tried at its best level to honour all the promises made at the time of advertisement. Official meetings, weeding ceremonies and other family functions and friends parties are also managed by the hotel management at different charges. Many national and local festivals and events are also celebrated at Marriot hotel and different discount packages are also offered to clients. There are shopping markets available for the clients like booking airline tickets alcohols and a variety of delicious dishes are also available inside the hotel. The employees at Marriot hotel are trained on regular intervals to equip them with interpersonal skills to handle and serve the clients.

2.         Literature Review

According to Body and Limayem, (2004) the customer relationship management is responsible for creating profitable and long term relationship among the clients of an organization, the customer relationship management is the only responsible for making such policies that must be helpful in holding customers through proper solution of their problems and making new clients through effective techniques specially through better qualities of products new advance features and benefits over the competitors in the market for earning profits and growth.

2.1       Quality of Services

Gronroos, (2001) has been stated that organizational business growth depends on the quality of services this means that if the qualities of services are high then the growth will be smooth and organizational objectives will be achieved easily and vice versa. Organizations can measure the quality of services easily. First of all the organizations must have kills to identify the expectations of customers than as per their demand the organizations must design their products and services and through effectives policies the companies can recognize the problem of customers in the market. The quality of services have directly an effect on the level of customer’s satisfaction and customers are the best source of recognizing the level of satisfaction and improvements in the quality of services (Caruana et al. (2000). Repurchasing of services or products depends on the level of satisfaction of client and loyalty always comes through effective and quality of services (Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000). Poor quality of product and services always loose the clients and due to poor quality of services, client become discourage and will never come back again to hire services or purchasing services.

Choi and Chu, (2001) both have been described the importance of technology and procedures in creating the quality in products and services to bring loyalty among the clients by creating best image of company. There is a significant impact of modern technology and latest procedures on the product’s design, features of products, brand image, distribution and promotional activities can be affected and all these factors can improve the brand image in the mind of clients Gronroos, (2000). Quality of products and services are related with the commitments and promises made by the companies at the time of advertisement and delivery of services (Sheth and Parvatiyar, 2001). In the hotel industry privacy, room decoration, quality of services, prompt reply, quick response and respect are the factors that bring happiness among the clients (Choi and Chu, 2001). Loyalty is always comes through satisfaction level of clients and revenue generation is directly related with quality of services provided to the customers to overcome their needs and wants well in time, profit depends on revenue generation and this depends on frequency of sales and it depends on satisfaction and satisfaction depends on the services (Yeung et al. 2002).

2.2       Customer’s Complaints Handling

Buttle, (2008) suggested that it is necessary for the services providers to consider the complaints registered by angry clients against poor quality of services or low quality of services, because the poor quality of services always create bad image of company in the mind of clients.

Complaints always provide a chance to the organizations to review their processes and ways to offer the services, and organizations can improve their services and products by recognizing their weak areas and their strengths and can successfully find out the opportunities (Wilson, 2001). About eighty percent of the clients avoid making complaints against bad services and only remaining twenty percent people make complaints about low quality of services (Barsky, 2002).

There are many methods to check or measure the loyalty of clients, the companies can check the loyalty of clients through many methods and on the basis of results these companies can improve their services quality (Oliver, 2007). While designing the marketing strategies and activities from product designing to pricing, distribution and promotion all those factors that can create the loyalty are also considered and unnecessary information is never conveyed to the potential customers (Barsky, 2002).

When the customers register the complaints against wrong services and poor quality of services than the business organizations may have a chance to find out those root causes of low level services and hence in this way they can be able to retain those angry clients by providing those better services and solution to their problems (Buttle, 2005). All the business companies have their first and last objectives to earn good profit and on the behalf of profit margins the companies can grow and can expand their businesses. The companies can earn profit only in one way, when the service provider companies will become successful in delivering best quality of services and there is no gap or difference in the customer’s expectations and delivered services qualities then there will be a chance to earn more revenue. Similarly when organizations are striving for earning more revenue through different services and products and every client has its own expectations according to their needs and wants, but the actual needs and wants are same, clients needs same solution but they choose the products to overcome their needs and difference may occur due to their own wrong selection so they must also make it sure about the services or products that it will fulfill their need or not. So the clients need exact information about product or services features, benefits and advantages over the competitors. In this way the company can reduce the chance of bad image creating in the mind of customers (McAlexander et al. 2004). The CRM can recognize and can train the employees in equipping them with necessary skills and competencies to handle clients in well manner (Looy et al. 2003). But the Wilson, (2001) has described that the customers do not know exactly the procedure of complaints registration even then they do not know the right person to whom they should contact in any problem. These people believes that it is only wasting of time to make complaints because they do not sure that the administration will take care of them and will provide them suitable solution.

Purchasing and frequency of purchasing is directly related with the loyalty (Cronin and Taylor, 1994).

The researcher came to know that the loyalty is related with the satisfaction level and satisfaction is related with the best quality of services and the services can be effectively delivered by the skilled employees if the CRM equipped with suitable trainings to its employees at right time and administration delegate the necessary authorities to its employees. The CRM can identify the expected quality of services through implementing policies and strategies into operations effectively. And this way the organization can achieve its goals and objectives.

2.3       Role of CRM

Customer relationship management is responsible for creating effective policies for the business organizations to operate successfully in achieving organizational objectives. The customer relationship management can play its vital role in creating satisfaction among its clients. The CRM is the only one department that integrates that all those other departments to achieve organizational objectives (Body and Limayem, 2004). CRM can use the latest technology to recognize the client’s needs and wants. Latest technology, procedures and methods are helpful in the way of success, all other departmental outputs and decision making processes can be revolutionized and wise decisions can be made with the help of latest technology (Gronroos, 2001). By getting feedback from the customers regarding the services and products, employee’s attitude, behaviour, decorations, taste, privacy, and luxury facilities CRM can improve all these services according to the needs and wants of clients because with the change in atmosphere, international competitions and change in technology can change the needs and wants, and these customers with such changing needs and wants create a gap in the market and CRM bridges this gap by identifying these changing needs by providing suitable solution (Sugandhi, 2002). Whereas Gefen, (2002) stated that the organizations can bring happiness and trust among the customers by providing services according to their expectations and CRM can create the trustworthy environment for the customers in order to achieve organizational goals for the growth and expansion of business.

Schneider and Bowen, (1999) stated that organizations through CRM can hold the old clients and can generate maximum profit by having good relationship on long term basis and can make new clients through effective marketing strategies. According to the Bennett, (2006) the benefits of CRM are well designing of such policies that can create trust among customers and organizations must taking into their considerations all those factors that can positively affect the satisfaction level of customers to earn revenue. If there is a trust worthy relationship between the customer and organization and the customer believes that the organization will offer them services as per their expectations, then they will remain with the organization and they will tell other people to buy product or hire services from that organization, this all will be due to high quality of services, and in generating trusty, reliable and long term profit based relationship with clients the CRM is responsible to equip its employees with interpersonal skills, and honour the promises and commitment made with the customers, employee’s attitude and their behaviour and better services (Gronroos, 2001).

The researcher came to know that revenue generation depends on the sales volume and  the sales volume depends on the number of clients old and new and organizations can retain the old customers and can make new customers from target market if the organization have CRM that has been designed effective strategies in the business operationally. It is the only CRM department that can understand the importance of customer rather than other departments and this is only department that can bridges all the gaps that can become the loose in customers.

2.4       Client’s Attitude, Price, Design and promotion

Schlesinger and Heskett, (2001) stated that client’s attitude is no more difficult to measure and identify but it needs some special skills to identify what they want, and what is their actual problem.

The employees can identify the needs and expectations of the clients when the attitude and behaviour of customers is so good and he or she is agree to respond in good manners. The client’s response also helps the employees in recognizing their needs and wants and according to this information the management can serve them in a better way to build ling term relationship (Gilbert and Horsnell, 2008). Whereas Bhote, (2006) has been stated that client’s attitude is the measure that shows that how much the client is loyal with the organization, if the client is happy and loyal he or she will behave politely and if he or she is angry he or she will never speak politely. Thus the employee’s can ask the client as per their attitude about the services and can make necessary solution to their problems and have a chance to improve their services and skills and can create loyalty among them and can build ling term relationship with them (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2000).

Getty and Thompson, (2004) stated that design of product, its price, values, offerings, competitive advantages and benefits are the factors that can create the level of satisfaction improve and thus the loyalty can be increased. Reicheld and Sasser, (2000) stated that organizations have a chance to build trusty relationship with clients by offering them good quality of services at cheap prices and in this way the organizations can generate more revenue by offering other competitive advantages of products and services and cheap price and discounts offers.

The trust and well image of organization can be built among the clients by satisfying clients as per their requirements, and client’s feedback can play its important role in improving services in hotel industry, the taking feedback from customers is very reasonable way to find out the priorities of client (privacy and luxury) for more satisfaction through skilled employees.

According to Bowen and Shoemaker, (2008) CRM can play its role in building relationship with its clients through creating trust among the customers this trust triggers them to buy again and again from the same services providers that enhance the revenue generation. The attitude of customers represents the frequency of services purchasing in a specific time limits after consuming it and becoming satisfied, there is no such a term that can define the client’s attitude but buying behaviour represents their attitude, and there are many factors that can change their attitude like low price, competitive features, competitive advantage and benefits that other competitors are providing in the market (Richins, 2003).

If the employees have such excellent skills then they can easily create strong relationship with customers at long term basis (Zeithaml, et al. 2000).

These skills are related with better communicational skills to deal the clients and how to help out them in critical situations and in bad situations. Employees sometimes do not know exactly that how to serve the customers in critical situations because they do not know that how to behave in such situations when the clients are rude and out of way they are talking. But the companies can improve the employee’s skills and attitude through properly courses and trainings on regular basis when it is required in order to reduce the gaps between the actual needs and wants and the best offered quality of services to them to bring happiness and loyalty in order to earn more money for the organization. So it is need of the time to recognize the basic requirements of each clients by having some special skills and format, the employee can ask some questions from the client before booking room manually or on the internet before booking the room there must be some questions that can help the management to understand about the expectations of clients so that the management can deliver services up to the mark as per client’s requirements (Zeithaml et al. 2000). The client’s level of satisfaction can be measured after consuming those services or products and in this way the companies can improve their services and standards (Gundersen et al. 2006). The clients can be deal in good manners if the employees have suitable communication skills and trainings, if employee’s efforts and hardworking is being properly recognized and they are awarded with prizes and recognitions then they will carry out their task very happy and this motivational attitude will effect on client’s dealing (Zeithaml et al. 2000). There is a direct relationship between the employee’s loyalty and the customer’s loyalty, when the employees are loyal with the organization then they will try their best to bring happiness among the customers and loyalty of employee’s is related with organizational leadership style, pay rates, over time, paid holidays and work place safety (Reichheld and Kenny, 2000). If there is more gap between the offered quality of services and needs of clients then the satisfaction level will be low otherwise vise versa (Kim, 2005).

2.5       Role of Customer’s Loyalty

Profit is directly related with the customer’s loyalty and satisfaction because the loyalty comes due to satisfaction level, means that when after using the products or services if the client is satisfied by the results either the client will satisfied or dissatisfied. And if the client is happy after consuming the products then the client will be happy and remain loyal with the company and will repurchase more and more products (Mittal, 2000). According to the Anderson, (2004) repurchasing of a product is only possible due to the happy client if the client is happy then he or she will come again to re buy the product or services from the organization and thus the sales volume will be increased. There are some ways to increase the level of client’s satisfaction the organization can increase the level of satisfaction by providing them the better quality of services and in this way the company can create a good relationship with all its potential customers (Buttle, 2005). As the researcher came to know previously through review literature that business are exist due to customers and when there are no customers it means there is no business. Customers always exist due to satisfaction, and organizations are trying to create the satisfaction among the clients. CRM department is trying at its best level to recognize the priorities of the clients and trying to create trust among the client by fulfilling all the commitments made by the organizations to provide them. And if the companies make and launch their policies and offer their services and do not successes then it is impossible for them to earn more money (Looy et al. 2003). Instead of this if the company has offered very good quality of services then the client will become happier and the client will become loyal with that organization and resultantly the organization will earn more revenue after repurchasing of services by satisfied clients. Trust creates always loyalty and displeasure will creates frustration among the clients so the organizations tried their best to create trust rather than dissatisfaction (Buttle, 2004).

The researcher came to know that the trust/ satisfaction is directly related with the quality of services and this trust and loyalty triggers the clients to repurchase the services that become cause of generation more and more revenue to make profit.

Customers intensity of happiness Customers devotion creating Earnings and expansion
Needs, wants, requirement, and quality of services they want, they are looking, actual nature of problem, and after getting appropriate services and solutions of their problem customer’s become happy.     After consuming the services and as per results become happier and this happiness will create loyalty and trust and faithfulness among customers.     More sale that will generate more revenue

As the above diagram showed that there is a deep link between the customer satisfaction and the organizational growth. The customers can be satisfied if their needs and wants are properly recognized by the appropriate methods and procedures through skilled employees and this can be done only with the help of customer relationship management in the organization that is responsible for the designing and implementing such effective strategies (Parasuraman et al., 2008).

2.6       Client’s expectations and Offered quality of services

As the Parasuraman et al. (2005) stated that there is a big distinction among both things that can play its important role in creating satisfaction or dissatisfaction among the clients and organizational growth and expansion depends on it is the client’s requirements in his or her mind and the services that the organization provide them regarding their problem or need and want.


                                          G. 1


As per customer’s requirements manufacturing or designing of services or products  



The diagram shows that there are following differences step wise.

  1. Difference between the customer’s requirements and offered services. Because this difference is mainly occurred between the quality of services or the quality of the products.
  2. This difference is due to when the organization measures and gather the needs and wants of the client’s and gathered all this information and CRM could not properly conveyed the information to the manufacture department and the manufacture department design the product or services with low quality.
  3. This difference is due to the communicational channel, if the employee has no such effective skills to identify the actual requirements and finding the actual nature of problem so due to improper communicational channel the difference can be created among the requirements and offered services (Parasuraman et al., 2008).

There is the solution available for all above problems (differences) that if there is the number one difference then what kind of actions should be taken by the customer relationship management in order to achieve organizational objectives.

Reasons Actions to solve the problems
If there exist the difference due to miss information regarding the customer’s needs and wants mean requirements then   The management must check all the procedures and methods to solve the problem and the management will improve the procedures for expected (according to the customer’s requirements) requirements to satisfy the clients as per their demand. The management will make all necessary changes permanently and will remove the poor system.  
If the difference is occurred due to the wrong data that the company recorded during data gathering and analyzing the data in order to know exactly about the core requirements of the customers and the data has been passed to the manufactured department or services provider department accidently then It will be the critical situation and the organization will have to prepare and record again the priorities of the customers manually and then they will again record the data into a systematic way and will remain careful about data lost again. Here in such situation the organization will allocate a specific number to the specific customer (Unique Code) so that next time it will never happen again.  
If the difference is due to the poor quality of services that the organization has served or offered to the customers against the customer’s requirements then     First of all the organization must check that where is the actual problem, it means that the organization will check the lack of competencies and lack of knowledge or lack of skills required by the employees to handle the situations and providing suitable services to achieve organizational objectives. Here in such situation the organization will come to know that why this happen and they will  look into the matter for proper solution, they will arrange classes, training schedules and courses to improve the capabilities and skills of employees to handle customers.  

The clients have a strange desire that organizations keep them in their good book, even than when they call them they recognize them. And they must offer them the good quality of services as per their requirements and needs. It is very hard to keep all those customers keep in employee’s name but due to latest technology if the clients have their unique code number then the employee can enter the code number in the system and all the data and history can be retrieved and the habits, requirements will be just on single click away from the employee (Looy et al. 2003). The client’s feedbacks and their opinions can be recorded there and in this way it is easy way to remember their priorities to provide them best quality of services and happiness can be created among them as per their requirements (Buttle, 2004).

2.7       Conceptual Framework of Literature Review

The researcher came to know at the end of literature review that there is a significant affect of CRM activities in the sales and growth of the organization in any organization. Every organization has its own goals and objectives to achieve and to expand its operational activities to earn more profit. And this can be only possible when the organization have customers to buy their products or services. These days in the market almost all the competitors are providing same products at competitive prices and quality to retain, and capture new clients from the market to sell out their products or services. Customers can be retained with the organizations if there is no difference among their expectations and the services provided them at high level of quality. Because when there will be no difference then customer will become more happy and will become loyal with the organization. The organizations through customer relationship management can handle clients and come to know exactly about the expectations of the clients through well equipped and trained staff and through having and implementing latest technology to itself. So when the customer will happy then he or she will gain come to hire again the services and their this activity will increase the volume of sales and in this way the organization can earn more money.

3.         Research Methodology

3.1       Research Method

Here in this section the researcher has explained the research method that how the researcher has conducted all the researcher that includes the resources, type of research, sample size, data gathering and recording and analysis tools. The research method actually described the ways that how the researcher will conduct the research as per all the objectives and the research method keep the researcher at the right track to carry on the research as per time and resources available. The research method explained the whole population and the way to select the sample size and research method also described that which tools the researcher will use to record and analyze the data (Soderlund, 2008).

Research method is a procedure that is used in research conducting that helps the researcher to conduct the research in a well manner and keep the researcher on the track, in this method the researcher first of all gather data both types primary and secondary, and tin this method the researcher explained the sources of data, time period and the tools used in the research for data recoding and making analysis on data (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003).

In this section the researcher has explained that he has selected the ‘Case Study’ to conduct the research according to specific aims and objectives. The researcher has selected the ‘Marriot’ hotel in United Kingdom.

3.2       Research Objectives

The researcher has following aims and objectives to conduct this research.

  1. The researcher is interested in find out the link between the quality of services and loyalty and their impact on the sales and profit.
  2. The researcher is interested in find out the importance of CRM department and its link in creating long term relationship with clients.
  3. To find out the actual difference between the client requirements regarding quality of services and the features of products and the offered service quality.
  4. The researcher will find out the factors that can create the difference between the actual requirements and the service quality.
  5. The researcher wants to find out the advantages and disadvantages of CRM practices in hotel industry.
  • The researcher was interested to know about the effective strategies and wants to find out those factors that must be consider by the CRM department while making business strategies for effective and desired outcomes.
  • The researcher is interested in find out the challenges and issues in implementing the CRM practices effectively in the selected hotel and will find out those factors that can contribute in making policies effectively for desired outcomes.
  • The researcher is interested in find out the factors that can improve the quality of services and help the CRM in recognizing client’s requirements.

The researcher is interested in find out the importance of CRM practices and quality of services that can bring happiness and create loyalty among the clients. As per the literature review the researcher came to know that the services providers can improve their services as per the requirements of their clients in a better way by having and implementing the effective CRM strategies in the organization. The researcher came to know through secondary data that if the difference exist between the customer’s requirements and the service quality then the customer’s satisfaction will be so low and the organization cannot achieve its objectives efficiently and effectively. The CRM department can improve the service quality and can reduce the difference by some techniques and through implementing effective procedures to know exactly the requirements of clients and as per their requirements CRM will design the service structure as per their requirements and needs in order to achieve organizational objectives.

3.3       Research

The researcher has explained the research methods that the researcher has followed to conduct the research. The researcher can obtain all those objectives in a well manner if the researcher follows research method (Soderlund, 2008). The researcher can use research method to conduct the research to achieve its specific objectives (Flyvbjerg, 2006). The research method provides a path way to accomplish the research, in this way the researcher have manners and way to conduct the research in an efficient way to achieve the expected results, the research method facilitate the researcher to conduct the research in limited resources that define each single step with expected outcomes, there are many types of research like qualitative and quantitative but the researcher select one of them as per the nature of research and the aims and objectives of the research (Reinartz and Kumar, 2003).

The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct the research. First of all the researcher has explained the issue and scope of research then after explaining the scope of research the researcher has designed the objectives of the research and decided to select the case study tool to conduct the research to achieve is specific objectives. In the qualitative research the researcher design the questionnaires and design the questions closed ended and open ended to take the response from respondents. In this method the researcher will use the interview technique and the researcher will use semi structured interviews to gather primary data from the staff members of the selected organization. Qualitative research method is adopted by the researchers to gather primary data when the researcher selects the case study then the best way is to use qualitative research technique to gather primary data. The researcher will also visit the web site of the organization and the end will read the annual reports and will also check the entire procedures and methods. The researcher has designed the questions in such a way to achieve all the objectives by considering all those factors than can be helpful in the way of designing effective strategies for CRM in order to bring satisfaction among its clients effectively to achieve organizational objectives.

According to the Reinartz and Kumar, (2003) that through web sites, books, electronic books, journals, articles, annual reports the researcher can find out the secondary data regarding their objectives and the researcher can together quality of primary data by using surveys, interviews and through distributing questionnaires among samples they can collect primary data reliable and valid. The researchers must use computerized sheets to record primary data to avoid duplications and errors, and they can use bar charts and pie charts to analyze the data for making recommendations and suggestions. According to the Soderlund, (2008) research method actually provide path way to the researcher that includes tools, methods, techniques and source of primary and secondary data in order to conduct the research and in this way the outcomes are reliable and valid. The researcher can achieve their objectives by collecting primary and secondary data by using proper and effective techniques to record and analyze data effectively if they follow research method (Social research methods, 2006).

3.4       Case study selection

Case study is the best way to conduct the research when the researcher wants to conduct the research about CRM effective strategies in order to achieve its specific objectives and if the researcher has economical and time limits then case study is the best approach to focus to achieve appropriate results (Feagin et al. 2001).

The researcher has selected the case study to conduct the research because the researcher has bear all the cost from the pocket money and due to time constraints, the researcher has decided to select qualitative research in order to save time and stay away from the enormous volume of population and selecting a large number of respondents (samples) in order to save his time and cost. In this way the researcher arranged meetings with the staff members and the customers to collect primary data from respondents to know exactly about the factors and importance of CRM strategies and the role of CRM in the business organizations to achieve organizational objectives effectively and to find out the advantages of CRM and to find out the issues and challenges that CRM is facing at the organization and the researcher tried his best to know those factors that can play their effective role in creating clients loyalty and satisfaction to earn profit.

Case study is the best option to conduct the research to gain the specific objectives (Flyvbjerg, 2006).

In the instrumental case study the researcher conduct the research by conducting interviews and distributing questionnaires among the staff members and collect the primary data as per the objectives, where as in the collective case stud method the researcher conduct the research by only paying attention on the specific people that have knowledge about a specific issue or problem and in the intrinsic case study method the researcher conduct the research on specific case (Stakes, 2005).

The researcher has selected the ‘Marriot Hotel’ due to some reasons.

It has many branches and it has good image in the mind of clients.

This group of hotels ‘Marriot International’ has equipped itself with latest technologies and it is operated in all over the world and have well trained staff and well skilled staff and have customer relationship department for several years.

The customer relationship management and the services management are in operation in the ‘Marriot hotel’.

The ‘Marriot’ hotel is providing highest quality of services to its clients and earning good money and is satisfying its client at high level.

All the rooms are fully equipped with the latest technology like Tele vision, computer, automatic door, auto shower, luxury bed, chair, swimming pools, TV lounge, and common room, meeting room, dining table, laundry system on urgent basis, telephone and fully idealistic environment. Due to all these above mentioned facilities the hotel has good image in the mind of visitors and local clients.

The researcher has choose the case study tool for conducting the research because the researcher want to conduct qualitative research and for this purpose the researcher has conducted some interviews from the clients and conducted interviews from the CRM staff members and gathered primary data and record all the data in a well manner in the excel sheet to avoid data duplication and avoid own opinion to maintain valid and reliable data.

To obtain good and reliable results the researcher must choose qualitative research method by designing appropriate and effective questions and by asking to the respondents, and in this way the researcher can save their time and cost in finding actual nature of primary data and concise information about the problem. The researchers can save expenses and time by choosing qualitative research method and they can easily analyze and interpret the data as per the research objectives.

The researcher has the following questions to conduct that research and the researcher was interested in finding the answers of these questions.

3.4.1    Questions

What are the main advantages of CRM department in this hotel?

Are there some differences between the client’s requirements and offered services quality?

Do you believe that CRM strategies are effective for this hotel?

Do you believe that the difference between client’s requirements and offered services have bad impression on the organization?

Which factors can play their role in reducing this difference?

How CRM can make its strategies more effectively?

Do you believe that CRM department can play its role in enhancing the loyalty among the customers?

Mainly the researcher wanted to know about the importance of CRM strategies in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients to achieve organizational objectives by recognizing their needs and wants and through providing them the best one solution to their problem. Quality of services remained the main focus of the researcher throughout this research.

3.5       Primary and Secondary Data sources

The researcher has used different sources to collect secondary and primary data during the research to collect primary data the researcher has designed the questionnaire and distributed that questionnaires among the customers that the researcher selected as sample, the researcher has conducted the interviews of some staff members to collect primary data. The researcher used website of the selected hotel, its annual reports, newspapers, official websites, books, electronic books, journals and electronic journals to collect secondary data about the importance of CRM activities and quality of services. The researcher has seen all those documents that the hotel has in its record regarding client’s priorities and their feed back because hotel administration is using feedback techniques to improve the quality of services and all the data was properly stored in the sequence and well managed form in order to avoid mistakes, the researcher has used bar charts and other diagram to present the data.

            3.5.1    Population and Sample size

The researcher has selected the 40 customers as a sample. The researcher has chosen both male and females age range 21 to 50 years old. The researcher has selected the sample by using random method, because in this way the researcher will save his time, and the researcher has asked the question from the manager CRM at Marriot hotel and has asked each question from individual staff member as per manager permission in order to get variety of data but reliable and valid data. The researcher has asked specific questions from the managers and other staff members to know exactly about the importance and about the challenges to the CRM department at hotel and about the importance and effective role of CRM at hotel in creating and building relationship with its customers at priority basis.

The researchers must ask some questions to the key post holders in order to make it sure that they are at the right track and they are on the right track and are achieving their objectives in a well manners (Powell and Single, 2006). The researchers must designed some questions to ask from the middle management regarding CRM importance, quality of services, brand image, clients satisfaction and ask the questions regarding solutions of problems and share their ideas and knowledge and experience because these people daily observed the reality and handle angry clients and these people create loyalty among the clients by providing good services to them as per their requirements (Powell et al., 2006). The researcher was also interested in finding out the factors that can play their effective role in designing some kind of such strategies that can be helpful in the future to identify the client’s requirements. The researcher was also interested in finding out the interpersonal skills of employees and its effects on the quality of services and in handling the clients and providing them better facilities and solutions of their problems. The researcher must distribute questionnaires among minimum fifteen respondents to get better quality of response (Macintosh & Lockshin, 2007).

3.6       Interviews

The researcher has used the interview technique to obtain the primary data from the respondents, for this purpose the researcher has selected manager CRM and some other staff members to ask multiple questions to confirm the importance and role of CRM on the sales and growth of organization. The researcher has chosen this way because interview is effective communicational channel in which the respondents can share his or her knowledge, experience and actual current situation. Interviews are the best method to gather primary data and in this way the researcher can find out the real and actual nature of problem and its better solution as compared to other methods because in an interview the employees know better as compared to clients about the real situation and problem they can define properly and staff members can easily clear the situation and can provide the best solution (Feagin et al. 2001).

The researcher has chosen semi structured category of interview due to advantages and as per the objectives of the research. In this way the researcher has obtained accurate in sequence and there was no favoritism in this method to gather primary data. The researched has selected the respondents by itself as per their duties and skills and experience and knowledge in order to collect correct and reliable and valid data. The researcher know that when there are some advantages of this method so there are also some disadvantages of this method but as the researcher has used special skills in designing specific questions to minimize those disadvantages, the researcher has designed all the questions as per the aims and objectives of this research. The researcher has used this method to conduct and gather the information about the importance and positive role of CRM and its effective strategies in the organization for achieving its main goals and objectives in a better way.

3.8       Questionnaires

The researcher can obtain information through questionnaires distributing among the respondents (Soderlund, 2008).

The researcher has designed the following questions to ask these questions from the respondents. The researcher has asked these questions to different clients aged in between 21 to 50 both males and females and researcher has selected the sample randomly.  The researcher has used all the skills and techniques and by considering all the objectives the researcher has designed these questions. The researcher has used open ended and close ended questions to gather valid and reliable primary data without any prejudice.

The following questioned were asked from the respondents.

Do you believe that CRM is playing its role in creating loyalty and offering you better quality of services?

Do you believe that CRM can help you more in providing you better quality of services by taking more feedback regarding quality and your requirement?

Which factors can enhance the quality of services providing to you?

Do you have any complaints to the CRM staff?

Do you believe that CRM is p-laying its positive role in retaining its old clients?

Do you believe that CRM has sufficient knowledge regarding your expectations?

Did CRM ever asked you about your preferences?

Do you believe that there is a link between the dealing and sales?

Do you believe that there is a link between happiness and sales?

Do you believe that satisfaction can bring customers again and again for repurchasing?

Do you believe that CRM can improve its services for more betterment in the near future?

Which factors the CRM must consider while designing policies and strategies?

Do you believe that hotel staff is cooperative and their attitude with you was appropriate and are you happy with their behaviour?

Do you believe that CRM can recognize your expectations to offer you better quality of services?

  • Research Findings and Analysis
  • Introduction

The researcher has selected the qualitative research method to conduct that research by using questionnaires and conducting the interviews of staff members. The researcher has found out all the data regarding the importance and the effective role of CRM and factors that can affect the CRM strategies in achieving organizational objectives and affect the sales and services and can create the loyalty through satisfaction by providing quality of services. For this purpose the researcher has designed the following questions.

  • Interview

As a result of the interviews with different level of management ,staff and customers in Marriott hotel ,conducted by the  researcher, it was revealed through data analyses that there is a great potential and important factor, waiting for consideration of the Management to increase their sales and attract new customers through effective CRM ,which can be described as under

What are the main advantages of CRM department in this hotel?


The manager responded that the CRM department is responsible for the following activities.

Recognizing customer’s requirements

Measuring employees skills and competencies

Arranging training sessions for employees for improving skills

Making it sure that clients are happy

Designing effective strategies as per the output and recommendations of research and development departments

Are there some differences between the client’s requirements and offered services quality?


The researcher found out that there is difference sometimes between requirements and quality of services due to lack of skills of employees, due to inappropriate system and due to attitude of customers it happens that this kind of difference created among the management and the clients. Sometime this occur due to misunderstanding between the CRM employees and the services management department employees due to improper convey of requirement information, and sometime due to improper research and development employees mistakes and sometimes due to change in technology.

Do you believe that CRM strategies are effective for this hotel?


The researcher has recorder the answer that CRM activities are have importance in the business organizations in this way that CRM is responsible for above explained responsibilities. CRM access the requirements of customers and on the behalf of requirements, the CRM equipped its employees with suitable and as per need provided the skills to them to deliver quality of services and in this way the CRM design set of procedures that can be helpful in creating loyalty for revenue generation.

Do you believe that the difference between client’s requirements and offered services have bad impression on the organization?


Yes off course the CRM can reduce this difference easily and just by implementing effective strategies in the business operations and with providing necessary trainings to the employees and by developing computerized system in such a way and by taking proper feedback and conducting research activities in the market to know properly the actual need and wants of the potential customers. In this way the CRM can only effectively play its role in making profit for the organization. In the hotel industry client need extra and excellent services as per their priority regarding privacy and luxury. Breakfast, car parking, decoration, wall colors, Tele phone facility, electronic doors, online booking, online payments, discounts, offers, pick and drop facility have secondary importance, whereas the fast, quick response and handling complaints and providing them best solution is the priority of clients that they want from the hotel management. 

Which factors can play their role in reducing this difference?


Commitments should be honor at well in time

Quality of services

Quick response

Brand image

Fast feedback




Reasonable price

These above factors can play their effective role in reducing the difference. Employee’s loyalty can play its important role in creating the loyalty and reducing the difference.

How CRM can make its strategies more effectively?


CRM can make its strategies more effectively by considering and making media marketing.

They should use search engine optimization technique in internet search engines according to their needs and wants. Because when the CRM will focus on latest technology then they may get more response from the market. Image brand is well known in the world, and just by considering all those factors that can enhance the productivity among the employees and can fulfill their requirements ( The CRM must use different channels like Google search engine optimization, online booking, newspapers, and magazines and should publish their statistical regarding client’s satisfaction and their statements. The CRM must design their strategies in which the clients should be able to express his or her own desire and expectation. In this way the customers have more option to perceive excellent quality of services as per their priority may be luxury or privacy or anything else they want.

Do you believe that CRM department can play its role in enhancing the loyalty among the customers?

The respondent replied that yes CRM department can enhance the loyalty of customers as per their requirements, there are so many factors that can be considered by the CRM to enhance the loyalty in the employees and alternately in this way the CRM will become successful in bringing happiness among the customers and it will affect the revenue and ultimately it will affect the business growth. There is a deep and sound relationship among the employee’s loyalty and the client’s loyalty. When employees will happy with the policies of organization then the attitude of productivity will become more and they will do work with more heartedly to achieve goals and will devote their selves to offer best services to the customers. The CRM should pay their attentions towards employee’s happiness.

  • Survey
Sr. # Male Female Total
1 20 20 40
Age Range (20-50)      

The researcher has designed these questions according to the objectives the main focus of the researcher was to exactly found out the importance and role of the CRM department in hotel industry to achieve organizational objectives by implementing effective strategies in the organization.

Q:        Do you believe that quality of service can bring happiness among clients?

Ans:     Yes                  No

Yes No Total
40 0 40

The researcher has came to know through the review literature that there is a deep link between the quality of services and the customer’s satisfaction and the main reason of this question that was designed by the researcher to know exactly that either the management is providing the quality of services or not. It is an essential part of the research. There are some factors that can contribute in enhancing the satisfaction and when the satisfaction will be created then the loyalty will be automatically enhanced by providing quality of the services consistently. So after taking response from the respondents the researcher came to know that 100% respondents replied that they believe in that the quality of service can create satisfaction among the customers.

Q:        Which factors can bring quality of services as compared to others?

            Select one of them

Factor Yes Respondents
Quick response 18 18
Employee attitude 4 22
Commitments 5 27
Offerings 4 31
Brand Image 4 35


After distributing the questionnaires the researcher came to know majority of the respondents replied that they think that their priority is to have quick service majority 37% believes in that, whereas 30% believes that they believes that quality of service derived by the employees attitude, whereas 25% believes that commitments can increase the quality of services and 5% replied that brand image and 3% replied that offerings can bring quality of services to the clients.

Q:        Do you have some priorities in your mind before booking a room?

Ans:     Commitments, Quality of service, Feedback, Attitude and behaviour of employee

Priority Yes No Total
Feedback 30 10 40
Attitude and Behaviour of Employee 25 15 40
Commitments 35 5 40
Quality of Services 40 0 40

Here in this question the researcher want to know exactly that what is in the mind of customers they are looking for some kind of priorities because here the researcher tried his best to know about the main requirements and preferences of the clients to make suggestions for the hotel to offer those preferences in order to offer them quality of services. So the researcher came to know that 100% of the respondents were agreed that their main priority regarding expectation was quality of services, and 87% believes in commitments that organizations must honour the promises in order to bring happiness among the clients, 75% respondents believe that feedback is important that can bring loyalty among the clients and 63% respondents believes in employees attitude and behaviour. The hotel management by keeping all the requirements along with their preferences so that maximum satisfaction can be created among all of them for making more money and the expansion of the hotel. And the customer relationship management can do it easily as they have all the authorities and necessary human power and resources.

Q:        Do you believe that there is a difference between your expectations and offered quality of services?

Ans:     Yes                  No

Yes No Total
36 4 40

Here in this question the researcher tried to found out the gap between the two main things number one is the services that the customer relationship management employees provide to the consumers its quality and the second variable is the their requirements. So after gathering response from al the respondents the researcher now came to know that a significant figure 90% shows that there is a difference between the client’s expectations and the offered quality of services. And only 10% believes that their expectations are up to the mark and there is no problem with the quality of services. This may be due to the improper systematic procedures implemented at the hotel and employees do not know exactly that how to treat with the clients in recognizing their expectations and their priorities.

Q:        Which factors can minimize the difference and maximize the client’s loyalty?

Factors Select
Quality of service  
Maintaining clients data and their priorities  
Honour Promises and commitments  
Interpersonal skills  
Feedback action  


Factors Yes No Total
Quality of service 40 0 40
Maintaining clients data and their priorities 35 5 40
Honour Promises and commitments 35 5 40
Interpersonal skills 38 2 40
Feedback action 37 3 40

The researcher has designed this question to know about those factors that can reduce this gap at maximum level just by considering all those factors that can play their effective role in reducing this difference. So the researcher found out that majority like 100% believes that quality of service can play its role in reducing the difference and maximize the client’s loyalty, whereas clients data along with their priorities and honour of commitments also can create loyalty and minimize the difference, only 88% believes in that, 95% replied that communicational skills and 93% believes that feedback can also play its role in creating loyalty by improving quality of services.

Q:        Do you believe that CRM department is handling your complaints in well manners?

Ans:    Yes                  No

Yes No Total
10 30 40

The researcher designed this question to know and to confirm from the clients that they have the knowledge about the importance of customer relationship management or not. And they ever been there at their counter for their problem solving and the workers deal them effectively or not. And the researcher want to know about the real factors that can be helpful in creating the trust among the customers by handling client’s issues effectively on the spot in the hotel by offering them alternative package if they make complaint or they want to change their package. Through literature review the researcher also come to know that through proper handling client’s complaints about 77% – 80% clients can be retrieved and can be hold with the organization to earn more money from them. The main reason behind this question was this, and after gathering responses from the respondents the researcher came to know that about 75% respondents are agreed that CRM department is not properly handling their complaints and only 25% are agreed that their complaints are properly handled by the CRM department. So the researcher came to know that the loyalty and the satisfaction can be achieved through this technique that the client must be handled in such a way that their problem must be solved at the spot to earn more money.

Q:        Do you believe that CRM department can handle problem related issues and can handle client’s complaints in well manner and can provide you best solution through effective skills and their knowledge and experienced employees to generate revenue?

Ans:     Yes                  No

Yes No Total
30 10 40

Whole the research round this question as the researcher main objective to conduct this research was to found out the role of customer relationship management activities effectively on the sales and the growth so this as the main reason to ask the question from the respondents and the researcher noted that 75% respondents replied that CRM department can provide them best solution against their complaints and 25% believe that already they have no any complaints and they are happy with the services already with the services. Similarly the review literature showed that the customer relationship management can handle all these issues related with the customers in an effective way because it is the mainly duty of the customer relationship management to handle the clients effectively and can play its role effectively in generating more revenue and can make more money for the organization as the customer relationship management has directly influence on the other departments and have the sufficient authorities and they have the privilege to get the favour from the higher authorities and after gradual reviews and measuring performance they can easily judge the skills and abilities and as per latest technology the hotel administration and other departments like customer relationship management can design such activities and arrange training sessions and improving their skills and polishing their abilities clients can be handled in effective ways to achieve goals.

Q:        How CRM can handle the client’s complaints?

Ans:     Select from following

Skills Tick
Interpersonal Skills  
Quick Response  
Attitude and Behaviour  
Skills Yes No Total
Efficiency 30 10 40
Interpersonal Skills 38 2 40
Attitude 35 5 40
Quick response 37 3 40

The researcher has designed this question regarding employee’s attribute that which skills and attributes are must in their personality to handle client’s complaints successfully and provide them best solution. 95% the significant majority of the respondents responded that interpersonal and prompt reply skills can be used to offer quality of services by handling client’s complaints and only 5% showed their interest that this factor cannot play its role in creating satisfaction through handling clients. Here the researcher want to asked about the factors that can enhance the satisfaction level of the customers effectively in good manners by having some special skills. So the researcher came to know through review literature there some factors can play their role in handling customer’s complaints effectively in good manners their complaints and can create happiness and pleasure among them in order to achieve hotel management main objectives. And customer relationship management can play its role in equipping these skills among the workers through trainings and courses.

Whereas 88% replied that attitude can play its role in understanding and problem solving and 75% believed that efficiency attribute can handle the complaints.

The researcher has found out through interviews and questionnaires that customer relationship management is a responsible department that can play its role in creating customer loyalty and can play its role in achieving organizational objectives. The respondents believe in that CRM can play its role in identifying client’s needs and requirements. It is not easy task to identify their requirements. Now with the rapid change in the technology and by implementing these new methods and procedures the image and quality of brand and services can be improved more easily. Similarly the researcher came to know that some customers do not like to watch films movies or dramas and they just need proper rest after whole day visits of different places and they need privacy and comfort, they do not like to disturb them for tea or breakfast or anything. The researcher came to know that actually main problem with the employees is that they have some skills and capabilities to serve the customers in a good manners but the problem with them is that the identification of the problem is so complex and not an easy task for the customer relationship management the customers looking for the excellent services and expect high quality of response from the employees while they are offering them services or serving them with tea or coffee in the room. Due to improper information about the customer’s requirements it is very hard for the services manager to provide the quality of services to the customers to bring excellent performance. Majority of the customer are agreed that the customer relationship can bring the happiness and pleasure and satisfaction among all of them and they all have responded that there are some factors if the CRM department can just consider all of them priority wise then it is very helpful for them to design such kind of business policies and business strategies and business plans and in such a way the CRM department can combine all other departments and their work in smoothly and well manners that the effectively the objectives of the ‘Marriot’ Hotel can be easily achieved through these business plans, all those factors that the researcher has found out have really so importance and the resource allocation must be according to the each department, trainings and other skills like communicational and interpersonal and attitude and the staff behavior with each other and with the clients have an impact, majority round about 90% were agreed that staff behavior and attitude, their body language and style and response always contribute in quality of services. Majority of the people are in the right of brand image that the organizational name, product offers, room size, and those features that are related with the product advantages, features and benefits over the competitors product contribute in the high quality of services because when the product has its own image in the mind of customers then automatically customers attract towards the organization and brand creation and image creation is not easy work, it is directly related to the customer relationship management department and it is the measure of their performance. Offering has its own contribution and is a major factors that play an important role in customers loyalty and in bringing the trust relation on long term basis majority and significantly majority of the respondents respond that first of all brand name and secondly offers season wise, package wise, group wise, on some special events like charismas, Easter, new year etc play its effective role in creating loyalty, trustworthy environment and faithfulness among all the clients. Then on third point the main factors is honor the commitments and honoring the promises that the company has made at the time of product launching it means that the availability of the rooms, services, free services, breakfast, free accommodation, buy one get one free and maintain the standard and volume and quantity of the items and offers. Then after the promises the main factor that can create the satisfaction is the worker’s behavior and attitude towards the consumers and towards the productivity this may includes their response and understanding their requirements and providing the proper requirements and the last main factor is the fast service, quick service and prompt reply to the clients against their complaints and their needs.

The researcher came to know that there are some factors that can play their role in minimizing the difference between the prospect and the presented services and in such a way the Customer relationship management can bring more good association by designing and implementing these business plans to achieve organizational objectives, these are included quality of the services, old and new data of the private clients and their priorities if the organization has the record maintained and keep in safe. Once again the promises made by the CRM not by the hotel management only and only made by the CRM and all other skills that already the researcher has described above these abilities and skills that can bring loyalty and satisfaction among the consumers and the one new thing and important factor is the feedback that here the consumer has the right and maximum the consumers give the feedback regarding their experience and it is the main check regarding services and their happiness level to check their level of satisfaction and by considering these factors the CRM department can make its role very effectively. The researcher came to know that the “Marriot Hotel’ in the London United Kingdom has good image and brand recognition in the mind of the major clients and it is good sign towards their loyalty and product features but the only main complaints is regarding the CRM services and the way of the treatment of the employees with all the customers regarding asking their priorities and expectations at the time of booking and after their entry they do not ask them about their satisfaction level which is more appropriate, the majority of the consumers are not satisfied with the complaints system that if they want to make a complaint about services and in time services for example breakfast, tea time etc then they must be known the way to make complaints such things for handling their problem by offering them suitable and in time solution. The entire interviewed involved person has told that the CRM must pay their attention towards the recognizing of their requirements and priorities well in time. The staff of the hotel is not so happy with the environment at the hotel they are afraid of their career growth and personal development, they require the system to review and performance measurement and the hotel management must provide them the opportunities to learn more from their subordinators while during the job so that they can make progress in the future and this is the responsibility of the CRM department to design such policies for the betterment of the staff members. And the employees also mentioned that the productivity level of the worker also contribute in the excellence outcomes. About 75% which is the major portion of the population is not happy with the CRM staff that they are failed in handling their problems at the spot. And only remaining minor proportion is willing that it is not a big issue but the research showed that there can be positive effect on the sales and growth of the organization if the CRM department successfully handles the complaints of the customers at the spot.  At the end after doing all the analysis the researcher came to know that the main problem is on the end of customer relationship management workforce because they do not know and they do not have such systematic approach to find out the exact requirements of the clients and this is due to insufficient skills and the procedures and the improper authorities otherwise the brand image of Marriot Hotel in London is so high in the client’s mind and clients have complaint about the feedback that the feedback is so poor. And due to this weakness the quality of the services provided to the clients is not up to the mark and in this way the clients are not happy with the management and the improper system of feedback and data record keeping of clients must be considered by the management because the hotel management has no such system to know well in advance at the time of booking about the requirements and the priorities. The hotel management has no such skilled workers that can handle the client’s problems and the administration has no criteria to measure the qualities and skills and abilities of their workers. The hotel management is only focusing on the decoration, food items and taste but they forget that fast reply, feedback, regular checkups and regular asking the clients about service, asking about their priorities are the necessary elements of quality of services.

  • Conclusions and suggestions
  • Limitations and Conclusion

The researcher is a student and the he has short time and the limited finance budget to conduct this research from the review literature the researcher came to know that if the researcher has short time and limited resources to conduct the research then the researcher should select the case study tool so the researcher has selected the case study tool for conducting the research and all the expected expenditures were made by the personal pocket.

And in this chapter the researcher has fully described all the limitations and the conclusions after gathering primary and secondary data and making analysis on the data and presenting the results in the last chapter. The researcher has conducted the interviews by the management staff as the researcher came to know through the review literature that when the researcher wanted to gather proper and actual nature of data he or she must select entire people from the organization in order to get proper results and the researchers must use semi structured techniques to save time and money so the researcher used this techniques to gather primary data. Through the interviews the researcher came to know and the researcher concluded that the customer relationship management is a department that plays an important role in the growth and the expansion and in increasing sales volume of the hotel industry, the main reason are that the customer relationship management is responsible for providing necessary requirements and needs of the customers and the employees to create loyalty among all, because the employees can also play their effective role in increasing sales by handling the clients in efficient manners. Customer relationship management department review the performance of the workers and provide them necessary trainings and improve their necessary skills required buy the hotel industry to handle consumers efficiently and on the priority basis because there is a relationship among the satisfaction and the workers skills and there is also significant relationship among the satisfaction of the consumers and the sales of the organization. And customer relationship management is also responsible for the designing and implementing all the plans and the strategies effectively in achieving goals by handling and providing quality of services to the consumers. The researcher came to know that it is the responsibility of the customer relationship management in making sure quality of services and handling complaints, designing and implementing effective strategies, review of skills, competencies, strategies and making amendments and then implementing. Employee’s loyalty based on salary, safety, trust worthy environment, friendly environment, career growth, rewards and recognitions. It means that if the hotel management provide quality of services to the customers then the satisfaction can be created among the customers and loyalty will established in the customer and it will create positive effect on the sales and growth of the hotel. The researcher came to know that there are so many factors that can play their role in creating quality of services very significantly in the review of literature and this was the main reason to design this question to found out those factors that the customer believed in those to suggest the administration to consider those factors while designing the policies and equip their workers with suitable skills to create satisfaction level among clients for achieving hotel objectives. from the review of literature the researcher came to know that there are some factors on the basis of them the customers gauge and measure the quality of services for example their opinion feedback, the worker’s style and their behaviour of behaving with customers, company commitments and promises that they have made with the targeted population to offered those elements and offerings to the clients, quick and very fast response regarding any issue. The researcher came to know through review literature that if there the gap exist due to these above mentioned two variables then the level of satisfaction is so low. Satisfaction level is directly proportion to the quality level of the services offered to the clients and satisfaction is directly related with the loyalty and hotel expansion and sales and its growth is directly depends on the loyalty. This was the main reason of this question. But if the hotel administration become able to recognize their needs then it will be possible for them to achieve their targets well in time without wasting time and cost. And for this purpose the administration have to improve the system and skills of the employees to achieve objectives efficiently and in well manners. To enhance the satisfaction and as review literature has proved that quality, satisfaction, handling clients by having appropriate skills and providing solution have an effect on the performance of the customer relationship management and hence a significant effect will be on the volume of sale and its growth. Through proper use of modern technology loyalty can be created among the clients. The organizations must pay their attention in recognizing the better quality services providing to the clients at their best level by identifying their needs because there are many differences that can create this problem between the client and services providers, and these problems can be minimized by skilled workers. Low quality of services major difference in the expectations and offered services are such factors that can create the problems for the companies because the clients never come again to buy the products from the company or come back again to hire the services. The manufacturers and services providers consider all those factors in order to create the satisfactions because the marketing activities are related and have a connection in message delivery that on the basis of them the clients make their expectations and these expectations becomes the standard to measure the level of satisfaction among the clients. And the past experience of the clients allows and provides a chance to the service providers to improve those services level to create loyalty. The complaints can be handled in well manners and two types of benefits can be achieved, number one the by providing suitable solution to the customer the loyalty can be created and secondly the company can come to know that where is the actual problem, but it needs highly skilled employees. The organizations must equip the employees with highly communicational skills to handle clients with suitable authorities that are necessary to provide solution and making amendments in the services for better results. The researcher came to know through secondary data that service quality has an importance in creating satisfaction and loyalty among the clients to earn more money. The researcher had found out that client’s satisfaction and loyalty cab be created by identifying the actual nature of clients problem and by providing them suitable solutions at right time. The service quality can be increased and can be improved at maximum level with two considering. Client’s satisfaction can be improved by improving the services that offered to those clients. From gathering the primary data the researcher has found out that the employees are in need of training because some respondents responded that they are not happy with the services and the main issue is with the lack of systematically approach of taking feedback from the clients at the time when they want to share their expectations and regularly asking them regarding the quality of services to make it sure that the services are appropriately delivered to them. Similarly the researcher came to know through interview that this is very complex to identify the requirements of clients because every client has different mind and thinking style and different approach, attitude and behavior and priorities as compared to other one, so they need system to identify their needs and wants periodically and regularly, for this purpose they need trainings to the staff members who can only do this job. It will also effect on the quality of services significantly and will help full for both parties like to the staff or management and to the clients. When the researcher has asked question about the room services and came to know that some client’s attitude remain so bad and they insulted the workers on a minor mistake like late in tea, breakfast etc.

  • Recommendations

The researcher came to know that there are so many issues with the customer relationship management here at the Marriot hotel in London United Kingdom. The researcher has made following recommendations to improve quality of services to the clients in retaining old clients and capturing more new clients from the market and by creating loyalty and satisfaction among all of them to achieve organizational objectives.

First of all the customer relationship management must review the performance of the employees and make necessary arrangements for the improvements as the researcher came to know through review literature and the primary data that through skills and attitude and behaviours the employees can handle critical situations in achieving organizational main purpose by creating satisfaction among them.

The hotel management must authorize the employees to provide better solutions by allocating resources to the management for creating happiness and bringing pleasure by solving their problems and the customer relationship management must design the system to recognize the priorities and requirements of the clients as it is very important and in this way the CRM departments can handle the clients and can retain then happily and loyal with the organization. The CRM department must pay attention towards and for the welfare of its staff members to provide them sufficient facilities and recognitions and rewards on best performances and encourage them for better results because review literature proved that through productive attitude the organizations can handle issues and can achieve its goals efficiently. The hotel management must offer cheap rates and packages to attract new customers and discounts to the old clients. The workers can play important role so by keeping all the factors which have been discussed in primary research and in analysis must be focused by the hotel administrations for the better results in future.

  • Further Research

There are so many areas which can be undertaken by the researcher for more effective role of customer relationship management role because many factors still need to be disclosed.

For example the important are the qualification of the employees, consumers psychology, decoration, online marketing, marketing effective strategies, 4 Ps of marketing, location of the hotel, offers and the luxury priority etc.

Compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture

The organizational structures represent the different level of management along with the responsibilities and positions of the responsible people in an organization (Bateman et al., 2009). Every organization has the organizational structure that describes the flow chart of command and hierarchy of the management and controlling system and different levels of management (Bennis and Warren, 2007).


Departmentalization structure is the best structure and in this structure the work and duties are assigned to the group of the people and there are different ways of departmentalization which are given below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).

Customer relationship department

The main focus of the organization is to pay focus on the customers and this department based on the different needs, retention and capturing new customers from the market (Hersberger, 2007).

Functional Department

The main focus of the organization depends on the different functions and department divided on the behalf of the different functions (Intagliata, 2002).

Product Department

In this structure the departments are designed on the nature of product, pricing, strategy to develop and design and marketing.

Process Department.

Here in this way the departments are divided in the different departments with different aims and objectives, each department is responsible for the different aims and objectives to achieve (Kotter and John, 2003).

Geographical department.

In this way departments like regional departments and these departments based on the climate, availability of labour, raw material and other conditions (Mech and Terrence, 2003).

Chain of Command.

This is another type of organizational structure and the organizations adopted this structure with the aims and objectives of command like in military (Army, Navy and air force) in these organizations authorities, responsibilities and communications are of most importance. The structure shows the level of people at their ranks with their powers, authorities and their duties and responsibilities (Moore and Audrey, 2004).

Spain of Control

Sometimes there are more than one business partners and one manager is controlling more than one people to carry out the business operations, so the span of control can be tall and narrow, flat and wide. In the tall and narrow the managers control about 6 to 10 people, they supervise the employees and they have effective communication and fast communications (Plunkett and Richard, 2003).

Flat and Wide

In the flat and wide span of control the managers are authorised and responsible to design and develop the strategies and policies and train their employees. In this way the employees have more morality with the high span of control (Pritchard and Steven, 2000).

Centralization and Decentralization

In this organizational structure the main powers of decision making is with the low level of employees they have the authority to make decision as per their nature of work and routine of work. The higher level delegate authority to the lower level employees to make decisions to carry on their daily work independently. In the decentralization the operational issues and strategic directions are always from top to down (Bateman et al., 2009).

Matrix Structure

In this kind of structure the people from the different departments and the products have their specific as according to the nature of their projects. The people involved in the matrix structures face different situations and with their skills they handle the skills and sort out the solutions. In this kind of structure the loyalty among the employees always remained high and the resource allocation always become high due to highly skilled people involvement (Bennis and Warren, 2007).

Organization culture

There are different kinds of the organizational cultures all the cultures have been described in detailed below (Gemmill and Judith, 2002).

Power Culture

In this kind of culture the medium and the small size organizations this culture prevails and in the centralized decisions always designed by the small organizations where the power culture prevailed. This is the best culture because the organizations can control the wastage of resources effectively and the management can measure, control and monitor the business operations and workers motivations can be built easily as compared to other cultures (Hersberger, 2007).

Role Culture

Different functions and each division assigned a specific role and similarly there are so many benefits of this culture the each skilled worker or unskilled individual pay focus on achieving its goal and objectives (Intagliata, 2002).

Task Culture

The each person always assigned a task in this culture and in the modern era the organizations are adopting this culture there are so many benefits of this culture. The cost reduces and the wastage of resources are always controlled efficiently in way (Kotter and John, 2003).

Person Culture

In the non profit organizations the personal culture is going to be more popular and prevailing because these people have their specific aims and objectives to meet (Mech and Terrence, 2003).

SWOT & STEEP Analysis (A Case Study of ASDA)

Presentation: Strategic Planning . Strategic Management and Leadership

ASDA was originally formed in the 1920s as Hindell’s Dairies. ASDA was established by a group of Yorkshire farmers who processed and sold meat and milk products through Hindell’s Dairies. In 1949, the company changed its name to Associated Dairies and Farm Stores Ltd. The grocer merged with Queen’s Supermarkets to form ASDA Stores Ltd in 1965 (


ASDA aims to be a value retailer that surpasses the customer’s expectations in terms of product price. To this end, the supermarket chain says that it will provide customers with goods as a lower price than its competitors do. At its more than 300 stores across the United Kingdom, ASDA sells food and groceries, as well as other products for the home (Koch, 2006).


A mission statement sets out the long-term direction of the organisation. ASDA’s mission is: ‘to be Britain’s best-value retailer exceeding customer needs always‘ (

SWOT analysis entails a distillation of the findings of an internal and external audit which draws attention, from a strategic perspective, to the critical organisational strengths and weaknesses and the opportunities and threats facing the organisation. Whereas PESTLE analysis is an audit of an organisation’s environmental influences with the purpose of using this information to guide strategic decision-making. The assumption is that if the organisation is able to audit its current environment and assess potential changes, it will be better placed than its competitors to respond to changes  (Ronald, 2013).

This study will analyse the impact of political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors on Asda. It will also identify the key forces that represent both opportunities and threats to its profit. Data is supplemented with details on the company’s history, key executives, business description, locations and subsidiaries as well as a list of products and services and the latest available company statement (Thomas, 2007).

SWOT analysis is the study undertaken by an organization to identify its internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as its external opportunities and threats (Julie, 2009).

A tool that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of an organization. Specifically, SWOT is a basic, straightforward model that assesses what an organization can and cannot do as well as its potential opportunities and threats (Albert, 2008). The method of SWOT analysis is to take the information from an environmental analysis and separate it into internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external issues (opportunities and threats). Once this is completed, SWOT analysis determines what may assist the firm in accomplishing its objectives, and what obstacles must be overcome or minimized to achieve desired results (Jean and Glen, 2010)

Strengths 1.Wide range of product offerings and service offerings include financial services 2.Known for its amazing marketing campaigns 3.In constant touch with its customers via social networking, asks feedback, conducts competitions, etc. 4.Socially responsible through CSR initiatives 5.ASDA has over 140,000 employees working at over 500 stores (Menon, 2010).


1.  Limited global presence as compared to few other competitors

2. Their ability to sell prices have restricted their entrance is few countries as the country fear a competition with local vendors (Hill & Westbrook, 2007).


1.  Expanding in new areas of pharmacies,    opticians, jewelry and photo department.

2. Venturing into markets that are growing like India, China etc


1.Price war with other retail chains brands 

2.Pressure of maintaining low prices.

3. Ever changing policies of various central governments

STEEP Analysis

External environment factors such as down turns in the economy, and a lack of investment in innovation can have a significant impact on a firm’s strategic options (Koch, 2006). To obtain a better glance of how these factors will affect the planning process, analysts can utilize the STEEP analysis tool. When used correctly, the tool will furnish decision makers with information which should be used to improve existing strategic plans (Ronald, 2013).

Political Factors

1.Government policy on taxation, Employment laws including wages, rates etc.

2.Political unrest: due to influx of large number of foreign nationals in the country (Thomas, 2007).

3.Unstable Government: due to govt inability to stabilise the economy (Julie, 2009).

4.Government education policy: efforts to encourage more people to stay on high education

Economic Factors

1.Interest Rates 


3.Economic growth 

4.Exchange rates 

5.Stage of business cycle 

6.Assisting people entering and re-entering the job market

7. Maximize the contribution of local and regional economies 

8. Disposable income

Social Factors

1.Large influx of EU citizen in the country leading to a high demand for accommodation, welfare, healthcare and education (Jean and Glen, 2010). 

2.Changes in social trends

3.Ageing population could lead to an increase to ASDA’s pension payment for their employees. It could also lead to another source of labour pool for ASDA to tap into.

4.An ageing population could also lead to unwillingness to work and an increase in pension .

5.Lifestyle changes: Longer opening hours in supermarkets means that people are working longer and / or flexible hours  (Albert, 2008).

6.In areas of high concentration of ethnic groups, goods and services are targeted towards that ethnic group e.g. Slough / Southall Lifestyle

7.Charity: benefits to the community



10.Lifestyle changes 

11.Health and welfare 

Technological Factors

1.New ways of shopping: online shopping

2.New product types i.e. mobile phones, MP3 players etc. 3.Improved efficiency in stock control due to bar coding

4.Cost reduction due to introduction of new technology i.e. lower cost of labour

5.Self scanning of products

6.Chip and Pin

Environmental Factors

1.Increased demand could lead to increased

2.Pursuing environmentally friendly strategies i.e. focused on recycling 

3.Packaging Recycling

Change Management, A case study of Tesco Shopping Mall

1.1   Introduction

In this essay the author has described the stakeholders by selecting the retail supermarket “Tesco” and described the stakeholder groups and then explained the different stakeholders of the selected organization. In this essay author has described the importance of stakeholders to the organization and their impact on the business activities and also described the way to identify stakeholder’s expectations, requirements and their interest and to manage them by fulfilling their needs and requirements to make growth and to achieve competitive advantages.

1.1.1        Tesco Background

Tesco was founded by Mr. Jack Cohen in 1919 and gradually it makes growth in retail industry and sustained its growth because of its effective business strategies. Tesco is leader organization in grocery and merchandizing in retail industry in UK and doing its business in global market and sustained its competitive position by offering its financial services and high quality of its products in no food items at lowest prices to its customers. Tesco is the market leader in United Kingdom retail industry and second largest globally in terms of revenue. Tesco has its business operations in USA, Asia and Europe. Tesco has captured the 31% market share from the targeted market. There are about 370,000 employees employed by Tesco in all over the world and it’s more than 80% sales revenue is generated from United Kingdom and only 30% of its business share is spread outside the United Kingdom (Tesco, 2014).

1.1.1    Stakeholders

According to Capron & Glazer, (2010) that stakeholders can be defined as the people, an individual or group of people or an institution that can be affected or have an impact on the business operations of an organization. Kotler & Schlesinger, (2007) stated that stakeholders may be include owner, employees, investors, media, customers and consumers, suppliers, local community, banks, financial institutions, employee union, competitors, government, industry and business partners (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). Tesco stakeholders have their impacts on its business operation in the following way employees have impact on the success of organization if they have no productive attitude and do not agree with organizational objectives. Similarly, the managers have their own impact on the decision making (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) if they do not develop and design effective business strategies (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013) and decision in this way Tesco could not achieve its objectives (Benfield, 2012). If the Tesco suppliers supply the material and furnished products with low quality customers may angry and there will be low sales volume and Tesco could not achieve targeted sales volume (Byars, 2010). Similarly, if the credit terms and conditions changed by the Tesco to the suppliers that may delay in the delivery of raw material and products and in other supplies like electricity and gas. Additionally, ultimately there will be no more sales and Tesco could not achieve its targets. New laws designed by the government (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007) have their own impact on the profitability of the organization (Cooper, 2010) for example if the government raise the wage rate and also raise the tax rate in this way Tesco could not achieve its targets Tesco needs to increase the prices and customers may not accept these changes in price and may switched (Byars, 2010) to other retail stores. If the banks, creditors or lenders may raise the interest rate in this way there will be a negative impact on the Tesco business operations (Benfield, 2012).

1.1.2    Customers

According to Locke, (2009) that Tesco customers are the main stakeholders of organization because they want the quality of products at cheap prices to overcome their needs and wants and become satisfy by consuming their products. Being social responsible Tesco is offering products and services at cheap prices and in this way customer’s buying power is increasing and they can buy more products from the Tesco. Tesco is also taking care for the environment and has been offering the products those have low carbon emission in the atmosphere. Customers are more interested in offers, more high quality of products at cheap prices from Tesco. Tesco consider their interests while making its business strategies (Capron & Glazer, 2010).

1.1.3    Suppliers

Tesco suppliers are the stakeholders, because the suppliers are earning profit from Tesco by supplying their products and services and the quality of raw material or furnished products also have an impact on the business of Tesco. Tesco pay them money and they are earning profit from Tesco and paying wages and their expenses by earning from Tesco (Jan, 2011). Gas and electricity providers, telephone and internet providers are also the main suppliers of Tesco and raw material and furnished products are also supplied by the different organizations and Tesco has very good relationship with them. Their main interests with Tesco are including more business, more revenue, better and long term relationship, more revenue, more profit (Cooper, 2010).

1.1.4    Employee

Employees are the human resources for an organization, Tesco believes in that human resource is an asset for it and Tesco is investing large investment in equipping them with good skills and training to them (Thompson, 2010). Tesco work placement environment is friendly and health and safety issues are also always consider while developing business strategies (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). Tesco is offering good wages as according to the labour law of UK government. Tesco is also compensating its employees with paid holidays, holidays, flexible working hours, incentives, extra working hours, medical insurance, pension and special discounts. Tesco has compliance with rules and regulations and there is no discrimination based on religion, race, sex, color and disabilities all employees have equal opportunity rights (Thompson, 2010). Employees are always interested in flexible working hours, handsome salaries, extra working hours, pension, life insurance, medical allowance, job security, equal opportunity rights, career development and incentives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

1.1.5    Government

United Kingdom is the main stakeholder of Tesco. Tesco is the source of revenue for the government in the country where it is operating its business and government is also offering and providing facilities to the Tesco to conduct its business successfully. For example government has established rules and regulations for the business organizations to conduct the business inside the country and also grant the permissions to do business in global market and facilitate them and ensure them as well (Locke, 2009). Government establish policies related with labour wages, working hours, check and balance on the quality of products, facilitate them and enforce suppliers to honor their promises while making an agreement with Tesco. Tesco always compliance with UK government rules and regulation and also honor its promises made by it with the other stakeholders. UK government has the interest to generate more and more revenue from Tesco and Tesco must compliance by all the rules and regulations (Kotler, 2010).   

1.1.6    Media

Media now a day is the main stakeholder of an organization (Thompson, 2010). Media is also generating revenue from the business organizations like Tesco. Tesco launch its marketing and promotion campaign and advertise its products through different media channels including electronic media channel, print media channel and electronic media channel. Media want more advertisement and orders to publish Tesco products in newspapers and broadcast its advertisement on TV and electronic media has interest in domain registration and in offering its services as well to communicate with its stakeholders and generate revenue for its employees in order to meet its expenses to achieve organizational objectives (Putnam, 2010).

1.1.7    Investors

Investors are the main stakeholder of an organization like Tesco because investors are the creditors and they need to earn money by investing their money. They wish to receive more money on their investments (Thompson, 2010). They are always interested in the well reputation and well business operations of the business organizations, more products will be produced by the organization and more sales will be generated and in this way Tesco will make more profit and investors will also receive more dividends on their investments. So investors always interested in true financial information of business organization (Robinson et al., 2000).

1.1.8    Environment

Environment is the major stakeholder of Tesco organization because of business operation it had bad impact on the environment, due to carbon emission, noise, gas emission, heat is produced that have negative impact on the atmosphere and wild life and humans. People also through the wastage and it cause the soil pollution and water pollution. So environment has direct impact because of Tesco business operations. Similarly deforestation is another negative impact on the environment and other communities (Thompson, 2010). Tesco has started to produce product with low carbon emission in the air and also paying its focus on the small packaging as well in order to save the environment from pollution. According to Acemoglu & Jackson, (2013) that environment always needs to be saved by the business organizations and there should be low carbon emission and minimum heat should be produced and business organizations should adopt new technologies to recycle their wastage to avoid air and water pollution. As the mission of the Tesco is to create loyalty and satisfaction among the stakeholders by identifying their expectations and by fulfilling their needs to make and sustain business growth (Tesco, 2014).

As Tesco has adopted the fair trade policy has been designed and implemented and it is generating much revenue from all over the world by focusing the 3rd world countries as well and by creating loyalty, happiness and satisfaction among its customers and consumers and stakeholders are also happy with the fair trade policy. Tesco is generating more revenue and making good profit and shareholders are also receiving handsome returns on their investments (Byars, 2010). Similarly, Tesco has very good relations and effective communication with its suppliers and put order well before time for the supplies and also as the effective means of transportation to reach the deliveries in its stores. Tesco has very good image and its brand is famous because Tesco is offering excellent quality of products to its customers and in this way its image is good in the mind of customers and consumers and because of all this creditors, lenders and bankers have believe in Tesco policies and they are also happy, Tesco always provide them all necessary true financial information and engage them while making and decision. Tesco share prices are very high in the London stoke exchange and this is also a good chance for the investors to make good money as according to Benfield, (2012) that stakeholders expect more returns on their investments.

1.2   Conflicts and how conflict may help or hinder the attainment of organizational goals

First of all there is conflict between the Tesco and its workers, fuel drivers want job security and increases in their salaries, because of their job plan they will be transferred to another organization from the Wincanton. Because of this conflict there will be a negative impact on the organizational goals and objectives, they will plan and go for strike and the Tesco supplies will be delay and in this way Tesco may face financial problem and customers could not receive products at right time and sales volume will go down. Tesco has another conflict with its shareholders and this is a major conflict, basically Tesco want to bring some changes in the terms and conditions for the fired board members and want to save their jobs at high salaries whereas the share holders are against this change (Capron & Glazer, 2010). In this way there is negative impact on the Tesco operations because investors are sure that in this way they may have no choice to elect as board member and they may want to get back their investments from Tesco, but as because of media pressure that Tesco is growing fast, so investors are not taking back their money. There is a conflict between Tesco and its customers the actual conflict is the Tescopoly that has gone completely against the Tesco. Tesco has been prevailed in all over the market. There are more than 3700 Tesco stores in all over the world and the small retailers are disturbed by its Tescopoly because they could not earn much money because of Tesco price leadership (Tesco, 2014). The customers want that the money should be circulate among the small retailers as well and they can be benefited from this. It has negative impact on the brand image of Tesco and secondly in this way the customers will be unhappy and they will stop to buy more from Tesco and sales revenue will be dropped and Tesco could not achieve its financial targets. Small retailers are trying their best to provide negative image of Tesco to the consumers but Tesco has believe in customer’s loyalty.

There is also another conflict between Tesco and its supplier (a bakery in Manchester), Tesco want to maximize its supplies from the other bakeries and this bakery is going to closed and more than 200 employees will lose their jobs. In this way workers are not happy with the Tesco decision and they are going to be jobless because of Tesco decision and they are unhappy. There is another conflict between the Tesco and local community as around 130 local citizen casted vote against Tesco developments in local community council. Now the Tesco need to have another store in the same area and there will be a huge investment required to open a new store that will take time and money (Capron & Glazer, 2010). Being a social responsible it may have a bad impact on the Tesco policy and people when talked to their friends and family friends about their job story they might tell others and in this way Tesco reputation may be lose and people may switch from Tesco to another superstore (Benfield, 2012) and Tesco may lose its sales revenue (Cooper, 2010).

Part 2

2.     How the leadership style adopted by a manager may either facilitate or hinder change in organisations

2.1         Introduction

According to (Byars, 2010) that there are a variety of leadership styles now a day and no one is perfect to meet employees demand to achieve Tesco aims and objectives by facilitating or hindering the changes in Tesco. In order to fulfill the employee’s desires and Tesco organization the management always find the new ways to achieve organizational objectives. Only the effective leaders or managers are able to change their way of controlling the change circumstances at Tesco through their effective adopted leadership style (Jan, 2011).

2.1.1    Analysis of Classic Leadership Styles

In this way manager at Tesco need to give small directions to its subordinators and allocate them necessary resources to carry out daily tasks (Jan, 2011), this leadership style is only good when the subordinators are highly qualified and highly trained and they have high productivity attitude (Johnson & Scholes, 2010). Whereas the autocratic style of leadership is that where the leaders or managers can exert control over the work and they instruct the workers to carry out their assignments (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). In the participative leadership style stall members are always invited by the managers to share their experience, problems and knowledge to solve a specific problem to achieve organizational objectives (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

2.1.2    Analysis of Transformational Leadership Styles

According to Capron & Glazer, (2010) that the theories transformational leaders/ managers always have vision in their mind and they always inspired other through their own work and also inspire their team workers as well. Transformational leaders can do their best work in innovative business organizations (Cooper, 2010) because they possess the qualities and vision and have also the charisma in their personality (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007).

2.1.3    Analysis of Participative Leadership Styles

According to Kotler, (2010) that some managers or leaders always focus on the participation and this is called participative styles the first one is democratic style in this way the manager or leader always use employee’s knowledge, experience and skills and helped them in achieving organizational objective in right direction (Locke, 2009). This leadership style is appropriate when the organization can be possible to go in wrong direction (Putnam, 2010). The second leadership style in participative styles is affiliative style in this way the leader focus on team work rather than group work. In this way the manager increase the moral values of the teamwork and made effective communication strategies  (Robinson et al., 2000) so that team workers can communicate with each other and help each other in solving any problem that they might faced at the work placement and in this way they can collectively achieve the organizational objectives (Kotler, 2010). 

2.2   Reasons for change

With the change in technology and development in societies there is change in demand of new products (Thompson, 2010) and these changes enforce the business organizations to make changes in their procedures, products, operations and activities and competitions always exists. There are following factors of change in Tesco (Locke, 2009).

2.2.1    Competition

Due to new entrants in the market force the Tesco to bring change in its business policies and marketing plans or the competitors some time change their policies (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013) and adopted new ways to do marketing and manufacturing the products to increase their market share (Benfield, 2012) that enforce the organization to adopt the change as according to same strategy that bring changes in the business policies and marketing strategies (Putnam, 2010).

2.2.2    Technology

Tesco sometime enforced by the new innovation in technology to adopt changes in work placement and also leads towards new trainings to the employees (Byars, 2010) as well and to install the new technology in the business operations. For example the new shopping trends adopted by customers were online shopping (Capron & Glazer, 2010) and Tesco has adopted that change and started its website shopping and provided that facility to its customers and trained the employees to book orders and deliver the items at door (Cooper, 2010). Similarly, Tesco has started heat sensors to reduce the long queues (Jan, 2011) and now the customers buy and scan their product at automatic tills and pay by cards and cash. Now there are no long queues on the manual tills (Robinson et al., 2000).

2.2.3    Growth desire

According to (Johnson & Scholes, 2010) Tesco is achieving competitive advantages and want to sustain the competitive advantages and for achieving competitive positions and sustaining its position in market Tesco adopt changes to increase quality of products and to low the cost. So to make growth Tesco need to make changes in its procedures and ways of doing business (Thompson, 2010).

2.2.4    Improve the process

In order to eliminate the waste and to reduce the wastage of resources organizations always improve their procedures that bring value and better in quality of products and reduce the cost as well  (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007). For example Tesco has been started to manufacture products those emit low carbon emission because of value chain process that has been improved (Kotler, 2010). So changes in the procedures always have impact on the efficiency of the organizational effectiveness and also force the organization to make changes in the operations (Tesco, 2014).

2.2.5    Government regulations

Sometimes governments announced the changes in regulations and organizations needs to bring changes in their business operations (Locke, 2009), for example government passed a bill to bring new changes in the work placement regarding health and safety of workers than the organizations need to compliance with those regulations and they need to bring some changes (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013).

2.3   Change Management Theories and Models and their advantages and disadvantages

According to Putnam, (2010) that there are main three theories or model of change management

2.3.1    Lewin’s change management Model

The first change management model was given by the Kurt Lewin in 1950s and he recognized three main stages of change in an organization (Benfield, 2012). Unfreeze

In this stage people resist to change to overcome this problem organization must motivate employees towards change, this is called unfreeze stage (Byars, 2010). Transition

Ager unfreeze stage organizations must go in transition stage, here the leaders or management must make it sure that processes for change are in right direction (Capron & Glazer, 2010). Refreeze

After the transition stage the organizations need to follow the guidelines to get benefit from the change (Cooper, 2010). Advantages and disadvantages of Lewin’s Change Management Theory


It is easy and simple to understand and implement (Jan, 2011).

Easy to plan the need of change


It is very complex to put change in freezing situation

There is no concept of politics and power in this model

There are no transformational and radical changes

2.3.2    McKinsey 2-S Model

Mr. Richard Pascal, Mr. Robert Waterman and Tom Peter have given the McKinsey 7S model for change. They stated that there are major seven factors called as change agents including shared values, strategy, structure, system, style, staff and skills (Johnson & Scholes, 2010). Advantages of McKinsey Model

According to Jan, (2011) that there are following benefits of this model of change

It is effective way to analyze and understand the organization

This model offer proper method of change in organization

Both emotional and rational methods are combined in this model of change Drawbacks of this model

 Dissimilarities have been totally ignored in this method

This is not easy to understand and adopted by organization (due to its complexities)

Failure chances are high (if an organization adopts this model for change)

2.3.3    Kotter’s 8 step change management model

John Kotter professor at Harvard University given this change management model and according to him that leaders should convince the employees towards change and then employees should be hired by the organizations in the change, basically there are 8 steps in this model (Kotler & Schlesinger, 2007).

Source: Author Advantages and disadvantages of this Model

According to Johnson & Scholes, (2010) that there are following advantages and disadvantages of this model

Easy and understandable

It pays complete focus on accepting change rather than to actual change in organization

It is easy to convert the changes in this way Disadvantages of this Model

Organizations could not amend or skip any step

It takes maximum time (Johnson & Scholes, 2010).

2.4   Impact of politics, conflicts and power on organizational effectiveness

Politics, conflicts and power always play their role in the business efficiency (Robinson et al., 2000), to execute business operations, management make decisions so that employees can communicate with each others at work placement and carried out their routine work effectively (Kotler, 2010). It is up to employees that both they use the power in positive or negative form to influence their colleagues and subordinators politics has the direct impact on the organizational culture and also increase the productivity attitude of employees (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). To achieve organizational objectives employees often face challenges and conflicts produced between employees while achieving challenges to achieve organization’s mission. Employees become frustrated because of conflicts and their productive attitude becomes reduced and it had negative impact on the productivity of an organization (Benfield, 2012). Employees feel stress and they do not perform well as according to their abilities and they feel headache, loose appetite and feel problem with sleep and could not perform well and conflicts also generate violence and people leave the organizations and organizations have to face legal problems as well (Locke, 2009). There are some positive aspects on conflicts in organizations for example it provide a chance to the employees to brainstorm their ideas (Byars, 2010) that bring new ideas and innovations in solving problems, because of conflicts employee pay more attention towards work and achieve organizational objectives, while there are conflicts in the organization (Capron & Glazer, 2010), management find out the real roots and improve its procedures for future and make sure that there will be no conflicts among the employees. According to Cooper, (2010) that If the people in organization use the power positively they increase productivity among employees and built confidence among employees and people achieve their targets effectively that increase organizational performance (Locke, 2009), and if the people use power negatively they discourage the employees and conflicts may arise at work placement (Putnam, 2010). Due to negative use of power organizational employees turnover always become high (Jan, 2011), according to Johnson & Scholes, (2010) that employees those navigate the organizational politics always play their role with productive attitude and achieve their targets. According to Kotler & Schlesinger, (2007) that if employees positively understand the policies of organization can easily find out their answers and they can enable to perform with more productive attitude. And if the people fall in negative politics in an organization they suffer from conflicts (Kotler, 2010) and their productive attitude always decreases and they could not perform well and could not achieve their targets and lose quality of work (Robinson et al., 2000).

2.5   Impact of motivated workforce towards organizational performance

According to Robinson et al., (2000) that motivated workforce always contributed towards the productivity of an organization because motivated workforce means workforce of an organization with more commitment (Thompson, 2010), with more energies, abilities to face challenges and abilities to create new ways to solve problems (Acemoglu & Jackson, 2013). These all attributes of employees enforce them in achieving organizational objectives positively and tackling unforeseen challenges and obstacles and they easily achieve their targets assigned by higher management (Benfield, 2012). According to Byars, (2010) that workforce with motivation always feel their responsibilities and they perform well as according to their skills and abilities and handle the situation and find out the best solution of the problems (Thompson, 2010).

Teaching, Inclusive Teaching Critical Essay

1.    Teaching Introduction

There are following types of teaching definition, which includes the identifying, finding out the leaner’s abilities, identifying their needs and actual wants and needs and fulfilling their requirements and equipping them with suitable resources to learn them the education as per their requirement and as per their problem solution. Some students may be disabling and they may require special equipment, medical facilities and additional language to learn (Ashman and Conway, 2007).

2.    Inclusive Teaching

Teaching approach must be rational and logical and the teaching methods must be proactive rather than reactive and defensive (Bandura, 2005).

The teaching methods must have the policy and strategies that make sure that the teaching method will deliver the knowledge and education without any discrimination and the method and way will be based on purely on the equivalent basis, all students and learners will be treated on same basis without any race, colour and religion basis (Bandura, 2007).

The instructor/ teacher must teach the students and learners the subjects and provide them the necessary skills and trainings with specific objectives and the institute must be involved in the process of learning and in the process of delivering the knowledge under the specific circumstances (Gibson and Dembo, 2004).

Before the instructor/ teacher start to teach them it is recommended that the student’s and learners requirements must be identified

With the passage of time the methods and the requirements with the change in technology and resources and other circumstances the requirements of the learners will be changed and the instructor/ teacher must change their way of teaching and learning style and methods should be changed.

In the teaching inclusive method is the best way to teach the disable learners and especially when the instructor/ teacher want to describe the figure or diagram to the blind students then at that time the method must be reviewed, the instructor/ teacher will reassess the available material, teaching methods, policies and strategies to deliver the material and knowledge to the students (Brophy, 2008).

It is also instructor/ teacher’s responsibility to provide the suitable environment to the learners according to the resources and according to their needs and requirements where the learning outcomes must be in positive way and at maximum level the positive outcomes must be sure.

The instructor/ teacher or the education or training providers must design and follow the specific strategies and policies for all the learners to tackle the challenges, problems and hindrances in the way of implementation of learning methods.

3.    Advantages of inclusive teaching

As we are living in the assorted culture so the best and effective way of the teaching is the inclusive (Cheung, 2008).

This way is the best way of teaching and learning because the education can be promoted and quality of education and training can be provide through this way.

 With the time passage the disable students have now complete awareness about their rights and they have the chance to get education through inclusive teaching method and such effective environment can be provided only in the inclusive teaching.

4.    Explain how to provide opportunities for learners to practice their literacy, language, numeracy and ICT skills

 In order to provide the opportunities to the learners and to provide them the practice the skills and involve them in the learning activities towards literacy, language and numeracy and ICT (information communication technology) skills and these functional skills which includes essential knowledge, skills and learning the communication skills with confidence and effectively so that the learners can be able to spend their lives independently at their daily work and in their personal lives, the government has been spending lot of money and providing all the necessary facilities and equipping the education providers all the resources and other facilities so that the knowledge and essential skills must be provided to the learners effectively (Dellinger et al., 2008). Basically functional skills are those enable the individuals and equip the individuals to stand them in such a position to achieve better future opportunities in their lives and they can perform their job, duties and perform their responsibilities in effective way.  

Basically in the functional skills we include English (writing, speaking and listening), mathematics and information communication technology and these functional skills can be achieved and these kinds of trainings and developments can be achieved at their work place. Actually the instructor/ teacher and the students or learners need specific equipments, technology and confidence, competencies and hands on and skills to teach these skills to the learners effectively to the individuals and enable them to compete in the life either at their home or in their jobs (Fives and Buehl, 2009). In order to move further in their lives the learners need the trainings or professional trainings for further developments in their career path to make more progress. In order to deliver the functional skills to the individuals the instructor/ teacher must use the latest technology like power point slides (for presentation) to make most effective interaction with the learners the instructor/ teacher can arrange areas like online classes or conferences and the material could be uploaded for those individuals (Evertson, 2005).

5.    Opportunities to practice literacy

In order to provide the students the opportunities to practice their literacy the instructor/ teacher must provide them chance to the practice their literacy like writing essays, stories, emails, different articles, reports on different topics which includes daily problems, social problems and involve them in the class activities to polish their abilities and improve their skills and competencies and similarly the instructor/ teacher must take out learners and students to the out of class and provide them the necessary opportunities to encourage their confidence to perform their daily social lives and to fulfil other responsibilities (Gibson and Dembo, 2004). In order to create, develop and increasing the numeracy skills, competencies and abilities within the education and on the training the instructor/ teacher must started with the basic mathematical starter activities and must be finished at the Sudoku and involve the learners in the different basic mathematical activities like multiple equation solution to solve different equations which involves addition, subtraction, multiplication and division (Fives and Buehl, 2009).

6.    Explain ways to engage and motivate learners in an inclusive learning environment

The instructor/ teacher can motivate the students and learners in achieving learning environment (Ashman and Conway, 2007).

In order to engage and motivate the students and learner towards achieving learning objectives through inclusive environment, there are the following ways to engage and motivate learners which includes.

First of all clear the objectives of the learning to the learners.

First develop the initial momentum among the learners.

The instructor/ teacher can motivate the students to describe them the outcomes of the learning purpose

The learning outcomes must be concerned with the learner’s interest, and learner’s interest must be involved in the learning process and in learning outcomes.

The feedback must be given to the learners well in time so that the students can contribute more while learning the outcomes (Dellinger et al., 2008).

All learners must take part in questions and answer session and the learners must be appreciated on their answers and the instructor/ teacher do not allow to make a critic on the learners

The instructor/ teacher or trainers never point out any student for any shamed or lack of concentration and must identify their level of communication then choose the proper words to communicate with them (Evertson, 2005).

7.    Summarise ways to establish ground rules with learners to promote respect for others

The role of learning environment has its positive and negative impact on the learners, while positive impact always put positive changes among the learners and in this way the learners can obtain maximum learners outcomes and the learners can achieve the maximum education (Bandura, 2005). The ground rules are set of code of conduct that allows the learners to develop and maintain the environment in the class room and the instructor/ teacher or trainer can produce well standard of the work and reduce the distraction and in this way the learners can gain more attention of the students. And there are following ways to set the ground rules which includes

Trainers or instructor/ teacher set their own rules

The students or the learners set their own rules

Both of them learners and the instructor/ teacher set their own rules to maintain the environment good by mutual understanding (Bandura, 2007).

Instructors and the learners can work together and can design the code of conduct and the designed code of conduct by mutual sharing and understanding will be acceptable by all of them and in this way the ground rules are most effective and the environment created by this way is most effective for learners and the instructors as well (Brophy, 2008).

The learners can write down their own ground rules and in this way the ground rules can be established (Cheung, 2008).

Postnatal Depression


In the United Kingdom, 1 in 10 women experience postnatal depression following childbirth (Lewis, 2004). Postnatal depression has profound effects on quality of life, social functioning and economic productivity (Chisholm et al, 2003). The health consequences could also lead to adverse long-term emotional and physical development of the infant (Miles, 1993; Jones, 1994; Boath et al, 1998). Postnatal depression is also predictive of child cognitive and behavioural disturbances at the age of 3 years (Campbell et al, 1995; Murray et al, 1996). Moreover, failure to identify these women often leads to safeguarding concerns for both mothers and infants (Warrington et al, 2001). Health visitors play a vital role in identifying and supporting women who experience postnatal depression. Their role includes supporting families from birth to five, thus giving opportunity to provide a prolonged period of contact and support to women  affected by the disorder. However, evidence suggests that most vulnerable women including Black Minority Ethnic groups do not always receive this vital care.

What is the current state of play with this issue?

Postnatal depression can affect men too. The birth of a new baby can be stressful for both parents and some fathers feel unable to cope, or feel they are not giving their partner the support she needs. It usually develops in the first four to six weeks after childbirth, although in some cases it may not develop for several months. There are many symptoms of postnatal depression, such as low mood, feeling unable to cope and difficulty sleeping, but many women are not aware they have the condition. It’s common to experience mood changes, irritability and episodes of tearfulness after birth the so called baby blues. These normally clear up within a few weeks. But if a woman experiences persistent symptoms, it could well be the result of postnatal depression. It is important for partners, family and friends to recognise signs of postnatal depression as early as possible and seek professional advice. Postnatal depression can be lonely, distressing and frightening, but there are many treatments available. As long as postnatal depression is recognised and treated, it is a temporary condition you can recover from. It is very important to seek treatment if you think you or your partner have postnatal depression. The condition is unlikely to get better by itself quickly and it could impact on the care of the baby.

Treatment for postnatal depression includes:

Self help advice

Talking therapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy

Antidepressant medication

The cause of postnatal depression

The main causes are not clear, but it’s thought to be the result of several things rather than a single cause.

These may include:

The physical and emotional stress of looking after a newborn baby hormonal changes that occur shortly after pregnancy; it is thought some women may be more sensitive to hormones than others individual social circumstances such as money worries, poor social support or relationship problems.

Women might be more at risk of developing post natal depression if they:

Have a previous history of depression or other mood disorders such as bipolar disorder

Have a previous history of postnatal depression

Experience depression or anxiety during pregnancy

Postnatal depression is more common than many people realise and cases can often go undiagnosed. It is estimated around one in seven women experience some level of depression in the first three months after giving birth. Rates of postnatal depression are highest in teenage mothers and is thought to affect all ethnic groups equally.

Aims and objectives

Depression affects 5-22% of women after childbirth. Some women with postnatal depression will experience a prolonged or relapsing illness that may last until their children enter school. It has adverse effects upon the coping abilities of women, their relationships with their infants, partners and social networks and may adversely affect the educational attainment and behaviour of their children. Since many more women are now active in the workforce, the effects of postnatal depression have obvious economic consequences both for their families and their employers.

The researcher will find out themian causes of postnatal depression among the moothers

The researcher want to know the impact of postnatal depression on the motehrs

The researcher want to know about the treatment of postnatal depression

The researcher is intersted in finding out the main causes of postnatal depression

The researcher will find out the darkside and its bad effects on mother’s health

The researcher will develop the positive suggestions and recommendations for the mothers to

reduce the chances of postnatal depression.

The researcher will find out the risk of postnatal depression associated with human lives

The researcher will find out its percentage and the age in which the people become its victom

Review of literature

The postnatal period is the period following the birth of a baby (Omar & Fattah, 1998) extending up to one year after delivery. For the majority of women this marks a relatively healthy period in their lives. However, it is estimated that a significant number of families areaffected by postnatal depression with 15% of women diagnosed with this disorder (Leverton & Elliott, 2000; Lewis, 2004). Despite the widespread nature of the problem the current process of diagnosis and treatment is not standardised, is often chaotic and may result in inappropriate care and treatment (Clifford et al, 1999). Postnatal depression is defined as an affective mood disorder often occurring in women up to one year after child birth (Gibson et al, 2009). This disorder is often characterised by feelings of loss and sadness and sometimes the loss of self-esteem (Olshansky, 2003). The depressive scale of this disorder and its presentation ranges from mild depression requiring minimal intervention to puerperal psychosis which often requires multi-therapy intervention, hospitalisation and long term support (Williamson & McCutcheon, 2004). Depression accounts for the greatest burden of

disease among all mental health problems, and it is expected to become the secondhighest among all general health problems by 2020 (Murray & Lopez, 1996). Minority ethnic groups represent 29% of the population in Greenwich with an estimated increase to over 33% by 2011 (Whiteman & Guite, 2008).


A qualitative study by Amankwaa in 2003 looked at 12 women who have experienced postnatal depression in the past and noted that these African women believed that only white women get postnatal depression. This was considered a sign of weakness that did not represent a legitimate illness (Cox, 1999). In 2004, in a rural area of Ethiopia, Hanlon et al, (2009) conducted 25 in-depth interviews and five focus groups with purposely-selected participants. The participants included pre-natal women, fathers, grandmother, traditional and religious leaders, birth attendants and community leaders. The aim of the study was to determine societal recognition of problematic distress states in the postnatal period. The problematic distress state was defined to include both spiritual and mental disturbance. Hanlon et al, (2009) study identified salient themes that respondents spontaneously describe as culturally problematic distress occurring in the postnatalperiod, but they did not consider it to be an illness. This bears similarities to the current study where women exhibited symptoms of postnatal depression but did not regard it as an illness. The implication for practice suggests that lack of identification could be a contributory factor in naming the presenting phenomenon of postnatal depression. The overall findings suggest that black Caribbean women often have difficulties conceptualising postnatal depression, due to their tendency to minimise stress and their health seeking behaviour. However, current standardised tools such as the EPDS do not reflect the understanding and perception of women from BME groupsas demonstrated by Clifford et al, (1999). Edge, (2004) focus on ethnic groups offers greater understanding into the efficacy of the use of the EPDS. Although the findings from these studies were from Caribbean women, the overall evidence suggests that using the EPDS alone may not be the most effective method for assessing women from different cultural background. Oates et al, (2004) looked at postnat tal depression across countries and cultures and compared the emerging themes across different centres. This study found morbid unhappiness after child birth comparable to postnatal depression but not all saw this as an illness remediable by medication. This cultural approach also helps to understand why boys, who are most valued in Asian and African societies, in western society are most at risk of insecure attachment, cognitive difficulties and behavioural problems if their mothers had postnatal depression (Sharp et al, 1995). The consequences of this delayed effect of postnatal depression for the subsequent generations could be substantial (Chisholm et al, 2003). However, it is difficult to generalise the validity of the outcome due to lack of clarity in data collection. Moreover, the homogeneity in data collection could not be compared because participants remained in their cultural environment. The findings therefore cannot be directly compared to the present study which looked at African women living in Greenwich, UK, whose thinking and perception might be different in the way they respond to postnatal depression (Cox, 1999). Two anthropological studies, by Clifford et al, (1999), and Oates et al, (2004), in postnatal disorder, confirm the value of cultural education and training to assist with the understanding of the pathways to care and prevention of postnatal depression.

Research methodology

The researcher will use a focus group method to collect data from participants. Focus group

is an in depth, open ended group discussion that enables exploration of specific issues on predefined and limited topics (Krueger, 1988). The purpose of the focus group was to elicit and validate collective testimonies and group resistance narratives. These testimonies and narratives have been used by women and could be used by any subjugated group ‘to unveil specific and little-researched aspects of women’s daily existences, their feelings, attitudes, hopes, and dreams (Madriz, 2000). Focus groups can facilitate the identification of cultural values and they are said to be valuable when researching ethnic minority groups (Wilkins et al 2002). Forthis current study, participants felt very comfortable within the groups knowing they were not alone in the way they felt during and after pregnancy. They were also able to share their experiences with their mother-in-law knowing others have the same experiences.

Despite the positive attributes of using focus groups, I was also aware of the potential influence of dominant group members. This means supporting unassertive participants to articulate their views. I was also aware that not everyone would be open about discussing deeply personal and sensitive issues in a group setting. One of the difficulties centres on recording data during the discussion whilst manipulating recording equipment and being attentive to detailed information. These difficulties were managed with a co-facilitator who assisted with field note-taking, verbatim transcribing as well as voice tape recordings.

Ethical Approval

Ethics approval was obtained from South London Research and Ethics Committee before approaching the women. An application was made through the Integrated Research Application System and a review of the process was made before the panel of the Ethics Committee. The Trust also gave Research and Development approval before commencing the study.

Population and Sample size

Twenty six women of African background aged between 16-45 years old, were purposively selected from the health visitors’ list all of whom were African women who had migrated and are settled in the UK. This age group wasselected as it represents the reproductive and fertile record of a woman’s life. Women under the age of 16 were excluded due to the complex and sensitive nature of the topic. Participants were asked about their marital status and the kind of support network they have at home, as studies have shown that women’s marital status and the kind of support network they have are significant risk factors that may predispose a woman to postnatal depression (Patel et al, 2002). Similarly, their educational background or employment status may also affect their perception and the way they describe postnatal depression. Letters were sent to all the stakeholders such as the health visiting teams, the homeless liaison team, the safeguarding team and the clinical psychologist team, after receiving ethics and R&D approval.


Recruitment of participants was made easy by colleagues who supported the course of the study. Out of the 26 women invited, 22 confirmed attendances but only 17 participated in the study. Eight attended for Group 1 and 9 attended Group 2. The groups were seen on two separate days. An information leaflet outlining the study (see Appendix 3), was sent to all

participants followed by a ‘phone call a week later. Transport was organised to take the participants to and from the focus group meeting. They were all given a gift voucher to thank them for participating in the focus group. Each focus group lasted for two hours with 15 minutes break. Focus groups were held in the Children Centre which is a familiar environment for participants. The benefit of having a co-facilitator meant the researcher was able to facilitate the discussion, while the co-facilitator was free to take notes and assist with the subsequent transcription of the data collected (Krueger, 1988).


It was difficult to develop a strict inclusion criterion due to limitation in numbers, but the following were essential to gather useful information for the study:

• Women in the postnatal period who have delivered a baby up to a year ago.

• Must be from African descent and between the ages of 16 and 45 years.

• Must be able to speak and understand the English language.

• Must have a live baby.

Data Gathering

Women were given the consent form to sign to agree to participate in the group. A focus group schedule which focused on how women felt when they became pregnant, was used. The focus of this schedule was asking them to describe their emotional feelings and the concerns they may have had during pregnancy and after having the baby. All participants were given codes, all conversations were tape recorded and stored in a locked cabinet on NHS premises, accessible only to the facilitator. The two transcripts were read several times to understand the data. Initial coding of the transcripts was then performed. Codes will made to capture the descriptive language used by the participants. Once the data will sorted, the facilitator grouped the data into themes, and examined all the cases in the study to make sure that the description of each theme was captured (Pope et al, 2006).  Triangulation will be used to improve the reliability and validity of the data. The key findings will be presented back to the participants through follow-up phone calls. There will general agreement about the information collected. The tape recorded data will also play back to check for clarity and confirmation of their descriptions and compared with the field notes.

Role of a Teacher


A teacher is responsible for the organizing culture and values and learning the students about the respect, moral values and social norms and ethics as well, so the teacher is most respected profession in the all over the word (Dahlsrud, 2009). A teacher is a person that pass the knowledge and cultural values and norms to the students and equip them for further higher studies and polish them mentally and physically them in a position to play their role as successive person for making the society more civilized and to maintain the law and order situation and playing their role for the betterment of society (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). This is most responsible profession where the teacher contribute their role in providing education to the students, because in the future the students play their role for the development of the country while playing their vital role in the economical, medical, defense and all other sectors and their roles, skills and other responsibilities depends on their schooling life and it depends on the skills and role of teacher. So the role and responsibilities of teachers is most important (Gay, 2007).

Training Cycle

The training cycle consist of following steps and the roles and responsibilities and boundaries of a teacher are given under as well and have been discussed in details as well (Hastie et al., 2011).

Needs identification:

In the first step the teacher find out the needs of the learners and on the behalf of the learners the teachers prepare the plan to teach them the syllabus.

Planning and Designing

In this step the teacher is responsible to plan and design the requirement and design the environment and enlist the resources and way to deliver the message to the learners.


In this step the teachers are responsible to learn the learners through their skills and behaviour and the teachers involve themselves in the multicultural environment and the teacher also provide the learners all the facilities to develop a culture in which all the learners can understand and learn (Marsden, 2010).


In this step the teachers make it sure that the learners have been learned the necessary skills, knowledge and they are able to absorb the knowledge.


In this step the teacher get the feedback from the learners about the effectiveness of method, syllabus, resources and facilitations in order to provide them training or conveying the knowledge and on the behalf of the feedback the teacher make necessary amendments and changes in the whole process to achieve the main objectives of the training cycle. The main responsibilities, role and boundaries of a teacher are given in the following sub sections (Piacentini et al., 2011).


While managing students in the class and managing their all other activities and facilitating them towards learning the ethical and moral and cultural norms and values while promoting the importance of academic environment to all the students the teacher play a role as an organizer (Boulstridge and Carrigan, 2005). All the students belonged to different cultural, ethnics and regions and they have different languages, cultures, norms and values, and teachers organized them in a one group and teach them through a learning process while using his or her competencies while understanding the different cultures, norms and values (Pinney, 2009).


Teacher must play its role while in the multicultural environment to permit the students to make analysis on the negatives and positives of other cultures to find out the main stream of other cultural ideas (Gay, 2007). The teacher is responsible to create an environment and guide the students in such a way that in the multicultural environment to get positive norm and values to develop a positive culture in and out the classroom. And only the teacher can facilitate the students to acquire the positive multicultural values and norms for developing a positive culture of learning, the teacher must play its role to develop such abilities and competencies among the students so that in the multicultural environment the students always abide by the racism and never involved in discrimination in their professional lives as well (Dahlsrud, 2009).

Common role and responsibilities

Some scholars have been stated that the teacher must be responsible for the learning of referencing system to the students and the importance of references and they must also learn and teach the learners about socio culture and the positive impact of culture on the learning process (Hastie et al., 2011). A teacher can play its role as a police officer, as a medical officer in an emergency, a psychologist and as father or mother in order to understand the learner’s special skills and abilities and competencies to make the society more civilized.

Knowledge transmitter

It is clear that the teacher must have the specific skills and knowledge in order to transmit the knowledge to the learners, so the teacher must have the communication skills and competencies to provide the learners reasonable resources and facilitate them to learn them the attitude and behaviour to become civilised citizens and it is teacher’s responsibility to protect the learners psychologically and come out them from mentally and emotional problems and care them and teach them the school rules and rules and regulations as well. Teacher must watch the learner’s activities them and stop them and allow them to involve in 1activities and understand them the negatives and positive impact of activities (Marsden, 2010).


The teacher must keep himself or herself far away from the learner’s personal lives and could not involve in their personal problems because they may have their political views, religious views and race views entirely different the teacher’s point of view, so in this term the learner abilities may be affected negatively (Piacentini et al., 2011). So the teacher must play its role as friend with learners and remembered that he or she is adult and must not try to be buddies with learners. The teacher must not remain with a leaner in the teaching room or class room and with opposite sex, if the privacy is required then the teacher must use office or cafe. The teacher must know about the teaching method, teaching manners and must follow the role model being a mentor and the teacher can encourage the learners, the teacher must report the learner for sexual harassment either through physically or verbally. Teacher could not abuse any student, physically, sexually or emotionally but improving the emotional and psychologically their courage to achieve their objectives through identification their goals and objectives and learn them knowledge and skills (Pinney, 2009).

Micro Economic Analysis. The Concept of demand, Supply and Price

1.        Choose a topic from Micro economics that matters to you and find a recent news article covering that topic

I have selected the following topic “With costly bananas, apples and grapes, orange becomes favourite fruit this season” was published in The Economic Times on 6th May 2014. The concept of demand and supply and price has been discussed very clearly.

2.        Evaluate the article using Economic concepts

According to the President of Orange association of India has been stated about the increasing demand of Oranges and production of Oranges in Nagpur city of India. He has been discussed the main reason of high demand of Oranges in south part of India that is high prices of grapes and apples. In Kerala due to heavy rain in June and July month the banana’s crop has been affected and due to shortage of banana and due to high demand the prices increased. There is a significant raise in the price which is noted as 20 Rupees per kg. He has been discussed that main sources of Oranges like Nagpur and Amravati and the production of Oranges in both cities fulfil the demand of oranges in Chennai, Kerala and Bangalore. According to the AB vegetable and Fruits owner Mr. Liaqat Ali in Chennai that although due to high supply of Oranges the price should be down, but due to high price in transportation, there will be no lower prices in the orange and it will be available in the market on previous year price that was Rs 35 per kg. He has been stated that the price will be changed (rise) because in the month of January and February there will be more demand of orange and according to supply and demand rule the prices will go up, so it is early to predict the demand and supply. Due to high quality of Kerala oranges in January and February the demand will be increased and it will increase the price up to Rs. 40 per kg and also will increase the supply. Apple quality is not good that’s why traders import the apple due to high demand of quality apple from other countries and the prices will increase. Nazar Muhammad a wholesaler has been stated that as some days ago the orange was available at the price of Rs. 14 to 15 per kg, and due to increase in demand it is now available at Rs. 18 to 22 per kg, the harvesting of orange is in process, in January as the new crop will reach in the market the demand will remain same but the supply will be increased and the prices will go down again. As there is a clear cut picture of demand and supply, and price. With the new crop the supply of orange increase, due to shortage of bananas the prices went up because due to high demand and low supply and shortage of bananas. All the concepts of demand, supply and their affect on price have been covered. Mr. Nazar Muhammad fruit wholesaler of Kalamna market in Maharashtra stated that the wholesale price orange some days ago was round about Rs 14 to 15 per kg, but now there is an increase in the price which is Rs. 18 to 22 per kg in wholesale market. And the prices will again come down due to high supply and low demand in January when new crop will reach in market as harvesting is in process.

Explain how you can present the issue in terms of economic concepts and theories you have learnt in class

According to the article published in “The Economic Times” that the president of Orange Association of India Mr. Amol M. Totey has been stated that the orange production recorded in this year is the double in Nagpur city. And the demand of Oranges in the southern of the country has been increased significantly this year.

Rise in Price Rs. 20/ kg due to high demand of banana.

Due to high supply of Oranges/ commodities the price should be low (High demand high price, high supply lower price). The price of oranges was down due to high supply but due to high transportation charges, Oranges will be available in the market at previous year rate.

There is a direct relationship between demand and supply, more demand always raise the price if the supply is low.

As in January and February there will be an increase in the demand of orange and its prices will be increased that will be Rs. 40 per kg, it means that due to high demand the supply will be increase and there will be increase in the price of orange.

In Kochi per day market gets about 100 tonne. Increase in the demand of quality apple will increase the prices and will increase the supply.

When demand remains same and supply increased due to new crop then the prices come down due to high supply. High supply will lower down the prices due to short demand.

Explain what actions you would recommend to the key players and/or policy holders.

This sudden increase in the Orange demand from south part of India is due to the high pricing of apples and grapes in the southern part of India. People living in Vizag, Kerala, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad has demanded for more Oranges. Due to heavy rain in month of June and July and other climate changes has significant effect on Banana’s crop and damaged the yield of bananas that also cause in raising the banana price due to its shortage. The banana price that was available in the local market at price of Rs. 30 to 40 per kg in the past years are now selling at Rs. 50 to 60 per kg. In the southern markets the Oranges are now available and usually Orange availability in the southern market was started in the start of October till November and remained till summer season. Although the supply of the Oranges is so high this year but it will not lower the price due to high price of diesel and in this way the transportation charges will be high and the Orange will be available in the market as per last year price that was Rs. 35 per kg. In January and February the Orange demand will go up and in this way it will affect the price. There is daily supply is about 150 tonne in the main market of Chennai, and as the production of the Orange is clear evident in Kerala and consequently supply will be increased in coming weeks. Due to high quality of Orange there will be increase in its demand and the price of orange will be increased about Rs. 40 per kg. And the supply will be increased because the production is also increased. Traders import the high quality of apple from other countries and the prices of apple will be doubled due to high demand of high quality apples.

Explain how the above analysis supports your conclusion (1 to 2 paragraphs)

3.        You may provide graphs/charts/diagrams where necessary to enhance your presentation style.

3.1      Supply Curve

Shift in supply curve (Rising Cost)

Source: Author

Supply curve is always upward because according to supply law that high prices, more quantity of commodities is supplied (high price more supply), that’s why the supply curve goes upward. So when the price of orange will be high the supply will be increased and the supply curve will be gone up.

Shift in supply curve (Lower cost)

Source: Author

3.2      Demand Curve

Increase in demand

Source: Author

According to the law of demand that when price of commodities higher that time quantity of demanded product is less, so the curve of demand will be downward sloping curve. Due to high price the demand curve will be downward. And supply will be upward.

Decrease in Demand

Source: Author

3.3      Equilibrium

An increase in the supply S, with constant demand D will be decrease and equilibrium price P* and increase equilibrium quantity Q*.

Similarly decrease in supply S, with constant demand D will increase equilibrium price P* and decrease with constant quantity Q*

Source: Author

When the demand and supply becomes equal that state is called equilibrium point, the point where the demand and supply of commodities meet together. If the price is above the equilibrium point it means that commodities are in surplus and if the real price is below the equilibrium point it means that the shortage of commodities.

3.4      Shifting the supply Curve

Source: Author

With the change in economy there is always a change in supply curve either left or right. A change in price can be occur due to change in supply of commodities such as change in price of oil due to new technology or discovery of new well. Change in supply due to new crop may shift he supply curve.

3.5      Shifting the Demand Curve

Source: Author

The demand curve can be shifted right or left due to change in the income of consumers, for example change in interest rate, more money, decrease in income tax, high wages, more job opportunities can bring change in buying power and thus a change will occur in the demand. Low buying power will decrease the demand and more buying power will increase the demand.

4.        You need to attach a copy of the article with your assignment.

Does Soap and the Water can help to reduce the cross infection among the patients hospitalized?


According to the Voss and Widmer, (1997) that it is acknowledged that here are many benefits are related with the hand washing which includes the cost reducing and for the human being there are many other benefits like it also prevent from the infections. Similarly the Newsom, (1993) has been stated that hand washing can play its important role in reducing the mortality predates and the morbidity in minimizing them. He also has been stated that the hands washing also prevents in cross prevention and also prevent the human being from infections.

1.1 Background

The ratio of the infection is always high in the situation where many people live together or they work together closely, in such situation the probability of the infection is so high. As it has been observed that in the care homes the entire resident they live together like family members and they commonly use and share so many facilities like bath rooms and kitchens so there the probability of spreading infection is so high. But the high probability of spreading the infection can be reduced if the precautions and necessary actions taken on time. And in order to reduce the probability of spreading high ratio of cross infection the awareness and the education can play its effective role. In order to prevent the cross infection basic hygiene requirements are need to be implemented. According to the Bradley & Rees, (2003) have been stated that due to different kind of infections can produce different diseases and the information regarding hand washing benefits can also play its important role in prevention of such diseases those can be produced in the result of cross infections.

There are so may kind of infection diseases those can be easily infect the people where some people are living together and they are sharing the baths, toilets, kitchen and also share the utensils’ and other things they share to use. So the ratio of these kind of diseases can be controlled and can be reduced to a significant numbers if the proper precautions could be undertaken by the people and the awareness of hand washing and other hygiene actions and standards can be implemented and people act on the guidelines to prevent themselves from such type of infections and they can avoid themselves to become victim of such infections, because these infections become cause of many illness among them and these kind of diseases can be easily transfer from one person to other person.

Some of the disease can be life threatening and some of the infections can be more dangerous to the human beings. Underlying the medical conditions some kind of infections are dangerous whereas some of them are curable easily, and antibiotics medicines can play their role as a high resistance and the victims can be recovered its health after taking the antibiotics.

1.2 Guidance on the control and prevention of infection

In June 2003 the National Institute for health and clinical excellence has been published the prevention guidelines from the infections in order to control the spreading the infections. These all the guidelines to prevent the people from the cross infection and these all guidelines were based completely on the scientific scholars statement and were also documented, all those conclusions and the positive recommendations were completely based on the HCAI primary principles and on the high standards and all the measures were made and evaluation methods were used and implemented just in order to prevent people from the cross infection to save their lives and to improve their health and life standards. 

According to DOH, (2009) that HCAI can also control and prevent the infection through some kind of technical details and technical audits and by creating awareness among the patients to prevent themselves from the cross infections.

1.3 Aim of the Research

There are the following aims and objectives of this research

The researcher will find out about the role and benefits of soap and water in order to minimize the effect of infection

The researcher will also find out the role of water and soap in reducing the number of infected people from cross infection

The researcher will find out the role of soap and water in improving people health quality

According to the Baker et al., (2009) Basically it is the microbiology clinical application to prevent the people from cross infection, there are so many kinds of infections and disease those can be caused just because of viruses, fungi and bacteria and so many kind of infections like blood infection, respiratory infection, bone infections, skin infection and urinary infections. It has been proved that all kind of the infections are not cross infections.

Research Approach

The research method and the tools and research techniques adopted by the researcher to conduct this research will be discussed here in this section in detail. The researcher will also describes here about the tools like charts and diagrams and about the source of primary and secondary data gathering as well, as sampling techniques and data storing techniques and methods will be describe here.

1.4 Objectives

There are following objectives of this research

  • The researcher will analyse the literatures critically on the topic of infection and its causes and the methods and guidelines to prevent people from this infection.
  • The researcher will also find out the ways and advantages and importance of all methods those can play their role in controlling and preventing the infection in the care homes to improve the quality of health and lives of residents.
  • At the end the researcher will make conclusion and recommendations to improve the weak areas and to improve the strategies.

1.5 Research questions

There are the following research questions those have been designed by the researcher to achieve the above aims and objectives related with this research.

  • Which steps are necessary to taken under considerations by the care homes to make preventions and making control the infection in the care homes in United Kingdom?
  • What are the main hindrances, issues and problems are related while implementing guidelines to prevent the infection in care homes?
  • What are necessary and basic actions important to control and prevent the infections in the care homes?

Literature review

2.1 Significance of infection control programs

Now a day there is a problem worldwide called infection and health care is associated with this worldwide problem, in the hospital everywhere the infection germs are available due to the infections victims and these germs of infections are the main causes of death in the hospitals.

Too much health care resources are required and its cost is so high to offer care services, the cost of health care especially to provide the antibiotic and to provide health care facilities the hospitals need more laboratory studies and medicine supply. According to Rhinehart and Friedman, (2006) that hospitals have acquire the infections germs those can damage the patient’s quality of life. And these germs acquired hospitals need more cost and technology to prevent the patients from the infections that can lead the patients towards the death and hospitals have limited resources to prevent and clean the atmosphere of hospital free from infection germs. With the passage of age the patients suffered from the chronic disease and the major cause of multiple diseases is the infection and due to these chronic diseases the hospitals acquire the infection germs. And one main and major cause of hospital acquired infection is the use of advanced technology and the persistent procedures and due to these causes the old people are suffering from the chronic diseases. The main cause and factors those play their role in acquiring infections in the hospitals include antimicrobial resistant bacteria. And due to these and poor systems and low intentions and unawareness among the people about the use and benefits of hygiene use and overcrowding of patients in the hospitals and due to the shortages of untrained and unskilled employees or staff members those can play their effective role in preventing infections.

2.2 Infection control and promoting factors in care homes

There are some considerations which can be used to provide sufficient care and treatment to the infection victim patients and the hospitals and surgeries and care homes must provide the necessary treatment to the sick people at every cost.

There are following considerations those leads towards reflection

Health care services without infections are always required by the people

While during the treatment the people can be affected through the infection in the hospital or through working or eating or sharing toilets or kitchens stuff with infected people due to cross infection bacteria.

During treatment the people pass through damaged procedures and processes that can cause them infection

According to the Bearman et al., (2004) that health care providers can also transfer into the customers and themselves as well during the investigation and observation process the infectious agents in both ways like indirectly or directly.

There are following some factors those can contribute their important role in spreading the cross transmission and those factors are given as under

In the hospital when there are so many people admitted for their treatment and when there is shortage of staff members to provide necessary treatment

Similarly when there are limited sources to control the infection due to less resources and medicines and it might be because of cost factor

2.3 Different means of infectious disease transmission in homes

In the hospitals there are two kind of main sources of infection and both are discussed in detail below one by one

Exogenous Sources: In this way the infection always spread and the infection bacteria occur just because of the patients those enter the hospitals and come from outside this is called exogenous source of infection bacteria in the hospitals and in this way the others like other patients or staff members they can be affected and the infection can be developed inside them.

Endogenous Source: This is the second way of infection spreading in the hospitals and in this way the bacteria or infection already exist inside the hospital and germs remained inside the part of the hospital and the patients can be affected due to microbes and the patients can be affected seriously.

2.4 Way of infection transmission

2.4.1 Disease transmission cycle

There are some mode of infection transmission inside the human body and the infection can be developed and damage the human body seriously and other people can become victim of infection, so first of all is the main mean of infection transmission is the disease transmission cycle which states that infection can be controlled when all the other necessary elements are clear, means when the infectious agents is identified and the source of the agent has been identified, the susceptible host must be identified those received the agent must be identified and the source from host to agent must be identified then in this way the infection can be controlled successfully. And the basically the relationship among all is called the chain of the infection and some of the scholars stated it as disease or infection transmission cycle (East, 1999). Similarly East, (1999) has been stated that in order to break the transmission of the infection it is necessary to break down the infection transmission chain and then in this way the infection control is possible.

2.4.2 Mechanism of disease transmission cycle

There are the components of the infection transmission cycle those have been discussed below

  1. Agent

Agent is the major component that can cause the disease and that can be one of the between following different agents like parasites, virus, fungi or bacteria, so one of them can be the agent of the infection.

  • Reservoir

 2nd main component of the infection transmission cycle is the reservoir and if there is no reservoir then the infection transmission is not possible, and the agent as discussed above is always resides and its growth is always take place in the reservoir. According to the Ayliffe et al., (2000) have been stated that all the items which includes and take part in the clinical processes and procedures always serve as the infection agent reservoirs and the items like human being, plants, air, soil, animals, solutions and water those can take part in the clinical procedures can serve as reservoir for the infection agents.

  • Exit Place

First of all the infection bacteria called the agent get growth in the reservoir and after infection it leave the reservoir that is called the exit place and the only one way is the skin cut, blood stream, surgical suit, puncture and rash which are known as the exit place for the infection agent.

2.5 Modes of infection Transmission

As the researcher has been discussed above about the mode of transmission of the infection agent and its three ways, agent, survivor and exit way as well, all this movement started from agent to survivor and then exit is called the infection transmission mode and there are total five ways of infection transmission which are discussed below one by one.

  1. Contact:     

This means the direct mean of infection transmission like through sexual inter course or through touching the infected person, it can be through the hospital visit frequently because the infection germs can be transferred into human being through hospital atmosphere or through any clinical procedure or it can be possible through infection acquired instrument or area.

This area has been divided into two major sub sections

(i).     Indirect Transformation:         In this way the infection germs can be transferred through infected (already contained infection germs) through infected needle, any other infected clinical or surgical instrument, gloves or through contaminated dress.

(ii).    Direct Transformation: the second main source of the infection transformation is the direct source like through one body to another body, one surface to another surface, one physical transformation to another like from one person blood to another person blood it can be transferred.

2.       Droplet Transformation:        

This is the second main mode of infection transformation, and in this way the researcher will discuss about the droplet transformation which is always generated by the cough of the already contaminated germs, through the patient (the person who is already contained the infection germs) sneezing, bronchoscope or through his or her talk as well, and the contaminated drops if fallen at some distance (short distance) some scholars have been stated that minimum at one meter distance they can be affected and harmful for the other healthy people. According to the Wilson, (2011), that through air contaminated drops can be transmitted into other people and the infection agent can move easily in the survivor easily and there is no such a way to disturb the air to interrupt this air that contained the agents.

3.       Vector Transmission

This kind of infection can be possible through the mosquitoes and the other animals those are already infected through the infection the infection agent always transferred through them those have already this infection inside their body and become cause of infection agent transformation in other physical bodies for example the yellow fever, malaria, plague and fleas for most common here.

4.       Common Vehicle Transmission

According to the Pratt et al., (2001) that sometimes the infection agent can be transmitted through the specific material that already contained the infection agent for example the blood that already contained hepatitis A Virus, B Virus and C infection virus and HIV and HCV similarly salmonella spp. Food, in the water some the existence of Shigella or Chol era can also become cause of infection transmission and the infection can be transferred from one people to other people.

5.       Airborne Transmission

Some time the droplet nuclei remained in the atmosphere and they might be suspended for a long time in the air and can cause to transfer the infection agents in the other physical human body and especial kind of air ventilators and air handling are required to disturb the droplet transformation of infection from air to healthy body, Measles and M. Tuberculosis are the both kind of infections agents those can easily transmit from air to survivors.

2.6 Infection control practices and its Importance

Infection agent transformation control can be break and the disease spreading can be controlled and can be prevented by creating the awareness among the people regarding the use of water and soap and its role and importance. According to the Wilson, (2001) that the awareness about the disease and infection from the HCV and HIV and from the HCV and the scope of the controlling actions and all other activities those can play their role positively, in order to break the infection transmission spreading cycle or chain it is very important to find out the importance of those steps that can easily play their role in breaking the chain or cycle of the germs transformation. And in order to break the chain first of all the agent transmission methods are very important. Now it is necessary to create the awareness among the people and then it is necessary to pay the attention towards reducing the risk of spreading the infection agents from one body to another body and the main focus must be paid on the cleanliness atmosphere and surroundings and attention must be paid on the cleaning homes and personal cleaning and to the community members as well to prevent the infection and to break the infection agent chain. 

Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction

This is very important section and in this section the researcher will discuss and will explain about the method those will be adopted to conduct the research which includes the importance of case study selection, research limitations, sample size and sample selection method, research method either quantitative or qualitative, tools and techniques those will be adopted by the researcher to records, making analysis and conclusions will be explained. The researcher will also discuss the source of secondary and primary data and collection techniques and ethical consideration and collected data validity and reliability will be discussed and explained.

3.2 Research Method

According to the Saunders et al., (2009) have been stated that it is the demand and need of the time to choose more than one research methods to conduct the research and to achieve the specific aims and objectives, so researchers must select more than one research methods to obtain valid and reliable results. There are some specific advantages and disadvantages are associated with each research method, the selected research method must be contained the potential to solve the research issue and problem in the available time frame as well as in the limit of resources available to the researcher. In order to achieve the specific aims and objectives of the research, Saunders et al., (2009) have been defined some effective and important steps to achieve the research aims and objectives efficiently and effectively. The researcher will adopt the qualitative research method to conduct this research to achieve the aims and objectives of this research positively because in this way in the available time and other resources the researcher by selecting the case study as tool can achieve the aims and objectives to solve the research problem. According to the Neumann & Lawrence, (2006) that quantitative research method is most suitable for the researchers when they have limited resources as compared to the qualitative research method, but in the medical sciences in the opinion of the doctors and nursing staff there are more advantages for the researchers to adopt the qualitative research methods to collect primary data and through systematic approach the secondary data can be collected with more reliability and validity. Because there are some reasons to adopt the qualitative research methods, and one of the most suitable reason is that qualitative research method is more people centred as compared to quantitative. Through adopting this research method the researcher can easily make the conclusion and can make the positive recommendations.

3.3 Source of data

Here the researcher will use the review of literature as secondary data and the researcher will consult the books, reports, articles and journals, the researcher will also use electronic books, electronic articles and journals as well and websites as well but all the books and articles and press releases and report will be titled on the health care and on the importance of water and soap role in reducing and preventing the people from infections. The researcher will also visit the electronic library as well to download the available material on the topic of infection and its prevention methods and role of water and soap as well in the care homes in the United Kingdom especially. The researcher will also visit the University student portal and physically will visit the University library and will consult the books there and will read out the articles for better understanding and for proper data gathering to avoid biasness and to improve and to increase the validity and reliability of the secondary data.

3.4 Search results

In this research the researcher has been gathered the about 40 research papers and by adopting the criteria of inclusion and the criteria of exclusion the researcher has been rejected the 17 research papers and the remaining 23 papers were selected by the researcher to conduct the research. And after studying the research papers in details the researcher has again rejected the 8 research papers from the 23 research papers and selected the 15 research papers and then those research papers were evaluated by the researcher as per the aims and the objectives of the research.

3.5      Research Limitations

The researcher will discuss all the limitations associated with this research in detail and there are main following limitations are associated with this research

Shortage of time

Limited financial resources

The researcher has no already research experience

3.6      Ethical considerations

In this section the researcher will consider all the ethical considerations for the validity and reliability of the data and for these the researcher will not disclose the results to the co workers, colleagues and to the class fellows and the researcher will not include her own opinion in the primary data collection, the researcher will never allow other people to steel her research work. The researcher will use proper and valid resources, will not include the old references and will not make critics to anybody on the behalf of race, colour, sex, age or religion and disability. The researcher will abide by all kind of discriminations and will not disclose any information of the participants and will not use this research work for another academic purpose.

4.                 Project Planning

4.1      Introduction

The researcher has designed the following steps to carry on the research to conduct the research in a meaningful way to achieve the research aims and objectives.

4.2      Project Resources

As the researcher is conducting this research as a student to fulfil the academic requirement so all the financial cost will be paid by him and all the cost associated with this research will be paid by the researcher which includes the visiting, lunch, high tea, software purchasing, stationary, travelling and printing expense as well.

4.3      Cost of the Project

Serial  Number Description of Resources Cost (£)
1 Printing 50
2 High tea and travelling 150
3 Software cost and printing as well 250
4 Total amount 450

Gantt Chart

Background/ Problem or study X                  
Research question and Objectives X X                
Gathering Literature and Rational X X X              
Making Questionnaires     X X            
Tim Schedule in Weeks 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Collecting Primary Data and Making Analysis         X X        
Presenting results and making Conclusion and Recommendations           X X X    
Application of Contingency Plan                 X X

4.4      Contingency Plan

The researcher has 2 consecutive weeks to make necessary changes, to remove errors as per the recommendations of the honourable supervisor.

4.5     Including Criteria

During gathering the data the researcher will not include only the research work means published articles or research papers in between the January 2002 to till December 2012, to maintain the validity and reliability the researcher will not include the old research statement.

4.6     Excluding Criteria

The researcher will not include the data in the secondary data that has been published before the year 2002 because due to old technology and old trends and due to the old clinical procedures and medicines, and will not include the research papers those were published after the date of January 2013.

5.        Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1      Introduction

In this section the researcher will explain the limitations and the strategy will be explained to overcome those limitations and then after that the researcher will discuss the conclusions of the results made by keeping the results compiling and by using the review of literature as a background of the study and by relating both of them as and when necessary.

5.2      Standard Precautions

According to the Clarke, (2003) that standard precautions always are useful in reducing the probability or chance of occurring infection very low and if these precautions can be implemented effectively then the infection can be controlled easily and the cost of the infection prevention can be reduced.   

There are some precautions have been discussed by the researcher

Personal protection from (The staff members must use their own)




Secondly is the use of hand hygiene (the hands must be washed with water and soap)

5.3      Transmission Based precautions

There are three different kinds of precautions




The combination of the precautions can be used by the nurses or by the administration as well as per requirement. According to the Cozad & Jones, (2003) that in order to reduce and to prevent people from the infection agent combination of the precautions that is the most suitable and the more effective and efficient way.

5.4      Trainings and educating people

According to the Goldrick, (1999) that following processes and procedures are required to train and creating awareness among the staff members to train them to prevent people from infection.

On Job prevention practices must be instruct to the people and the methods must be informed and the people must be informed as per job nature

Effective selection of PPE

All the staff people including contractors and regular workers must be trained

5.5      Evaluation of competencies

According to the Pratt et al., (2007) that the environment must be neat and clean and the neat and clean environment can prevent the infection agent to transmit and the hand hygiene must be implemented because the hand hygiene can play its role in the prevention of infection agent among the people. So all those people must have awareness about the importance of hand washing with water and soap and the staff members must use their own, shoes, gowns, gloves and face masks in this way the infection agent transmission can be reduced. The surgical instruments must be properly sterilize before use and proper precautions must be implemented in the hospitals and proper cleaning system must be implemented in the hospitals and in the care homes.

5.6      Hand Hygiene

According to the Larson, (1995) that hand washing is so important and the people must wash their hands with the liquid or soap and make it sure that they have cleaned their both hands and all the surface of both hands have been properly cleaned.

The people must wash their hands with water and soap with alcohol hand gels to properly clean the hands, because this is the basically efficient and effective way to prevent and to reduce the infection agent transmission. So this is also necessary for the patients, doctors, nurses and even then all the workers and all the regular, permanent and contractors to implement and act on the hand hygiene precautions and wash their hands.

5.7      Point of care when the hand hygiene is necessary

The hospital staff members of care home staff members must consider the following points because the following situations can be harmful for them so they must use hand wash before the following situations

Touching the patients

Doing wound

Any Task (aseptic)

And after the touching blood, faces, urine, vomits etc.

After touching patients

The staff members must taken into their consideration the following actions

They must wear gloves and must change the gloves after touching one patient

They must put the gloves in the bin after touching patient and do not reuse them

They must wear the gown before the patient checking and after checking they must wear off the gown and put in the dust bin and for second patient they must wear new gown.

5.8      Conclusion

As this is the social and ethical and on job duty of all the members of the hospitals and care home nursing staff to prevent and to break the infection agent cycle for improving the life and health quality of the patients and to keep clean the atmosphere free from infection agents. It is the duty of all the care providers and the hospitals to provide the healthy environment and infection free atmosphere and environment to the patients. It is their social and ethical responsibility to implement the precaution measures at the working place and in the care homes and in the hospitals.

Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco Management


The main purpose of this research is to highlight the importance and role of management in the success of business organization. There are so many benefits of business management to the business organization. For example the Apple Company is the most successful business organization in the world because it has the effective business management and effective business strategies. Whereas the Tesco was the successful superstore market chain in the United Kingdom and now a day is losing its business because of ineffective business management and business strategies (Thomas, 2011). Lamming, (2011) has stated that management is always responsible for the designing and developing the mission statement of the organization, objectives are also set by management and to achieve and control the employees management always design the rules, procedures and implement them on the work placement so that through effective communication and controlling organizational objectives could be achieved.

Thesis Statement

Comparative analysis of Apple and Tesco management

Basically Apple is the most successful business organization in the world whereas the Tesco is less successful business organization in the world because of management. As above I have mentioned that management functions are associated with executing a business or an organization that involves the functions of management (planning, organizing, monitoring and leading) is called the business management.


Through the above statement I can conclude that business management in an organization is the key to success in an organization. There are different role of management in an organization and their role varies from department to department, for example the manager in sales department will achieve the sales targets by leading and controlling, allocating resources and solving sales force problems and by encouraging them to achieve organizational objectives (Nicoloulaud, 2012). Similarly the human resources manager will recruit the best work force for the organization from the labour market to participate its role in achieving organizational objectives, and financial and accounting managers also play their roles effectively in allocating, producing and generating financial statements, accounting statement and allocating financial resources to the other departments to achieve organizational work smoothly. Manufacturing department manager will also lead, motivate and control the employees in its department and will be responsible to achieve department targets to achieve organizational objectives. According to Freeman, (2012) that “Managers at work placement plan the work, allocate resources to the employees and lead them and encourage them and solve their problems and give them proper feedback about their work so that employees can contribute towards achieving organizational objectives in efficient manners”.


Apple is basically multinational American company that has been producing electronics products for its customers and also designing software for its customers to use its products. Apple management has the competent skills and composed of highly skilled workers to manufacture and producing Android and Symbian operating systems for its own manufactured hardware like different series of mobile phones and laptops and tablets (Apple, 2014). Apple is although offering highest price products in the market and successfully doing its business in international market and its products demand is increasing every year because of its effective business management procedures and activities the management team at Apple has all the necessary competencies and skills to compete in the market and achieving its organizational objectives efficiently and effectively. Apple business operations are managed effectively and efficiently because of highly skilled mangers in all the management process those contribute in its management process planning, organizing, controlling and leading. Tesco is the supermarket market chain leader in United Kingdom offering non food items and financial services in the United Kingdom to its customers at low prices but at high quality of products, Tesco is doing its business in global market and suffering from lot of issue because of its ineffective management. Tesco is although the market leader in the United Kingdom but is losing competitive position in global market because of its ineffective management process and activities, Tesco do not have highly skilled workers as compared to the Apple managerial skills (Tesco, 2014).

Effective Management Process

Basically management is the function or is a process used in the business and organizations to achieve their goals and objectives by using the resources like human resources, technological resources, financial resources, infrastructure and procedures and by coordinating the employee’s efforts in efficient way. Basically leaders are the people in the organizations those have specific skills to manage the things in an organization and do right things at right time and allocate right resources to the right people is called a leader whereas the term leadership is always refers to the art to perform leadership role in an organizations effectively (Hutt, 2011). There are different forms of leadership now a day including political leader that has personal interest and cause and has the vision to do for a nation or for a country, secondly it could be the executive member in an organization or institute that establish mission and vision statement for an organization and train and lead the other staff members to achieve specific goals and objectives in specific time period efficiently and effectively by using specific resources. In order to improve the effectiveness of organizations and to lead and to achieve and sustain competitive position the organizations needs to bring quality in their products and services offer them at lower cost to increase market share and to generate sales revenue, and these thing are possible by the effective management (Apple, 2014). Effective management means that resources should be allocated to the right people at right time to the right people to save time and to avoid wastage of resources, so by maximum utilization and output of resources management is necessary. To achieve organizational objectives it is important that managers leads the employees towards achieving organizational objectives, management/ managers are always responsible for the integrating all the resources in a line to achieve common objectives. It is the management that allocates the organizational resources to the employees and assigned the different tasks in different positions to achieve specific tasks to achieve organizational objectives (Byars, 2012).

Management is basically the mixture of science and arts it is not purely science not art, management term has the following activities


Planning means to plan the aims and objectives of an organization and also defining the targets and tasks for the human resource management. Management at Apple has the effective skills and competencies as compared to Tesco management. At Apple management always focus on the innovation technology and they successfully plan the aims and objectives, whereas at Tesco managers do not have such competencies and skills to establish Tesco aims and objectives as according to the job and market interest. At the Apple management is continuously involved in establishing and refining the aims and objectives of the company and focus on the innovations and new technology to provide best operating system and modern hardware technology, at Apple management always involved in research and development activities to bring innovations in its way of achieving organizational objectives, whereas in the Tesco the management only once establishes the aims and objectives and then they just focus on the established and pre defined procedures to achieve organizational objectives (Bateman, 2011). 


Organizing means to allocate the resources to the employees as according to their job nature and according to their skills and experience. Human resource can play their effective role in achieving organizational objectives efficiently and effectively (timely, and without wasting resources). At Apple the CEO has introduced the innovative leadership style to motivate its employees and established the planning board whereas at the Tesco only the management involve in planning phase. At Apple incorporation this organizational structure provide an opportunity to work as team (engineers and programmers and other professional) to establish organizational aims and objectives and procedures to motivate its employees. Tesco only corporate level management is involved in establishing organizational aims and objectives (Asakawa, 2012).


Staffing means that recruitment the staff member as according to the job description, and specific criteria is always define to recruit people to play their role in achieving specific tasks in an organization then after recruitment employees are given training and rewarded them as per their performance to retain them with the organization. Apple employees feel more job security and taking high salaries and other benefits as compared to Tesco employees and this is the main reason of high productive attitude of Apple employees. Apple incorporation is using the innovative methods and online methods to provide training to its employees to create efficiency while saving time and cost whereas at Tesco employees do not have opportunity to provide them training online. Apple incorporation management hire the people from all over the world and offer them highly salaries and other benefits and provide them training in different phases as according to their skills and build high competencies among them and reward them with high perks and benefits whereas Tesco has only 30% of its business outside the UK and Tesco concentrate on UK labour market and recruit the labour form only one market and Tesco employees profile is less than the Apple employee’s profile (Tesco, 2014) (Thomas, 2011).


Managers in an organization always lead their subordinators and lead them by their skills and motivate them in achieving organizational objectives, listen them, their problems and provide them friendly environment at work placement so that they can contribute and share their problems and share their experiences and knowledge with each others to solve the problem. Leading is an important function of management that involves the activities to motivate the employees to achieve their tasks effectively. At Apple incorporation management is successfully motivating the employees in achieving organizational objectives and employees has devoted themselves and contributed more as compared to the Tesco employees because at Apple Incorporation employees feel more job security and they are earning high scale of salaries and other benefits and compensations as compared to Tesco employees. Tesco employee’s salaries are low and their benefits are also less as compared to Apple incorporation. The leadership style at Apple is scientific management and the working environment is friendly and trusty, at Tesco the transformational leadership is implemented and they have created conservative and unfriendly environment at work placement. Employees as team workers in Apple feel trusty and friendly environment and they share their ideas and experience and helped each other that creat quality of work (Lamming, 2011).


Controlling means to control the difference resources, organizational management control the resources through their performance and for this purpose managers always collect the information regarding the resources performance and then measured them as per defined standards. At Apple incorporation employees are controlled by their immediate boss and it has the innovative techniques to measure employee’s performance and management at Apple has the more competencies and skills to control the employees and other resources as compared to Tesco Plc (Nicoloulaud, 2012).


Through above data it has been concluded that Apple incorporation is successful organization whereas the Tesco is less successful organization because of management efficiency, the management at Apple is efficient and its function, leadership style and employee’s skills are appropriate as compared to Tesco management. In the organizing function managers at Apple incorporation focus on the organizational structure and they divide the tasks as according to the skills and competencies of the employees to carry out the routine tasks whereas at the Tesco the management is involved in allocating the resources to the employees to achieve their objectives. The efficient way to achieve organizational objectives can be seen at Apple rather than at Tesco. Apple believes in team work whereas at Tesco management believes in group working efficiency. So the success of Apple also depends on the organizing function that is performed by its high qualified team members (Byars, 2012). At Apple management has the main three skills including interpersonal skills, technical skills and conceptual skills and all the managers at all level are fully have these skills to carry out their work. Technical skills are very important for the engineers to carry out special tasks. Technical skills also mean that they must have the ability to train their subordinators and colleagues to motivate them to achieve special tasks. At Tesco the managers have the necessary skills but do not have the technical skills to motivate others and to train their colleagues and subordinators. Conceptual skills are very important for the management because managers must think logically and conceptually to make effective decisions, at Apple incorporation the employees have the conceptual skills to achieve their goals and objectives successfully by making effective decisions. At Tesco managers have the abilities to perform their skills but they need to focus on the corporate level guidelines and managers are not independent to make their own decisions to carry out work (Hutt, 2011). Interpersonal skills are related with the communication efficiency and at Apple incorporation the communication methods are efficient and all the managers and corporate level management remains in touch with each other and share their problems and experience and knowledge. At Tesco managers have the interpersonal skills but they do not have the effective way of communication. Managers at Apple are more motivated and committed as compared to the Tesco managers because of management style and their code of conduct (Freeman, 2012).